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1.  Lipoprotein (a), C-reactive protein and some metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 DM 
Background
Lipoprotein (a) (LP (a) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that is not widely studied in people of sub-Saharan African origin. The aim of this report is to determine the frequency of occurrence of elevated Lp (a) and possible relationship with total cholesterol (TCHOL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C reactive protein (CRP) and serum uric acid (SUA).
Methods
This is a cross sectional study carried out in 200 Nigerian patients with type 2 DM and 100 sex and age matched healthy Controls aged between 32-86 years. We determined the frequency of occurrence of elevated Lp (a) levels in the study subjects and compared clinical and biochemical variables between type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients. Clinical and biochemical parameters were also compared between subjects with type 2 DM who had elevated LP (a) and normal LP (a) levels. Long term glycaemic control using glycosylated haemoglobin was determined and compared in the study subjects. Test statistics used include chi square, correlation coefficient analysis and Student's t test.
Results
The mean Lp(a) concentration differed significantly between type 2 diabetic patients and the Control subjects (18.7 (5.8) mg/dl vs 23 (6.8) mg/dl, 0.00001). Similarly, the prevalence of high LP (a) levels in type 2 DM patients was significantly higher than that of the Control subjects (12.5% vs 4%, p-0.019). The mean levels of the lipid profile parameters (TCHOL, LDL-C, TG, LDL/HDL) and CRP were significantly higher in DM patients than in the Control subjects. The mean LP (a) levels were comparable in both sexes and in DM subjects with and without hypertension. TG was the only parameter that differed significantly between subjects with elevated Lp (a) levels and those with normal Lp (a) levels. There was a significant positive correlation (r) between Lp(a) levels and TG, LDL-C. TCHOL, LDL/HDL and uric acid. No association was found between Lp(a) and clinical parameters such as age and anthropometric indices.
Conclusion
We have showed that Lp (a), CRP and other CVS risk factors cluster more in patients with DM than non DM patients. Serum Lp (a) levels are not associated with anthropometric and glycaemic indices.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-2-51
PMCID: PMC2919447  PMID: 20663222
2.  Hyperuricaemia and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 DM 
Background
Elevated serum uric acid levels (SUA) have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and are often reported to be higher in females than in males. The aim of this report is to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of hyperuricaemia and also to evaluate associations with the MetS in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study conducted in people with type 2 DM in Lagos, Nigeria. Hyperuricaemia was defined by cut-off values of > 7 mg/dl for men and > 6 mg/dl for women. The diagnosis of MetS was made using the new definition by the American Heart Association and other related bodies. Clinical and biochemical parameters were compared between subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia. Statistical analysis included usage of Student's t test, Pearson correlation coefficients, multivariate regression analysis and chi square.
Results
601 patients with type 2 DM aged between 34-91 years were recruited for the study. The prevalence rates of hyperuricaemia and the MetS were 25% and 60% respectively. The frequency of occurrence of hyperuricaemia was comparable in both genders (59% vs 41%, p = 0.3). Although, the prevalence of the MetS in subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia was comparable (61 vs 56%, p = 0.1), a higher proportion of hyperuricaemic subjects had 3 or more components of the Mets compared with normouricaemic subjects. Possible predictors of hyperuricaemia include central obesity, smoking and elevated serum triglycerides (TG). SUA levels were found to be positively and significantly associated with serum TG (r = 0.2, p = 0.0001) and total cholesterol (r = 13, p = 0.001).
Conclusion
The prevalence of hyperuricaemia in subjects with type 2 DM is comparable in both genders and possible predictors of hyperuricaemia are potentially modifiable. SUA is positively and significantly associated with serum TG and total cholesterol.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-2-24
PMCID: PMC2864200  PMID: 20406485
3.  Prevalence and gender distribution of the metabolic syndrome 
Background
The Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cardiovascular risk factor of public health significance and of recent has become a topical issue. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is on the increase and with this scenario, a possible increase in burden of DM which may be largely attributed to cardiovascular complications is expected. The objective of this report is to determine the prevalence of the MetS and compare gender characteristics in subjects with type 2 DM.
Methods
Subjects with type 2 DM were recruited from an urban hospital for the study. Clinical data was obtained by interviewing the patients and referring to their Case folders. The anthropometric indices and blood pressure measurements were documented. Laboratory parameters analysed for included total cholesterol, high density and low density cholesterol, triglyceride and glycosylated haemoglobin. Statistical analysis included usage of Student's t test and chi square.
Results
963 patients with type 2 DM aged between 35-85 years were recruited for the study. The main outcome measures included the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and the gender differences of its components. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 86%. The frequency of occurrence of the MetS was similar for men (83%) and women (86%) and increased with age in both sexes. The prevalence of MetS increased from 11% among participants aged 20 through 29 years to 89% in participants aged 70 through 79. In our patients with DM, the commonest occurring and least detected MetS defining parameters are central obesity and elevated triglyceride levels respectively. The components of the MetS that differed significantly in both sexes was HDL-C. The combination of the components of the MetS were comparable in both genders and 5.8% of the subjects with the MetS had all components of the MetS.
Conclusion
The prevalence of the MetS in type 2DM is high in both genders and increases with age thus posing a potential high cardiovascular risk in this group of patients. The modifiable risk factors for the MetS should be a focus point in the management of subjects with type 2 DM,
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-2-1
PMCID: PMC2836983  PMID: 20180954

Results 1-3 (3)