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1.  Eye Malformations in Children with Heavy Alcohol Exposure in Utero 
The Journal of pediatrics  2008;153(3):391-395.
Objective
To determine whether children who do not develop fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) despite heavy alcohol exposure are at risk for eye abnormalities
Study design
We screened 9628 pregnant women and identified 101 women who were drinking ≥ 2 ounces of absolute alcohol per day and 101 non-drinking control women. We followed 43 exposed and 55 control offspring ages 4 to 9 years and performed masked, standardized ophthalomologic exams.
Results
The groups did not differ in their rates of impaired visual acuity, refractory errors, ptosis, epicanthal folds, or short palpebral fissures. Biomicroscopy examinations were normal in all exposed subjects; two (4%) controls and no exposed had cataracts. Seven (16%) exposed subjects versus 8 (15%) controls had arterial tortuosity. No subjects had optic nerve hypoplasia.
Conclusions
Previous research has reported that children with FAS have a high incidence of serious ophthalmologic defects; our data show that the risk is limited to children with FAS, not children exposed to high levels of alcohol prenatally but who do not develop FAS. Eye examinations are unlikely to clarify the diagnosis in children suspected of having alcohol related damage.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.04.024
PMCID: PMC2570183  PMID: 18571671
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; visual acuity; ocular malformations; birth defects; alcohol; eye; optic nerve hypoplasia

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