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1.  Glucose and lipid assessment in patients with acute stroke 
Background
Stroke is a major health issue in Nigeria and it is also a common cause of emergency admissions. Stroke often results in increased morbidity, mortality and reduced quality of life in people thus affected. The risk factors for stroke include metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus (DM). The stress of an acute stroke may present with hyperglycaemia and in persons without a prior history of DM, may be a pointer to stress hyperglycaemia or undiagnosed DM.
Methodology
This was a cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Patients with acute stroke admitted to the hospital within three days of the episode of stroke and who met other inclusion criteria for the Study were consecutively recruited. Clinically relevant data was documented and biochemical assessments were carried out within three days of hospitalization. Tests for lipid profile, glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c), and blood glucose at presentation were carried out. The presence of past history of DM, undiagnosed DM, stress hyperglycaemia and abnormal lipid profile were noted. Students t test and Chi square were the statistical tests employed.
Results
A total of 137 persons with stroke were recruited of which 107 (76%) met the defining criteria for ischaemic stroke. The mean age and age range of the Study subjects were 62.2 (11.7) and 26–89 years respectively. The Study subjects were classified according to their glycaemic status into the following categories viz; stress hyperglycaemia, euglycaemia, DM and previously undiagnosed DM. Stress hyperglycaemia occurred commonly in the fifth decade of life and its incidence was comparable between those with cerebral and haemorrhagic stroke. The commonly occurring lipid abnormalities were elevated LDL-C and low HDL.
Conclusions
The detection of abnormal metabolic milieu is a window of opportunity for aggressive management in persons with stroke as this will improve outcome. Routine screening for hyperglycaemia in persons with stroke using glycosylated haemoglobin tests and blood glucose may uncover previously undiagnosed DM.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-45
PMCID: PMC4221686  PMID: 25379056
2.  Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus in Adults (LADA) and it’s characteristics in a subset of Nigerians initially managed for type 2 diabetes 
Introduction
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is an entity characterized by the presence of GAD autoantibodies. LADA is largely understudied and underreported amongst Nigerians with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). We undertook to document the Prevalence, clinical and biochemical characteristics of LADA in a subset of Nigerians who hitherto had been treated for type 2 DM.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 235 patients being managed for type 2 DM. The diagnosis of LADA was made in the presence of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) positivity in the study subjects. Thereafter persons with LADA were compared with those without LADA. Clinical parameters such as demographic data, history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications were obtained, biochemical parameters including Fasting blood glucose (FBG), C-peptide, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid parameters were compared in both groups of Study subject. Test statistics used were Student t- test and χ 2. SPSS was used for data analysis.
Results
Thirty three out of 235 of the Study subjects were GADA positive, giving a prevalence of 14%. The mean age (SD) of the subjects with LADA is 53.24(7.22) with an age range of 30–63 years. Majority (48%) of LADA subjects were in the 50–59 age category. There was no significant difference in the proportion of males and females with LADA (p = 0.3). 37% of patients with LADA were on insulin for glycaemic control. Three (3) LADA subjects had history/clinical evidence of autoimmune thyroid disease. 66% of LADA were in the overweight/obese category. LADA subjects had significant poor long term glycaemic control compared with anti-GAD negative subjects (p = 0.026). About half of LADA subjects were insulinopaenic. LADA subjects had lower levels of total cholesterol than GADA-ve subjects (p = 0.03). A higher proportion of LADA had evidence of microvascular complications of DM compared with antiGAD negative individuals.
Conclusion
The diagnosis of LADA should be entertained in overweight/obese persons from the fourth decade of life presenting with DM. Pharmacotherapy with insulin is a potential means of managing hyperglycaemia in this group of patients especially since a significant proportion are insulinopaenic. The Prevalence of LADA in our patients is comparable to what obtains in Ghanaian and Caucasian populations.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-5-23
PMCID: PMC3464687  PMID: 22894705
LADA; Prevalence; Complications; Nigerians
3.  Understanding asthma and the metabolic syndrome - a Nigerian report 
Introduction
Nigeria is a developing country that is currently witnessing an upsurge in diabetes mellitus and obesity with its antecedent consequences. There is also a fairly high prevalence of asthma affecting an estimated 10.7% of the population. There is no data presently on the possible presence of metabolic syndrome in Nigerian living with asthma. The study was conceived to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among a population of asthmatics seen in our practice. We also attempt to compare asthma severity, control and pulmonary function tests in asthmatics with metabolic syndrome and those without.
Methodology
This cross-sectional study was carried out at the asthma clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the research and ethics committee of the hospital. Written consent was obtained from the participants. Interviewer based questionnaire was used to obtain required information, anthropometric indices were recorded and clinical examinations done. Pulmonary function tests were carried out using desktop Alpha Spirometer model 6000 made by Vitalograph UK (2007). Blood pressure was measured using sphygmomanometer in mmHg. Fasting venous blood was taken for blood sugar and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the international diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
Result
One hundred and fifty eight (158) asthmatics participated in the study comprising of 63 (39.9%) males and 95(60.1%) females. The age range was 14-78 years with a mean of 46.48+/-17.00 years. The mean duration of asthma diagnosis was 13.95+/-12.14 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.1%. 17 (10.8%) had fasting blood sugar above 100 mg/dl. Abdominal obesity was present in 78 (49.5%). The mean total cholesterol was 192.63+/-40.7 mg/dl. HDL was low in 21(22%) of female and 3 (4.8%) male. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 17.7%, affecting 28 asthma patients. Asthma control was affected by the presence of metabolic syndrome. P < 0.05. The pulmonary function test was not significantly affected by presence of metabolic syndrome.
Conclusion
Metabolic syndrome prevalence is high in the population of asthma patients studied. It is therefore important to screen patient with asthma for this condition and treat to improve outcome.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-5-20
PMCID: PMC3499319  PMID: 22726248
4.  Characterization of lipid parameters in diabetes mellitus – a Nigerian report 
Background
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder that is often associated with cardiovascular events and underlying lipid abnormalities. Cardiovascular complications are common causes of DM deaths in Nigeria yet dyslipidaemia is one aspect of DM that is underdiagnosed and undertreated in our patients. This report seeks to determine the prevalence and pattern of lipid abnormalities in Nigerians with types I and 2 DM.
Methods
A total of 600 patients with DM aged between 22 – 79 years were evaluated for lipid abnormalities. The anthropometric indices, glycosylated haemoglobin, pattern of DM treatment and co-morbidities were noted. Total cholesterol (TCHOL), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL-C), low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the atherogenic indices levels were documented. Test statistic used included student's t test and χ2.
Results
Well over half (89%) of the study subjects had lipid abnormalities and there was no statistically significant difference in the proportions of subjects with type 1 and 2 DM with lipid abnormalities. Elevated LDL-C, TCHOL, TG and reduced HDL-C were noted in 74%, 42%, 13%, and 53% respectively of the study subjects. The commonly noted combined lipid abnormalities were elevated TG and reduced HDL-C. Hypertension, significant histories of smoking and alcohol ingestion were found to be potential determinants of the occurrence of dyslipidaemia. Age, sex, type of DM and anthropometric indices were found to be determinants of the the pattern of dyslipidaemia. Only a small proportion – (8%)-of the subjects with dyslipidaemia were on treatment for it.
Conclusion
Having defined the scope of dyslipidaemia in our patients and also highlighting its gross undertreatment, we hope that our data will help sensitize health care practitioners on screening for and treating dyslipidaemia. Elevated LDL-C and reduced HDL-C should be the primary targets of treatment in our patients with dyslipidaemia.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-2-19
PMCID: PMC2734749  PMID: 19619328

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