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1.  Development of a novel oral vaccine against Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and Johne disease 
Bioengineered Bugs  2009;1(3):155-163.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne disease, a granulomatous enteritis of cattle and other domesticated and wild ruminant species. Johne disease is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. Current vaccines against Johne are insufficient in stemming its spread, and associated side-effects prevent their widespread use in control programs. Effective and safe vaccine strategies are needed. The main purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate the development of a novel oral subunit-vaccine using a patho-biotechnological approach. This novel strategy, which harnesses patho-genetic elements from the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, may provide a realistic route towards developing an effective next generation subunit vaccine against Johne disease and paratuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC3026420  PMID: 21326921
vaccine; paratuberculosis; Johne disease; patho-biotechnology; Listeria monocytogenes

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