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1.  Protein-to-mRNA Ratios Are Conserved between Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains 
Journal of Proteome Research  2014;13(5):2370-2380.
Recent studies have shown that the concentrations of proteins expressed from orthologous genes are often conserved across organisms and to a greater extent than the abundances of the corresponding mRNAs. However, such studies have not distinguished between evolutionary (e.g., sequence divergence) and environmental (e.g., growth condition) effects on the regulation of steady-state protein and mRNA abundances. Here, we systematically investigated the transcriptome and proteome of two closely related Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, PAO1 and PA14, under identical experimental conditions, thus controlling for environmental effects. For 703 genes observed by both shotgun proteomics and microarray experiments, we found that the protein-to-mRNA ratios are highly correlated between orthologous genes in the two strains to an extent comparable to protein and mRNA abundances. In spite of this high molecular similarity between PAO1 and PA14, we found that several metabolic, virulence, and antibiotic resistance genes are differentially expressed between the two strains, mostly at the protein but not at the mRNA level. Our data demonstrate that the magnitude and direction of the effect of protein abundance regulation occurring after the setting of mRNA levels is conserved between bacterial strains and is important for explaining the discordance between mRNA and protein abundances.
PMCID: PMC4012837  PMID: 24742327
Transcriptomics; proteomics; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2.  Systematic Definition of Protein Constituents along the Major Polarization Axis Reveals an Adaptive Reuse of the Polarization Machinery in Pheromone-Treated Budding Yeast 
Polarizing cells extensively restructure cellular components in a spatially and temporally coupled manner along the major axis of cellular extension. Budding yeast are a useful model of polarized growth, helping to define many molecular components of this conserved process. Besides budding, yeast cells also differentiate upon treatment with pheromone from the opposite mating type, forming a mating projection (the ‘shmoo’) by directional restructuring of the cytoskeleton, localized vesicular transport and overall reorganization of the cytosol. To characterize the proteomic localization changes accompanying polarized growth, we developed and implemented a novel cell microarray-based imaging assay for measuring the spatial redistribution of a large fraction of the yeast proteome, and applied this assay to identify proteins localized along the mating projection following pheromone treatment. We further trained a machine learning algorithm to refine the cell imaging screen, identifying additional shmoo-localized proteins. In all, we identified 74 proteins that specifically localize to the mating projection, including previously uncharacterized proteins (Ycr043c, Ydr348c, Yer071c, Ymr295c, and Yor304c-a) and known polarization complexes such as the exocyst. Functional analysis of these proteins, coupled with quantitative analysis of individual organelle movements during shmoo formation, suggests a model in which the basic machinery for cell polarization is generally conserved between processes forming the bud and the shmoo, with a distinct subset of proteins used only for shmoo formation. The net effect is a defined ordering of major organelles along the polarization axis, with specific proteins implicated at the proximal growth tip.
Upon sensing mating pheromone, budding yeast cells form a mating projection (the ‘shmoo’) that serves as a model for polarized cell growth, involving cytoskeletal/cytosolic restructuring and directed vesicular transport. We developed a cell microarray-based imaging assay for measuring localization of the yeast proteome during polarized growth. We find major organelles ordered along the polarization axis, localize 74 proteins to the growth tip, and observe adaptive reuse of general polarization machinery.
PMCID: PMC2651748  PMID: 19053807
Proteomics; polarized growth; subcellular localization; pheromone response; yeast

Results 1-2 (2)