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1.  Inhibition of Macroautophagy Triggers Apoptosis† 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(3):1025-1040.
Mammalian cells were observed to die under conditions in which nutrients were depleted and, simultaneously, macroautophagy was inhibited either genetically (by a small interfering RNA targeting Atg5, Atg6/Beclin 1-1, Atg10, or Atg12) or pharmacologically (by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine, bafilomycin A1, or monensin). Cell death occurred through apoptosis (type 1 cell death), since it was reduced by stabilization of mitochondrial membranes (with Bcl-2 or vMIA, a cytomegalovirus-derived gene) or by caspase inhibition. Under conditions in which the fusion between lysosomes and autophagosomes was inhibited, the formation of autophagic vacuoles was enhanced at a preapoptotic stage, as indicated by accumulation of LC3-II protein, ultrastructural studies, and an increase in the acidic vacuolar compartment. Cells exhibiting a morphology reminiscent of (autophagic) type 2 cell death, however, recovered, and only cells with a disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential were beyond the point of no return and inexorably died even under optimal culture conditions. All together, these data indicate that autophagy may be cytoprotective, at least under conditions of nutrient depletion, and point to an important cross talk between type 1 and type 2 cell death pathways.
doi:10.1128/MCB.25.3.1025-1040.2005
PMCID: PMC543994  PMID: 15657430
2.  The One-Kilobase DNA Fragment Upstream of the ardC Actin Gene of Physarum polycephalum Is Both a Replicator and a Promoter 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1999;19(5):3506-3514.
The 1-kb DNA fragment upstream of the ardC actin gene of Physarum polycephalum promotes the transcription of a reporter gene either in a transient-plasmid assay or as an integrated copy in an ectopic position, defining this region as the transcriptional promoter of the ardC gene (PardC). Since we mapped an origin of replication activated at the onset of S phase within this same fragment, we examined the pattern of replication of a cassette containing the PardC promoter and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene, hph, integrated into two different chromosomal sites. In both cases, we show by two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis that an efficient, early activated origin coincides with the ectopic PardC fragment. One of the integration sites was a normally late-replicating region. The presence of the ectopic origin converted this late-replicating domain into an early-replicating domain in which replication forks propagate with kinetics indistinguishable from those of the native PardC replicon. This is the first demonstration that initiation sites for DNA replication in Physarum correspond to cis-acting replicator sequences. This work also confirms the close proximity of a replication origin and a promoter, with both functions being located within the 1-kb proximal region of the ardC actin gene. A more precise location of the replication origin with respect to the transcriptional promoter must await the development of a functional autonomously replicating sequence assay in Physarum.
PMCID: PMC84143  PMID: 10207074

Results 1-2 (2)