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1.  The Nursing Home Population: Different Perspectives and Implications for Policy 
Health Care Financing Review  1981;3(2):15-23.
Long-term care institutions are used by residential patients who stay for many years and patients with specific ailments who stay for relatively short periods. The presence of short-stay patients is not adequately recorded by cross-sectional surveys which have been used to measure nursing home use. To obtain a better understanding about the mix of long-stay and short-stay patients, we created a hypothetical population of all users of nursing homes in the United States for a 12-month period. Descriptive statistics are presented on this annual population, which we derived empirically from the 1977 National Nursing Home Survey. We found that an estimated 2.4 million individuals used nursing homes at some time during 1976.
PMCID: PMC4191229  PMID: 10309556
2.  Iatrogenic hyponatraemia of the newborn due to maternal fluid overload: a prospective study. 
Over five weeks 136 out of 246 deliveries were studied. Maternal plasma sodium concentrations were normal at admission. At delivery no significant difference was found between maternal and infant cord plasma sodium concentrations. Twenty-four of the 41 mothers who had received only oral fluids during labour had infants whose cord plasma sodium concentrations were normal. Of the 95 mothers who had been given intravenous fluids, however, only 14 infants with normal plasma sodium concentrations, 31 had a concentrations of 130 mmol (mEq)/1 or less and nine of these had a concentration of 125 mmol/1 or less. There was a highly significant inverse relation between cord plasma sodium concentration and rate of fluid administration, suggesting that hyponatraemia was due to intravenous treatment with predominantly sodium-free solutions. Endogenous antidiuretic activity probably increases during labour, and synthetic oxytocin in large doses has been shown to have an antidiuretic effect. The dose used in this study did not appear to have such an effect. Glucose solutions are often used as a vehicle for oxytocin; 83% of all fluid intake in this study was 5% or 10% glucose in water. Fluid balance in labour should be supervised closely, and oxytocin should be given in a more concentrated solution.
PMCID: PMC1506810  PMID: 6790112
3.  Altered spectrin dimer-dimer association and instability of erythrocyte membrane skeletons in hereditary pyropoikilocytosis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1981;68(3):597-605.
Hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP) is a hemolytic anemia characterized by microspherocytosis, poikilocytosis, and an unusual thermal sensitivity of erythrocytes. We have investigated the contribution of abnormal membrane skeletal assembly to these abnormal HPP erythrocyte properties. Skeletons prepared from fresh HPP ghosts with Triton X-100 were considerably more fragile than skeletons from control erythrocytes. Spectrin, the major skeleton component, extracted at 0 degrees C from normal erythrocytes, was present primarily as tetramers and high molecular weight complexes. In contrast, spectrin extracted from HPP erythrocytes under identical conditions contained a significant amount of dimers with a concomitant decrease of tetramers. Furthermore, spectrin dimers from HPP erythrocytes differed from normal spectrin dimers in their failure to reassociate into tetramers both in solution and in the membrane. Presumptive HPP carriers (asymptomatic mothers of the two patients) exhibited a mild but reproducible increase of spectrin dimers in 0 degrees C extracts and a defective reassociation of spectrin dimers of tetramers both in solution and in the membrane. We conclude that in HPP, self-association of spectrin dimers into tetramers is defective, which accounts for the instability of membrane skeletons.
PMCID: PMC370839  PMID: 7276161
4.  Current status of research on the left ventricular assist device in Beijing, China 
Cardiovascular Diseases  1981;8(3):385-393.
Our 3-year experience with the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) research in Beijing, China, is based on experimental studies in both sheep and goats. Although testing is still in the preliminary stages, the LVAD has been implanted in seven animals, and results have been encouraging. Our most recent animal model (a goat) survived 11 days and 23 hours before succumbing to a renal embolism. The efforts described here provide a firm basis for the future of partial and total artificial heart research in our institutions.
PMCID: PMC287961  PMID: 15216196
5.  Novel topologically knotted DNA from bacteriophage P4 capsids: studies with DNA topoisomerases. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1981;9(16):3979-3989.
DNA molecules isolated from bacteriophage P4 are mostly linear with cohesive ends capable of forming circular and concatemeric structures. In contrast, almost all DNA molecules isolated form P4 tailless capsids (heads) are monomeric DNA circles with their cohesive ends hydrogen-bonded. Different form simple DNA circles, such P4 head DNA circles contain topological knots. Gel electrophoretic and electronmicroscopic analyses of P4 head DNA indicate that the topological knots are highly complex and heterogeneous. Resolution of such complex knots has been studied with various DNA topoisomerases. The conversion of highly knotted P4 DNA to its simple circular form is demonstrated by type II DNA topoisomerases which catalyze the topological passing of two crossing double-stranded DNA segments [Liu, L. F., Liu, C. C. & Alberts, B. M. (1980) Cell, 19, 697-707]. The knotted P4 head DNA can be used in a sensitive assay for the detection of a type II DNA topoisomerase even in the presence of excess type I DNA topoisomerases.
PMCID: PMC327409  PMID: 6272191
6.  Rapid procedure for detection and isolation of large and small plasmids. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1981;145(3):1365-1373.
Procedures are described for the detection and isolation of plasmids of various sizes (2.6 to 350 megadaltons) that are harbored in species of Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, Escherichia, Salmonella, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas. The method utilized the molecular characteristics of covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is released from cells under conditions that denature chromosomal DNA by using alkaline sodium dodecyl sulfate (pH 12.6) at elevated temperatures. Proteins and cell debris were removed by extraction with phenol-chloroform. Under these conditions chromosomal DNA concentrations were reduced or eliminated. The clarified extract was used directly for electrophoretic analysis. These procedures also permitted the selective isolation of plasmid DNA that can be used directly in nick translation, restriction endonuclease analysis, transformation, and DNA cloning experiments.
PMCID: PMC217141  PMID: 7009583
7.  Acute Renal Failure Induced by Semi-Synthetic Penicillins 
Canadian Family Physician  1981;27:507-512.
Two cases of acute reversible renal failure caused by semi-synthetic penicillins (cloxicillin and ampicillin) are reported. The natural history is slow and incomplete recovery of renal function. Evidence suggests that corticosteroids shorten the recovery phase and restore renal function to normal. It is recommended that steroids should be used in treatment of this condition except where steroids are contraindicated.
PMCID: PMC2305889  PMID: 21289695
8.  Comparative bioenergetics of sulfate reduction in Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum spp. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1981;145(2):966-973.
Extracts of Desulfotomaculum nigrificans, Desulfotomaculum orientis, and Desulfotomaculum ruminis exhibit low levels of inorganic pyrophosphatase but were found to have high levels of pyrophosphate:acetate phosphotransferase. Conversely, extracts of Desulfovibrio gigas, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Norway 4 were shown to have high levels of inorganic pyrophosphatase but negligible amounts of pyrophosphate:acetate phosphotransferase. Both enzymes are reductant activated and appear to have an analogous function in removing pyrophosphate formed during the activation of sulfate. Conservation of the bond energy of pyrophosphate in Desulfotomaculum eliminates the necessity for invoking electron-transfer-coupled phosphorylation to account for the growth of these bacteria on lactate plus sulfate. Relative growth yields of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfotomaculum orientis on lactate plus sulfate indicate that the latter does not carry out significant electron-transfer-coupled phosphorylation in this mode of growth.
PMCID: PMC217205  PMID: 6109714

Results 1-8 (8)