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1.  MORPHIN: a web tool for human disease research by projecting model organism biology onto a human integrated gene network 
Nucleic Acids Research  2014;42(Web Server issue):W147-W153.
Despite recent advances in human genetics, model organisms are indispensable for human disease research. Most human disease pathways are evolutionally conserved among other species, where they may phenocopy the human condition or be associated with seemingly unrelated phenotypes. Much of the known gene-to-phenotype association information is distributed across diverse databases, growing rapidly due to new experimental techniques. Accessible bioinformatics tools will therefore facilitate translation of discoveries from model organisms into human disease biology. Here, we present a web-based discovery tool for human disease studies, MORPHIN (model organisms projected on a human integrated gene network), which prioritizes the most relevant human diseases for a given set of model organism genes, potentially highlighting new model systems for human diseases and providing context to model organism studies. Conceptually, MORPHIN investigates human diseases by an orthology-based projection of a set of model organism genes onto a genome-scale human gene network. MORPHIN then prioritizes human diseases by relevance to the projected model organism genes using two distinct methods: a conventional overlap-based gene set enrichment analysis and a network-based measure of closeness between the query and disease gene sets capable of detecting associations undetectable by the conventional overlap-based methods. MORPHIN is freely accessible at
PMCID: PMC4086117  PMID: 24861622
2.  DIP: The Database of Interacting Proteins: 2001 update 
Nucleic Acids Research  2001;29(1):239-241.
The Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP; is a database that documents experimentally determined protein–protein interactions. Since January 2000 the number of protein–protein interactions in DIP has nearly tripled to 3472 and the number of proteins to 2659. New interactive tools have been developed to aid in the visualization, navigation and study of networks of protein interactions.
PMCID: PMC29798  PMID: 11125102
3.  DIP: the Database of Interacting Proteins 
Nucleic Acids Research  2000;28(1):289-291.
The Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP; ) is a database that documents experimentally determined protein–protein interactions. This database is intended to provide the scientific community with a comprehensive and integrated tool for browsing and efficiently extracting information about protein interactions and interaction networks in biological processes. Beyond cataloging details of protein–protein interactions, the DIP is useful for understanding protein function and protein–protein relationships, studying the properties of networks of interacting proteins, benchmarking predictions of protein–protein interactions, and studying the evolution of protein–protein interactions.
PMCID: PMC102387  PMID: 10592249

Results 1-3 (3)