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1.  Association of Parity with Carotid Diameter and Distensibility: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
Hypertension  2014;64(2):253-258.
Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with hemodynamic changes and vascular remodeling. It is not known whether parity is associated with later adverse vascular properties such as larger arterial diameter, wall thickness and lower distensibility.
We used baseline data from 3283 women free of cardiovascular disease aged 45-84 years enrolled in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants self-reported parity status. Ultrasound derived carotid artery lumen diameters and brachial artery blood pressures were measured at peak-systole and end-diastole. Common carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was also measured. Regression models to determine the association of carotid distensibility coefficient, lumen diameter, and cIMT with parity were adjusted for age, race, height, weight, diabetes, current smoking, BP medication use, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
The prevalence of nulliparity was 18%. In adjusted models, carotid distensibility coefficient was 0.09 × 10−5Pa−1 lower (p = 0.009) in parous vs. nulliparous women. Among parous women, there was a nonlinear association with the greatest carotid DC seen in women with 2 live births, and significantly lower distensibility seen in primiparas (p=0.04) or with higher parity > 2 (p=0.005). No such pattern of association with parity was found for lumen diameter or cIMT.
Parity is associated with lower carotid artery distensibility, suggesting arterial remodeling that lasts beyond childbirth. These long-term effects on the vasculature may explain the association of parity with cardiovascular events later in life.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03285
PMCID: PMC4184976  PMID: 24842921
common carotid artery; arterial stiffness; carotid intima-media thickness; women; pregnancy
2.  Association of resting heart rate with carotid and aortic arterial stiffness: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Hypertension  2013;62(3):10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01605.
Resting heart rate is an easily measured, non-invasive vital sign that is associated with cardiovascular disease events. The pathophysiology of this association is not known. We investigated the relationship between resting heart rate and stiffness of the carotid (a peripheral artery) and the aorta (a central artery) in an asymptomatic multi-ethnic population. Resting heart rate was recorded at baseline in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Distensibility was used as a measure of arterial elasticity, with a lower distensibility indicating an increase in arterial stiffness. Carotid distensibility was measured in 6,484 participants (98% of participants) using B-mode ultrasound and aortic distensibility was measured in 3,512 participants (53% of participants) using cardiac MRI. Heart rate was divided into quintiles and we used progressively adjusted models that included terms for physical activity and AV-nodal blocking agents. Mean resting heart rate of participants (mean age 62 years, 47% male) was 63 beats per minute (SD 9.6 beats per minute). In unadjusted and fully adjusted models, carotid distensibility and aortic distensibility decreased monotonically with increasing resting heart rate (p for trend <0.001 and 0.009 respectively). The relationship was stronger for carotid versus aortic distensibility. Similar results were seen using the resting heart rate taken at the time of MRI scanning. Our results suggest that a higher resting heart rate is associated with an increased arterial stiffness independent of AV-nodal blocker use and physical activity level, with a stronger association for a peripheral (carotid) compared to a central (aorta) artery.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01605
PMCID: PMC3838105  PMID: 23836802
heart rate; cardiovascular disease; stiffness; ultrasound; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
3.  Relationship of Carotid Distensibility and Thoracic Aorta Calcification: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Hypertension  2009;54(6):1408-1415.
Stiffening of the central elastic arteries is one of the earliest detectable manifestations of adverse change within the vessel wall. While an association between carotid artery stiffness and adverse events has been demonstrated, little is known about the relationship between stiffness and atherosclerosis. Even less is known about the impact of age, gender, and race on this association. To elucidate this question, we used baseline data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, 2000-2002). Carotid artery distensibility coefficient (DC) was calculated after visualization of the instantaneous waveform of common carotid diameter using high resolution B-mode ultrasound. Thoracic aorta calcification (TAC) was identified using non-contrast cardiac CT. We found a strong association between decreasing DC (increasing carotid stiffness) and increasing TAC as well as a graded increase in TAC score (p<0.001). After controlling for age, gender, race, and traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors, individuals in the stiffest quartile had a prevalence ratio of 1.52 (95% CI 1.15-2.00) for TAC compared to the least stiff quartile. In exploratory analysis, carotid stiffness was more highly correlated with calcification of the aorta than calcification of the coronary arteries (ρ=0.32 vs. 0.22, p<0.001 for comparison). In conclusion, there is a strong independent association between carotid stiffness and thoracic aorta calcification. Carotid stiffness is more highly correlated with calcification of the aorta, a central elastic artery, than calcification of the coronary arteries. The prognostic significance of these findings requires longitudinal follow-up of the MESA cohort.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.138396
PMCID: PMC4118641  PMID: 19805639
Carotid stiffness; carotid compliance; subclinical atherosclerosis; thoracic aorta calcification; coronary calcification
4.  ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND THE RISK OF HYPERTENSION: THE MULTI-ETHNIC STUDY OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS 
Hypertension  2010;55(5):1210-1216.
Hypertension is associated with impaired endothelial function in cross-sectional studies. However, few longitudinal data exist on whether endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of hypertension. We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between endothelial-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and hypertension prevalence and incidence in 3,500 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), an ethnically diverse, community-based cohort study. At baseline, the prevalence ratios (95% CI) of hypertension from the highest to the lowest quartile of FMD were 1.00 (referent), 1.26 (1.12 – 1.40), 1.35 (1.21 – 1.52), and 1.68 (1.50 – 1.87) (linear trend P < 0.001). This association remained (P = 0.017) after adjustment for demographics (age, gender, ethnicity), MESA site, and other risk factors. Of the 1,869 participants without hypertension at baseline, 584 (31.3%) developed hypertension over a median follow-up of 4.8 years. The unadjusted relative risks (95% CI) of incident hypertension from the highest to the lowest quartile of FMD were 1.00 (referent), 1.38 (1.14 – 1.67), 1.44 (1.19 – 1.74), and 1.64 (1.36 – 1.97) (linear trend P < 0.001). However, after adjustment for demographics and MESA site, the relationship between FMD and incident hypertension was attenuated and not statistically significant: 1.00 (referent), 1.26 (1.04 – 1.52), 1.19 (0.98 – 1.44), and 1.18 (0.97 – 1.44). The longitudinal results also did not appreciably change after adjustment for additional risk factors and baseline blood pressure levels. In this sample, reduced FMD was not an independent predictor of hypertension incidence, suggesting that impaired endothelial function does not play a major role in the development of hypertension.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.143123
PMCID: PMC2896877  PMID: 20308612
hypertension; blood pressure; endothelium; atherosclerosis; epidemiology

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