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1.  Copy number variants and infantile spasms: evidence for abnormalities in ventral forebrain development and pathways of synaptic function 
European Journal of Human Genetics  2011;19(12):1238-1245.
Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content of these CNVs for enrichment in pathways of pathogenesis. Several important findings emerged. First, the gene content was enriched for the gene regulatory network involved in ventral forebrain development. Second, genes in pathways of synaptic function were overrepresented, significantly those involved in synaptic vesicle transport. Evidence also suggested roles for GABAergic synapses and the postsynaptic density. Third, we confirm the association of ISS with duplication of 14q12 and maternally inherited duplication of 15q11q13, and report the association with duplication of 21q21. We also present a patient with ISS and deletion 7q11.3 not involving MAGI2. Finally, we provide evidence that ISS in deletion 1p36 may be associated with deletion of KLHL17 and expand the epilepsy phenotype in that syndrome to include early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Several of the identified pathways share functional links, and abnormalities of forebrain synaptic growth and function may form a common biologic mechanism underlying both ISS and autism. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the study of gene content in subjects with ISS and copy number variation, and contributes further evidence to support specific pathways of pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3230360  PMID: 21694734
infantile spasms; autism; bioinformatics; copy number variation; deletion 1p36 syndrome
2.  Data mining neocortical high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy and controls 
Brain  2011;134(10):2948-2959.
Transient high-frequency (100–500 Hz) oscillations of the local field potential have been studied extensively in human mesial temporal lobe. Previous studies report that both ripple (100–250 Hz) and fast ripple (250–500 Hz) oscillations are increased in the seizure-onset zone of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Comparatively little is known, however, about their spatial distribution with respect to seizure-onset zone in neocortical epilepsy, or their prevalence in normal brain. We present a quantitative analysis of high-frequency oscillations and their rates of occurrence in a group of nine patients with neocortical epilepsy and two control patients with no history of seizures. Oscillations were automatically detected and classified using an unsupervised approach in a data set of unprecedented volume in epilepsy research, over 12 terabytes of continuous long-term micro- and macro-electrode intracranial recordings, without human preprocessing, enabling selection-bias-free estimates of oscillation rates. There are three main results: (i) a cluster of ripple frequency oscillations with median spectral centroid = 137 Hz is increased in the seizure-onset zone more frequently than a cluster of fast ripple frequency oscillations (median spectral centroid = 305 Hz); (ii) we found no difference in the rates of high frequency oscillations in control neocortex and the non-seizure-onset zone neocortex of patients with epilepsy, despite the possibility of different underlying mechanisms of generation; and (iii) while previous studies have demonstrated that oscillations recorded by parenchyma-penetrating micro-electrodes have higher peak 100–500 Hz frequencies than penetrating macro-electrodes, this was not found for the epipial electrodes used here to record from the neocortical surface. We conclude that the relative rate of ripple frequency oscillations is a potential biomarker for epileptic neocortex, but that larger prospective studies correlating high-frequency oscillations rates with seizure-onset zone, resected tissue and surgical outcome are required to determine the true predictive value.
PMCID: PMC3187540  PMID: 21903727
high-frequency oscillations; epilepsy; intracranial EEG
3.  Interobserver reproducibility of electroencephalogram interpretation in critically ill children 
Correct outcome prediction after cardiac arrest in children may improve clinical decision making and family counseling. Various investigators have used EEG to predict outcome with varying success, but one limiting issue is the potential lack of reproducibility of EEG interpretation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate interobserver agreement using standardized terminology in the interpretation of EEG tracings obtained from critically ill children following cardiac arrest.
3 pediatric neurophysiologists scored 74 EEG samples using standardized categories, terminology, and interpretation rules. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa and intra-class correlation coefficients.
Agreement was substantial for the categories of continuity, burst suppression, sleep architecture, and overall rating. Agreement was moderate for seizure occurrence and inter-ictal epileptiform discharge type. Agreement was fair for inter-ictal epileptiform discharge presence, beta activity, predominant frequency, and fastest frequency. Agreement was slight for maximum voltage and focal slowing presence.
The variability of inter-rater agreement suggests that some EEG features are superior to others for use in a predictive algorithm. Using only reproducible EEG features is needed to ensure the most accurate and consistent predictions. Since even seizure identification had only moderate agreement, studies of non-convulsive seizures in critically ill patients must be conducted and interpreted cautiously.
PMCID: PMC3107383  PMID: 21221016
Electroencephalogram; Interobserver variability; Seizure; Pediatric; Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy; Cardiac Arrest

Results 1-3 (3)