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author:("Murat, floret")
1.  Paleo-evolutionary plasticity of plant disease resistance genes 
BMC Genomics  2014;15:187.
Background
The recent access to a large set of genome sequences, combined with a robust evolutionary scenario of modern monocot (i.e. grasses) and eudicot (i.e. rosids) species from their founder ancestors, offered the opportunity to gain insights into disease resistance genes (R-genes) evolutionary plasticity.
Results
We unravel in the current article (i) a R-genes repertoire consisting in 7883 for monocots and 15758 for eudicots, (ii) a contrasted R-genes conservation with 23.8% for monocots and 6.6% for dicots, (iii) a minimal ancestral founder pool of 384 R-genes for the monocots and 150 R-genes for the eudicots, (iv) a general pattern of organization in clusters accounting for more than 60% of mapped R-genes, (v) a biased deletion of ancestral duplicated R-genes between paralogous blocks possibly compensated by clusterization, (vi) a bias in R-genes clusterization where Leucine-Rich Repeats act as a ‘glue’ for domain association, (vii) a R-genes/miRNAs interome enriched toward duplicated R-genes.
Conclusions
Together, our data may suggest that R-genes family plasticity operated during plant evolution (i) at the structural level through massive duplicates loss counterbalanced by massive clusterization following polyploidization; as well as at (ii) the regulation level through microRNA/R-gene interactions acting as a possible source of functional diploidization of structurally retained R-genes duplicates. Such evolutionary shuffling events leaded to CNVs (i.e. Copy Number Variation) and PAVs (i.e. Presence Absence Variation) between related species operating in the decay of R-genes colinearity between plant species.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-187
PMCID: PMC4234491  PMID: 24617999
R-genes; Duplication; Plasticity; Evolution
2.  Shared Subgenome Dominance Following Polyploidization Explains Grass Genome Evolutionary Plasticity from a Seven Protochromosome Ancestor with 16K Protogenes 
Genome Biology and Evolution  2013;6(1):12-33.
Modern plant genomes are diploidized paleopolyploids. We revisited grass genome paleohistory in response to the diploidization process through a detailed investigation of the evolutionary fate of duplicated blocks. Ancestrally duplicated genes can be conserved, deleted, and shuffled, defining dominant (bias toward duplicate retention) and sensitive (bias toward duplicate erosion) chromosomal fragments. We propose a new grass genome paleohistory deriving from an ancestral karyotype structured in seven protochromosomes containing 16,464 protogenes and following evolutionary rules where 1) ancestral shared polyploidizations shaped conserved dominant (D) and sensitive (S) subgenomes, 2) subgenome dominance is revealed by both gene deletion and shuffling from the S blocks, 3) duplicate deletion/movement may have been mediated by single-/double-stranded illegitimate recombination mechanisms, 4) modern genomes arose through centromeric fusion of protochromosomes, leading to functional monocentric neochromosomes, 5) the fusion of two dominant blocks leads to supradominant neochromosomes (D + D = D) with higher ancestral gene retention compared with D + S = D (i.e., fusion of blocks with opposite sensitivity) or even S + S = S (i.e., fusion of two sensitive ancestral blocks). A new user-friendly online tool named “PlantSyntenyViewer,” available at http://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/synteny-cereal, presents the refined comparative genomics data.
doi:10.1093/gbe/evt200
PMCID: PMC3914691  PMID: 24317974
synteny; evolution; genome; dominance; duplication; ancestor
3.  Deciphering the genomic structure, function and evolution of carotenogenesis related phytoene synthases in grasses 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:221.
Background
Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments, essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in plants. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) plays an essential role in mediating condensation of two geranylgeranyl diphosphate molecules, the first committed step in carotenogenesis. PSY are nuclear enzymes encoded by a small gene family consisting of three paralogous genes (PSY1-3) that have been widely characterized in rice, maize and sorghum.
Results
In wheat, for which yellow pigment content is extremely important for flour colour, only PSY1 has been extensively studied because of its association with QTLs reported for yellow pigment whereas PSY2 has been partially characterized. Here, we report the isolation of bread wheat PSY3 genes from a Renan BAC library using Brachypodium as a model genome for the Triticeae to develop Conserved Orthologous Set markers prior to gene cloning and sequencing. Wheat PSY3 homoeologous genes were sequenced and annotated, unravelling their novel structure associated with intron-loss events and consequent exonic fusions. A wheat PSY3 promoter region was also investigated for the presence of cis-acting elements involved in the response to abscisic acid (ABA), since carotenoids also play an important role as precursors of signalling molecules devoted to plant development and biotic/abiotic stress responses. Expression of wheat PSYs in leaves and roots was investigated during ABA treatment to confirm the up-regulation of PSY3 during abiotic stress.
Conclusions
We investigated the structural and functional determinisms of PSY genes in wheat. More generally, among eudicots and monocots, the PSY gene family was found to be associated with differences in gene copy numbers, allowing us to propose an evolutionary model for the entire PSY gene family in Grasses.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-221
PMCID: PMC3413518  PMID: 22672222
Carotenoids; Phytoene synthase; Wheat; Intron loss; Abiotic stress; Evolution
4.  RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 
Genome Biology  2011;12(12):R119.
Background
Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes.
Results
We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat genome unigene repertoire. Using the Brachypodium distachyon genome as a reference for the Triticeae, we classified gene clusters into orthologous, paralogous, and homoeologous relationships. Based on this wheat gene evolutionary classification, older duplicated copies (dating back 50 to 70 million years) exhibit more than 80% gene loss and expression divergence while recent duplicates (dating back 1.5 to 3 million years) show only 54% gene loss and 36 to 49% expression divergence.
Conclusions
We suggest that structural shuffling due to duplicated gene loss is a rapid process, whereas functional shuffling due to neo- and/or subfunctionalization of duplicates is a longer process, and that both shuffling mechanisms drive functional redundancy erosion. We conclude that, as a result of these mechanisms, half the gene duplicates in plants are structurally and functionally altered within 10 million years of evolution, and the diploidization process is completed after 45 to 50 million years following polyploidization.
doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-12-r119
PMCID: PMC3334614  PMID: 22136458

Results 1-4 (4)