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1.  Brain activation during the Stroop task in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems: A pilot study 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2007;90(2-3):175-182.
Background
Although many neuroimaging studies have examined changes in brain function in adults with substance use disorders, far fewer have examined adolescents. This study investigated patterns of brain activation in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems (SCP) compared to controls.
Methods
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 1.5 Tesla assessed brain activation in 12 adolescent males with SCP, ranging in age from 14 to 18, and 12 controls similar in age, gender, and neighborhood while performing the attentionally-demanding Stroop task.
Results
Even though the adolescents with SCP performed as well as the controls, they activated a more extensive set of brain structures for incongruent (e.g., “red” in blue ink) versus congruent (e.g. “red” in red ink) trials. These regions included parahippocampal regions bilaterally, posterior regions involved in language-related processing, right-sided medial prefrontal areas, and subcortical regions including the the thalamus and caudate.
Conclusion
These preliminary results suggest that the neural mechanisms of attentional control in youth with SCP differ from youth without such problems. This difficulty may prevent SCP youth from ignoring salient but distracting information in the environment, such as drug-related information.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.03.009
PMCID: PMC2828145  PMID: 17499456
2.  Provisional hypotheses for the molecular genetics of cognitive development: Imaging genetic pathways in the anterior cingulate cortex 
Biological psychology  2007;79(1):23-29.
Brain imaging genetic research involves a multitude of methods and spans many traditional levels of analysis. Given the vast permutations among several million common genetic variants with thousands of brain tissue voxels and a wide array of cognitive tasks that activate specific brain systems, we are prompted to develop specific hypotheses that synthesize converging evidence and state clear predictions about the anatomical sources, magnitude and direction (increases vs. decreases) of allele- and task-specific brain activity associations. To begin to develop a framework for shaping our imaging genetic hypotheses, we focus on previous results and the wider imaging genetic literature. Particular emphasis is placed on converging evidence that links system-level and biochemical studies with models of synaptic function. In shaping our own imaging genetic hypotheses on the development of Attention Networks, we review relevant literature on core models of synaptic physiology and development in the anterior cingulate cortex.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.12.006
PMCID: PMC2570040  PMID: 18261834

Results 1-2 (2)