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author:("ree, Karen")
2.  Lipin-1 and lipin-3 together determine adiposity in vivo☆ 
Molecular Metabolism  2013;3(2):145-154.
The lipin protein family of phosphatidate phosphatases has an established role in triacylglycerol synthesis and storage. Physiological roles for lipin-1 and lipin-2 have been identified, but the role of lipin-3 has remained mysterious. Using lipin single- and double-knockout models we identified a cooperative relationship between lipin-3 and lipin-1 that influences adipogenesis in vitro and adiposity in vivo. Furthermore, natural genetic variations in Lpin1 and Lpin3 expression levels across 100 mouse strains correlate with adiposity. Analysis of PAP activity in additional metabolic tissues from lipin single- and double-knockout mice also revealed roles for lipin-1 and lipin-3 in spleen, kidney, and liver, for lipin-1 alone in heart and skeletal muscle, and for lipin-1 and lipin-2 in lung and brain. Our findings establish that lipin-1 and lipin-3 cooperate in vivo to determine adipose tissue PAP activity and adiposity, and may have implications in understanding the protection of lipin-1-deficient humans from overt lipodystrophy.
doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2013.11.008
PMCID: PMC3953701  PMID: 24634820
Gene family; Knockout mouse; Adipogenesis; Triacylglycerol; Glycerolipid biosynthesis
3.  PPM1l encodes an inositol requiring-protein 1 (IRE1) specific phosphatase that regulates the functional outcome of the ER stress response★ 
Molecular Metabolism  2013;2(4):405-416.
The protein phosphatase 1-like gene (PPM1l) was identified as causal gene for obesity and metabolic abnormalities in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms were unknown. In this report, we find PPM1l encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane targeted protein phosphatase (PP2Ce) and has specific activity to basal and ER stress induced auto-phosphorylation of Inositol-REquiring protein-1 (IRE1). PP2Ce inactivation resulted in elevated IRE1 phosphorylation and higher expression of XBP-1, CHOP, and BiP at basal. However, ER stress stimulated XBP-1 and BiP induction was blunted while CHOP induction was further enhanced in PP2Ce null cells. PP2Ce protein levels are significantly induced during adipogenesis in vitro and are necessary for normal adipocyte maturation. Finally, we provide evidence that common genetic variation of PPM11 gene is significantly associated with human lipid profile. Therefore, PPM1l mediated IRE1 regulation and downstream ER stress signaling is a plausible molecular basis for its role in metabolic regulation and disorder.
Graphical abstract
doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2013.07.005
PMCID: PMC3854994  PMID: 24327956
IRE1; PPM1l; Protein phosphatase; ER stress; Adipogenesis
4.  Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits 
We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population structure, which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model algorithm. Our approach includes inbred parental strains as well as recombinant inbred strains in order to capture loci with effect sizes typical of complex traits in mice (in the range of 5 % of total trait variance). Over the last few years, we have typed the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) strains for a variety of clinical traits as well as intermediate phenotypes and have shown that the HMDP has sufficient power to map genes for highly complex traits with resolution that is in most cases less than a megabase. In this essay, we review our experience with the HMDP, describe various ongoing projects, and discuss how the HMDP may fit into the larger picture of common diseases and different approaches.
doi:10.1007/s00335-012-9411-5
PMCID: PMC3586763  PMID: 22892838
5.  ABCC6 Localizes to the Mitochondria-Associated Membrane 
Circulation research  2012;111(5):516-520.
Rationale
Mutations of the orphan transporter ABCC6 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 6) cause the connective tissue disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum. ABCC6 was thought to be located on the plasma membrane of liver and kidney cells.
Objective
Mouse systems genetics and bioinformatics suggested that ABCC6 deficiency affects mitochondrial gene expression. We therefore tested whether ABCC6 associates with mitochondria.
Methods and Results
We found ABCC6 in crude mitochondrial fractions and subsequently pinpointed its localization to the purified mitochondria-associated membrane fraction. Cell-surface biotinylation in hepatocytes confirmed that ABCC6 is intracellular. Abcc6-knockout mice demonstrated mitochondrial abnormalities and decreased respiration reserve capacity.
Conclusions
Our finding that ABCC6 localizes to the mitochondria-associated membrane has implications for its mechanism of action in normal and diseased states.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.276667
PMCID: PMC3540978  PMID: 22811557
PXE; vascular calcification; ABCC6/MRP6; MAM; mitochondria; cardiovascular disease
6.  NF-E2–Related Factor 2 Promotes Atherosclerosis by Effects on Plasma Lipoproteins and Cholesterol Transport That Overshadow Antioxidant Protection 
Objective
To test the hypothesis that NF-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression plays an antiatherogenic role by its vascular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Methods and Results
Nrf2 is an important transcription factor that regulates the expression of phase 2 detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant genes. Its expression in vascular cells appears to be an important factor in the protection against vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We developed Nrf2 heterozygous (HET) and homozygous knockout (KO) mice on an apolipoprotein (apo) E–null background by sequential breeding, resulting in Nrf2−/−, apoE−/− (KO), Nrf2−/+, apoE−/− (HET) and Nrf2+/+, and apoE−/− wild-type littermates. KO mice exhibited decreased levels of antioxidant genes with evidence of increased reactive oxygen species generation compared with wild-type controls. Surprisingly, KO males exhibited 47% and 53% reductions in the degree of aortic atherosclerosis compared with HET or wild-type littermates, respectively. Decreased atherosclerosis in KO mice correlated with lower plasma total cholesterol in a sex-dependent manner. KO mice also had a decreased hepatic cholesterol content and a lower expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting that hepatic lipogenesis could be reduced. In addition, KO mice exhibited atherosclerotic plaques characterized by a lesser macrophage component and decreased foam cell formation in an in vitro lipid-loading assay. This was associated with a lower rate of cholesterol influx, mediated in part by decreased expression of the scavenger receptor CD36.
Conclusion
Nrf2 expression unexpectedly promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation in a sex-dependent manner, most likely by a combination of systemic metabolic and local vascular effects.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.210906
PMCID: PMC3037185  PMID: 20947826
atherosclerosis; cytokines; lipoproteins; reactive oxygen species; foam cell formation; lipogenesis; Nrf2
7.  Metabolic syndrome: from epidemiology to systems biology 
Nature reviews. Genetics  2008;9(11):819-830.
Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a group of metabolic conditions that occur together and promote the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel susceptibility genes for MetSyn traits, and studies in rodent models have provided important molecular insights. However, as yet, only a small fraction of the genetic component is known. Systems-based approaches that integrate genomic, molecular and physiological data are complementing traditional genetic and biochemical approaches to more fully address the complexity of MetSyn.
doi:10.1038/nrg2468
PMCID: PMC2829312  PMID: 18852695

Results 1-7 (7)