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1.  Most Human Proteins Made in Both Nucleus and Cytoplasm Turn Over within Minutes 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99346.
In bacteria, protein synthesis can be coupled to transcription, but in eukaryotes it is believed to occur solely in the cytoplasm. Using pulses as short as 5 s, we find that three analogues – L-azidohomoalanine, puromycin (detected after attaching fluors using ‘click’ chemistry or immuno-labeling), and amino acids tagged with ‘heavy’ 15N and 13C (detected using secondary ion mass spectrometry) – are incorporated into the nucleus and cytoplasm in a process sensitive to translational inhibitors. The nuclear incorporation represents a significant fraction of the total, and labels in both compartments have half-lives of less than a minute; results are consistent with most newly-made peptides being destroyed soon after they are made. As nascent RNA bearing a premature termination codon (detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization) is also eliminated by a mechanism sensitive to a translational inhibitor, the nuclear turnover of peptides is probably a by-product of proof-reading the RNA for stop codons (a process known as nonsense-mediated decay). We speculate that the apparently-wasteful turnover of this previously-hidden (‘dark-matter’) world of peptide is involved in regulating protein production.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099346
PMCID: PMC4050049  PMID: 24911415
2.  Determinants of Allergic Rhinitis in Young Children with Asthma 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97236.
Background
In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR) is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma.
Methods
We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema) were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens) and environmental parameters were also collected.
Results
Forty one of the children (18.1%) had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002); food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026); mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01) and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046). Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR.
Conclusions & Clinical Relevance
These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097236
PMCID: PMC4022721  PMID: 24831804
3.  Reduced Gamma Oscillations in a Mouse Model of Intellectual Disability: A Role for Impaired Repetitive Neurotransmission? 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e95871.
Intellectual disability affects 2–3% of the population; mutations of the X-chromosome are a major cause of moderate to severe cases. The link between the molecular consequences of the mutation and impaired cognitive function remains unclear. Loss of function mutations of oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) disrupt Rho-GTPase signalling. Here we demonstrate abnormal neurotransmission at CA3 synapses in hippocampal slices from Ophn1-/y mice, resulting from a substantial decrease in the readily releasable pool of vesicles. As a result, synaptic transmission fails at high frequencies required for oscillations associated with cognitive functions. Both spontaneous and KA-induced gamma oscillations were reduced in Ophn1-/y hippocampal slices. Spontaneous oscillations were rapidly rescued by inhibition of the downstream signalling pathway of oligophrenin-1. These findings suggest that the intellectual disability due to mutations of oligophrenin-1 results from a synaptopathy and consequent network malfunction, providing a plausible mechanism for the learning disabilities. Furthermore, they raise the prospect of drug treatments for affected individuals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095871
PMCID: PMC4011727  PMID: 24800744
4.  Skeletal Muscle Cells Express ICAM-1 after Muscle Overload and ICAM-1 Contributes to the Ensuing Hypertrophic Response 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58486.
We previously reported that leukocyte specific β2 integrins contribute to hypertrophy after muscle overload in mice. Because intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important ligand for β2 integrins, we examined ICAM-1 expression by murine skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload and its contribution to the ensuing hypertrophic response. Myofibers in control muscles of wild type mice and cultures of skeletal muscle cells (primary and C2C12) did not express ICAM-1. Overload of wild type plantaris muscles caused myofibers and satellite cells/myoblasts to express ICAM-1. Increased expression of ICAM-1 after muscle overload occurred via a β2 integrin independent mechanism as indicated by similar gene and protein expression of ICAM-1 between wild type and β2 integrin deficient (CD18-/-) mice. ICAM-1 contributed to muscle hypertrophy as demonstrated by greater (p<0.05) overload-induced elevations in muscle protein synthesis, mass, total protein, and myofiber size in wild type compared to ICAM-1-/- mice. Furthermore, expression of ICAM-1 altered (p<0.05) the temporal pattern of Pax7 expression, a marker of satellite cells/myoblasts, and regenerating myofiber formation in overloaded muscles. In conclusion, ICAM-1 expression by myofibers and satellite cells/myoblasts after muscle overload could serve as a mechanism by which ICAM-1 promotes hypertrophy by providing a means for cell-to-cell communication with β2 integrin expressing myeloid cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058486
PMCID: PMC3594308  PMID: 23505517
5.  Extracellular Localization of the Diterpene Sclareol in Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae) 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e48253.
Sclareol is a high-value natural product obtained by solid/liquid extraction of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) inflorescences. Because processes of excretion and accumulation of this labdane diterpene are unknown, the aim of this work was to gain knowledge on its sites of accumulation in planta. Samples were collected in natura or during different steps of the industrial process of extraction (steam distillation and solid/liquid extraction). Samples were then analysed with a combination of complementary analytical techniques (gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, polarized light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy). According to the literature, it is hypothesized that sclareol is localized in oil pockets of secretory trichomes. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that sclareol accumulates in a crystalline epicuticular form, mostly on calyces.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048253
PMCID: PMC3484996  PMID: 23133579
6.  Late Endosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Leads to Impaired Intra-Endosomal Trafficking 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(9):e851.
Background
Pathological accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes is observed in lysosomal storage diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C. We here analyzed the effects of cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, or as phenocopied by the drug U18666A, on late endosomes membrane organization and dynamics.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Cholesterol accumulation did not lead to an increase in the raft to non-raft membrane ratio as anticipated. Strikingly, we observed a 2–3 fold increase in the size of the compartment. Most importantly, properties and dynamics of late endosomal intralumenal vesicles were altered as revealed by reduced late endosomal vacuolation induced by the mutant pore-forming toxin ASSP, reduced intoxication by the anthrax lethal toxin and inhibition of infection by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus.
Conclusions/Significance
These results suggest that back fusion of intralumenal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes is dramatically perturbed upon cholesterol accumulation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000851
PMCID: PMC1952175  PMID: 17786222

Results 1-6 (6)