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1.  External validation of risk classification in patients with docetaxel-treated castration-resistant prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2014;14:31.
Background
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients have poor prognoses, and docetaxel (DTX) is among the few treatment options. An accurate risk classification to identify CRPC patient groups for which DTX would be effective is urgently warranted. The Armstrong risk classification (ARC), which classifies CRPC patients into 3 groups, is superior; however, its usefulness remains unclear, and further external validation is required before clinical use. This study aimed to examine the clinical significance of the ARC through external validation in DTX-treated Japanese CRPC patients.
Methods
CRPC patients who received 2 or more DTX cycles were selected for this study. Patients were classified into good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups according to the ARC. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses and overall survival (OS) were calculated and compared between the risk groups. A multivariate analysis was performed to clarify the relationship between the ARC and major patient characteristics.
Results
Seventy-eight CRPC patients met the inclusion criteria. Median PSA levels at DTX initiation was 20 ng/mL. Good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups comprised 51 (65%), 17 (22%), and 10 (13%) patients, respectively. PSA response rates ≥30% and ≥50% were 33%, 41%, and 30%, and 18%, 41%, and 20% in the good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups, respectivcixely, with no significant differences (p = 0.133 and 0.797, respectively). The median OS in the good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001) at 30.1, 14.2, and 5.7 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed that the ARC and PSA doubling time were independent prognostic factors.
Conclusions
Most of CRPC patients were classified into good-risk group according to the ARC and the ARC could predict prognosis in DTX-treated CRPC patients.
Trial registration
University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) number, UMIN000011969.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-14-31
PMCID: PMC3997751  PMID: 24742323
Castration-resistant prostate cancer; Docetaxel; Risk classification; Validation study
2.  Docetaxel with or without estramustine for estramustine refractory castration-resistant prostate cancer: a single institution experience 
BMC Urology  2012;12:3.
Background
The significance of combination of docetaxel (DTX) with estramustine phosphate (EMP) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of DTX with or without EMP and to elucidate the significance of DTX and EMP combination therapy in Japanese EMP-refractory CRPC patients.
Methods
To compare the efficacy and toxicity of DTX and EMP, we divided CRPC patients, who were confirmed to be resistant to EMP, into the following two groups: group D (n = 28), which included patients treated with DTX (60 mg/m2, once in every four weeks) alone, and group DE (n = 33), which included patients treated with a combination of DTX (60 mg/m2, once in every four weeks) and EMP (twice daily oral administration at 280 mg).
Results
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) response (> 50% decline in PSA) was observed in six patients (21%) in group D and eight patients (24%) in group DE. The median time to progression (TTP) was 12.0 months and 6.2 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 26.4 months and 24.3 months in group D and DE, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of PSA response, TTP, and OS. The incidence of adverse events of grade 3/4 was low in both the groups, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups.
Conclusions
Although treatment with DTX at 60 mg/m2 was effective and highly tolerated in EMP-refractory Japanese CRPC patients, the DTX and EMP combination therapy might not exhibit any survival benefit for CRPC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-3
PMCID: PMC3305626  PMID: 22353627

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