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1.  The metabolic syndrome in thyroid disease: A report from Nigeria 
Background:
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in people with thyroid disorders.
Materials and Methods:
112 subjects with a history of thyroid disorders were consecutively enrolled for the study. Clinical data were obtained by interviewing the patients and referring to their case folders and prescriptions. The subjects were categorized into three: thyrotoxic, those with hypothyroidism and those with nontoxic goiters, based on clinical parameters and or thyroid function tests. The study subjects were weighed and their anthropometric indices were documented. The laboratory parameters that were analyzed included total cholesterol, high-density and low-density cholesterol and triglyceride. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and chi-square test.
Results:
The study subjects were aged between 14 and 76 years, with a mean age of 44.5 years, and the female:male ratio was 97:15. The mean age and anthropometric indices were comparable in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 28% and the frequency of occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and nontoxic goiter was 24%, 40% and 42%, respectively. The commonest occurring metabolic syndrome defining criterion was dysglycemia, while hypertension and elevated triglyceride were the least documented of the criteria.
Conclusion:
Metabolic syndrome occurs in 1 in every 4 persons with thyroid disorders, and as such, routine screening for this cardiovascular risk factor may be of benefit in this group of people, especially in those with hypothyroidism.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.95688
PMCID: PMC3354852  PMID: 22629511
Metabolic syndrome; Nigeria; thyroid
2.  Screening for peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease in persons with diabetes mellitus in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:533.
Background
Identifying the risk factors for diabetes mellitus related foot ulceration would save more limbs from amputation. This report focuses on the determining the burden of peripheral arterial disease and neuropathy in persons with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods
This is a descriptive study carried out in the Diabetic Clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital in patients with DM who had no past/present history of foot ulceration. Biothesiometry was employed and ankle brachial pressure indices were measured to evaluate for neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) respectively.
Results
A total of 225 persons living with DM who met inclusion criteria were recruited consecutively over a 3 months period. Age range was 28–87 years with the mean [61.4 (10.8)] and median (63) years respectively. Patients symptomatic for neuropathy and PAD were 37 and 40 % respectively of the study population. An older age of >60 years and poor glycaemic control were potential predictors of neuropathy. Neuropathy and PAD occurred commonly in the seventh decade of life.
Conclusion
Given the fairly high proportions of neuropathy and PAD in our patients with DM, we recommend that they be routinely examined in persons with DM.
doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1423-2
PMCID: PMC4592746  PMID: 26435536
Diabetes mellitus; Neuropathy; Peripheral arterial disease
3.  Acute phase reactant dynamics and incidence of microvascular dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes mellitus 
BACKGROUND:
Acute Phase Reactants (APRs) have a wide range of activities that contribute to host defense. The aim of this report was to evaluate the dynamics and magnitude of these proteins in various microvascular complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). We also sought to assess the predictive values of APRs and other clinical variables for microvascular complications in DM.
METHODS:
This was a case control study carried out in 200 Nigerian subjects with type 2 DM and 100 sex and age matched healthy controls. The studied APRs included C-reactive protein, beta 2 microglobulin, fibrinogen and lipoprotein (a).
RESULTS:
The mean values of the APRs were significantly higher in type 2 DM compared with the controls and were observed in higher concentrations in those with microvascular complications, except beta 2 microglobulin. Presence of microvascular complications was observed in those with dilated fundus examination (retinopathy), symptom score of 3.0 (neuropathy), urea and creatinine levels above 50mg% and 1.5mg%, respectively, with significant proteinuria (nephropathy). Significant increase in mean ± SEM values of lipoprotein (a) was observed in diabetic retinopathy in comparison with those without complications (25.76 ± 1.13 mg/dl vs. 22.37 ± 0.73 mg/dl, p = 0.005). Elevated C-reactive protein was observed in diabetic neuropathy in comparison with those without complications (11.43 ± 2.33 u/ml vs. 8.30 ± 1.15 u/ml, p = 0.048). Increased beta 2 microglobulin levels were observed in patients with diabetic foot ulcers in comparison with those without complications (3.04 ± 0.51 mg/dl vs. 2.54 ± 0.14 mg/dl, p = 0.049). Circulating levels of Lipoprotein (a) predicted retinopathy in DM with both good and poor long-term glycemic control while duration of DM predicted the occurrence of foot ulcers..
CONCLUSIONS:
Increased level of APRs was associated with a number of microvascular complications and may play a role in the pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3430019  PMID: 22973323
Acute Phase Reactants; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Microvascular Complications

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