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1.  Allelic mRNA expression imbalance in C-type lectins reveals a frequent regulatory SNP in the human surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene 
Genes and immunity  2013;14(2):99-106.
Genetic variation in C-type lectins influences infectious disease susceptibility but remains poorly understood. We employed allelic mRNA expression imbalance (AEI) technology for SP-A1, SP-A2, SP-D, DC-SIGN, MRC1, and Dectin-1, expressed in human macrophages and/or lung tissues. Frequent AEI, an indicator of regulatory polymorphisms, was observed in SP-A2, SP-D, and DC-SIGN. AEI was measured for SP-A2 in 38 lung tissues using four marker SNPs and was confirmed by next generation sequencing of one lung RNA sample. Genomic DNA at the SP-A2 DNA locus was sequenced by Ion Torrent technology in 16 samples. Correlation analysis of genotypes with AEI identified a haplotype block, and, specifically, the intronic SNP rs1650232 (30% MAF); the only variant consistently associated with an approximately two-fold change in mRNA allelic expression. Previously shown to alter a NAGNAG splice acceptor site with likely effects on SP-A2 expression, rs1650232 generates an alternative splice variant with three additional bases at the start of exon 3. Validated as a regulatory variant, rs1650232 is in partial LD with known SP-A2 marker SNPs previously associated with risk for respiratory diseases including tuberculosis. Applying functional DNA variants in clinical association studies, rather than marker SNPs, will advance our understanding of genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases.
doi:10.1038/gene.2012.61
PMCID: PMC3594410  PMID: 23328842
C-type lectin; marker SNP; regulatory variant; SP-A2; allelic expression imbalance
2.  Polymorphism in glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) is associated with sulfamethoxazole-induced hypersensitivity in HIV/AIDS patients 
BMC Medical Genomics  2012;5:32.
Background
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a commonly used antibiotic for prevention of infectious diseases associated with HIV/AIDS and immune-compromised states. SMX-induced hypersensitivity is an idiosyncratic cutaneous drug reaction with genetic components. Here, we tested association of candidate genes involved in SMX bioactivation and antioxidant defense with SMX-induced hypersensitivity.
Results
Seventy seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 14 candidate genes were genotyped and assessed for association with SMX-induced hypersensitivity, in a cohort of 171 HIV/AIDS patients. SNP rs761142 T > G, in glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), was significantly associated with SMX-induced hypersensitivity, with an adjusted p value of 0.045. This result was replicated in a second cohort of 249 patients (p = 0.025). In the combined cohort, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the minor G allele were at increased risk of developing hypersensitivity (GT vs TT, odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CL 1.4-3.7, p = 0.0014; GG vs TT, odds ratio = 3.3, 95% CL 1.6 – 6.8, p = 0.0010). Each minor allele copy increased risk of developing hypersensitivity 1.9 fold (95% CL 1.4 – 2.6, p = 0.00012). Moreover, in 91 human livers and 84 B-lymphocytes samples, SNP rs761142 homozygous G allele carriers expressed significantly less GCLC mRNA than homozygous TT carriers (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
rs761142 in GCLC was found to be associated with reduced GCLC mRNA expression and with SMX-induced hypersensitivity in HIV/AIDS patients. Catalyzing a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis, GCLC may play a broad role in idiosyncratic drug reactions.
doi:10.1186/1755-8794-5-32
PMCID: PMC3418550  PMID: 22824134
Idiosyncratic drug reaction; Sulfamethoxazole; Hypersensitivity; Glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC); Association; HIV/AIDS

Results 1-2 (2)