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1.  Acute phase reactant dynamics and incidence of microvascular dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes mellitus 
BACKGROUND:
Acute Phase Reactants (APRs) have a wide range of activities that contribute to host defense. The aim of this report was to evaluate the dynamics and magnitude of these proteins in various microvascular complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). We also sought to assess the predictive values of APRs and other clinical variables for microvascular complications in DM.
METHODS:
This was a case control study carried out in 200 Nigerian subjects with type 2 DM and 100 sex and age matched healthy controls. The studied APRs included C-reactive protein, beta 2 microglobulin, fibrinogen and lipoprotein (a).
RESULTS:
The mean values of the APRs were significantly higher in type 2 DM compared with the controls and were observed in higher concentrations in those with microvascular complications, except beta 2 microglobulin. Presence of microvascular complications was observed in those with dilated fundus examination (retinopathy), symptom score of 3.0 (neuropathy), urea and creatinine levels above 50mg% and 1.5mg%, respectively, with significant proteinuria (nephropathy). Significant increase in mean ± SEM values of lipoprotein (a) was observed in diabetic retinopathy in comparison with those without complications (25.76 ± 1.13 mg/dl vs. 22.37 ± 0.73 mg/dl, p = 0.005). Elevated C-reactive protein was observed in diabetic neuropathy in comparison with those without complications (11.43 ± 2.33 u/ml vs. 8.30 ± 1.15 u/ml, p = 0.048). Increased beta 2 microglobulin levels were observed in patients with diabetic foot ulcers in comparison with those without complications (3.04 ± 0.51 mg/dl vs. 2.54 ± 0.14 mg/dl, p = 0.049). Circulating levels of Lipoprotein (a) predicted retinopathy in DM with both good and poor long-term glycemic control while duration of DM predicted the occurrence of foot ulcers..
CONCLUSIONS:
Increased level of APRs was associated with a number of microvascular complications and may play a role in the pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3430019  PMID: 22973323
Acute Phase Reactants; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Microvascular Complications
2.  Advanced age, altered level of consciousness and a new diagnosis of diabetes are independently associated with hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic crisis 
Background
There is limited literature on hypernatreamia in the setting of hyperglycaemic crisis. This is despite the fact that the presence of hypernatreamia may impact on the classification of hyperglycaemic crisis and its management particularly with regards to the nature of fluid therapy. We determined the prevalence of hypernatreamia and its associated factors at presentation for hyperglycaemic crisis.
Methods
This was a retrospective review of data for hyperglycaemic crisis admissions in Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. The prevalence of hypernatreamia (uncorrected Serum Sodium at presentation >145 mmol/L) was determined. Hyperosmolality was defined by calculated effective osmolality >320 mosmols/Kg. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken using variables that were statistically significant in univariate analysis to ascertain those that were independently associated (Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI)) with hypernatreamia.
Results
The prevalence of hypernatreamia in our admissions for hyperglycaemic crisis was 11.7% (n = 32/273 including 171 females and 102 males). All admissions with hypernatreamia met the criteria for hyperosmolality. Age ≥ 60 years (OR = 3.9 95% CI 1.3-12.3; P = 0.018), Altered level of consciousness (OR = 8.8 95% CI 2.3-32.8; P < 0.001) and a new diagnosis of diabetes (OR = 3.7 95%CI 1.2-11.5; P = 0.025) were independently associated with hypernatreamia.
Conclusion
The prevalence rate of hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic admissions was high with all hypernatreamic admissions meeting the criteria for hyperosmolality. Advanced age, altered conscious level and a new diagnosis of diabetes were independently associated with hypernatreamia.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-8
PMCID: PMC3103444  PMID: 21501465
Hypernatreamia; Hyperglyceamic crisis; prevalence; determinants; South Africa

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