Induction of myelin-specific CD4 T cells is a pivotal event in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Other checkpoints in EAE pathogenesis have not been clearly defined, although multiple genetic loci are known to influence EAE development. We report here that targeted mutation of the heat-stable antigen (HSA) abrogates development of EAE despite a complete lack of effect on induction of autoimmune T cells. To test whether T-cell expression of HSA is sufficient, we created transgenic mice in which HSA is expressed exclusively in the T-cell lineage. We found that these mice remain resistant to EAE induction. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate that both T cells and non–T cells must express HSA in order for the pathogenic T cells to execute their effector function. Moreover, HSAIg, a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the HSA and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin, drastically ameliorates the clinical sign of EAE even when administrated after self-reactive T cells had been expanded. Thus, identification of HSA as a novel checkpoint, even after activation and expansion of self-reactive T cells, provides a novel approach for immunotherapy of autoimmune neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
Our objective was to observe a new form of turbulence caused bybiological effects – biological micro-turbulence and explore itsprocess and controlling factors. The methods used were proteusmirabilis CGCs micro-cultured to render the occurrence of the specific movement on micro-organic suspension and its controllingfactors were determined by comparison with the control trials.The results showed that turbulence under the microscope was generally in a mass but partially regular. It was also confirmedthat the turbulence under the microscope exhibited hollow effect,temperature-dependent switching on of occurrence and self-controlof suspension quantity. It is clarified that this new form ofturbulence is a spontaneous and self-control process, which providesan experimental model with controllable conditions for studies ofturbulence and a new way for researches on the mechanism andphysiological functions of the flow of body liquid.
Bacterial movement; chaos; cryptic growth cell; proteusmirabilis; turbulence
Sphingolipid signaling pathways have been implicated in many critical cellular events. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP), a sphingolipid metabolite found in high concentrations in platelets and blood, stimulates members of the endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) family of G protein–coupled receptors and triggers diverse effects, including cell growth, survival, migration, and morphogenesis. To determine the in vivo functions of the SPP/Edg signaling pathway, we disrupted the Edg1 gene in mice. Edg1–/– mice exhibited embryonic hemorrhage leading to intrauterine death between E12.5 and E14.5. Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis appeared normal in the mutant embryos. However, vascular maturation was incomplete due to a deficiency of vascular smooth muscle cells/pericytes. We also show that Edg-1 mediates an SPP-induced migration response that is defective in mutant cells due to an inability to activate the small GTPase, Rac. Our data reveal Edg-1 to be the first G protein–coupled receptor required for blood vessel formation and show that sphingolipid signaling is essential during mammalian development.
A variety of serovars of the food-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus normally cause infection. Since 1996, the O3:K6 strains of this pathogen have caused pandemics in many Asian countries, including Taiwan. For a better understanding of these pandemic strains, the recently isolated clinical O3:K6 strains from India, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan were examined in terms of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and other biological characteristics. After PFGE and cluster analysis, all the O3:K6 strains were grouped into two unrelated groups. The recently isolated O3:K6 strains were all in one group, consisting of eight closely related patterns, with I1(81%) and I5(13%) being the most frequent patterns. Pattern I1 was the major one for strains from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. All recently isolated O3:K6 strains carried the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene. No significant difference was observed between recently isolated O3:K6 strains and either non-O3:K6 reference strains or old O3:K6 strains isolated before 1996 with respect to antibiotic susceptibility, the level of thermostable direct hemolysin, and the susceptibility to environmental stresses. Results in this study confirmed that the recently isolated O3:K6 strains of V. parahaemolyticus are genetically close to each other, while the other biological traits examined were usually strain dependent, and no unique trait was found in the recently isolated O3:K6 strains.
Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain binding to D3-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositides (PI) provides a reversible means of recruiting proteins to the plasma membrane, with the resultant change in subcellular localization playing a key role in the activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Previously we found that the T-cell-specific PH domain-containing kinase Itk is constitutively membrane associated in Jurkat T cells. This distribution was unexpected given that the closely related B-cell kinase, Btk, is almost exclusively cytosolic. In addition to constitutive membrane association of Itk, unstimulated JTAg T cells also exhibited constitutive phosphorylation of Akt on Ser-473, an indication of elevated basal levels of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) products PI-3,4-P2 and PI-3,4,5-P3 in the plasma membrane. Here we describe a defect in expression of the D3 phosphoinositide phosphatase, PTEN, in Jurkat and JTAg T cells that leads to unregulated PH domain interactions with the plasma membrane. Inhibition of D3 phosphorylation by PI3K inhibitors, or by expression of PTEN, blocked constitutive phosphorylation of Akt on Ser-473 and caused Itk to redistribute to the cytosol. The PTEN-deficient cells were also hyperresponsive to T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, as measured by Itk kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-γ1, and activation of Erk compared to those in PTEN-replete cells. These data support the idea that PH domain-mediated association with the plasma membrane is required for Itk activation, provide evidence for a negative regulatory role of PTEN in TCR stimulation, and suggest that signaling models based on results from Jurkat T-cell lines may underestimate the role of PI3K in TCR signaling.
The winged-helix (WH) BF-1 gene, which encodes brain factor 1 (BF-1) (also known as foxg1), is essential for the proliferation of the progenitor cells of the cerebral cortex. Here we show that BF-1-deficient telencephalic progenitor cells are more apt to leave the cell cycle in response to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and activin. We found that ectopic expression of BF-1 in vitro inhibits TGF-β mediated growth inhibition and transcriptional activation. Surprisingly, we found that the ability of BF-1 to function as a TGF-β antagonist does not require its DNA binding activity. Therefore, we investigated whether BF-1 can inhibit Smad-dependent transcriptional responses by interacting with Smads or Smad binding partners. We found that BF-1 does not interact with Smads. Because the identities of the Smad partners mediating growth inhibition by TGF-β are not clearly established, we examined a model reporter system which is known to be activated by activin and TGF-β through Smads and the WH factor FAST-2. We demonstrate that BF-1 associates with FAST-2. This interaction is dependent on the same region of protein which mediates its ability to interfere with the antiproliferative activity of TGF-β and with TGF-β-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, the interaction of FAST-2 with BF-1 is mediated by the same domain which is required for FAST-2 to interact with Smad2. We propose a model in which BF-1 interferes with transcriptional responses to TGF-β by interacting with FAST-2 or with other DNA binding proteins which function as Smad2 partners and which have a common mode of interaction with Smad2.
Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) are in clinical trials, but how they selectively inhibit malignant cell growth remains uncertain. One important player in this process appears to be RhoB, an endosomal Rho protein that regulates receptor trafficking. FTI treatment elicits a gain of the geranylgeranylated RhoB isoform (RhoB-GG) that occurs due to modification of RhoB by geranylgeranyltransferase I in drug-treated cells. Notably, this event is sufficient to mediate antineoplastic effects in murine models and human carcinoma cells. To further assess this gain-of-function mechanism and determine whether RhoB-GG has a necessary role in drug action, we examined the FTI response of murine fibroblasts that cannot express RhoB-GG due to homozygous deletion of the rhoB gene. Nullizygous (−/−) cells were susceptible to cotransformation by adenovirus E1A plus activated H-Ras but defective in their FTI response, despite complete inhibition of H-Ras prenylation. Actin cytoskeletal and phenotypic events were disrupted in −/− cells, implicating RhoB-GG in these effects. Interestingly, −/− cells were resistant to FTI-induced growth inhibition under anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent conditions, indicating that, while RhoB-GG is sufficient, it is not necessary for growth inhibition under all conditions. In contrast, −/− cells were resistant to FTI-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Significantly, the apoptotic defect of −/− cells compromised the antitumor efficacy of FTI in xenograft assays. This study offers genetic proof of the hypothesis that RhoB-GG is a crucial mediator of the antineoplastic effects of FTIs.
Adhesion receptors expressed on the surfaces of tumor-activated endothelial cells provide an advantageous locus for targeting gene therapy vectors to angiogenic tissues and/or tumor vasculature. In this study, we engineered a series of Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR)-containing congeners of the presumptive cell binding motif contained within the ninth type III repeat of fibronectin and displayed these tumor vasculature targeting motifs (TVTMs) within the context of Moloney murine leukemia envelope “escort” proteins. Comparative studies of envelope incorporation into viral particles and evaluation of the cell binding properties of the targeted vectors revealed critical structural features, thus identifying a subset of optimal TVTMs. Utilizing a modified ELISA to evaluate viral binding to target cells, we observed a significant down-regulation of TVTM-virion binding to human endothelial cells following sustained (48-h) exposure to VEGF. Normalized for equivalent titers (106 CFU/ml), as assayed on NIH 3T3 cells, vectors displaying TVTM escort proteins significantly enhanced the transduction efficiency from 12.2 to 37.4% in human KSY-1 endothelial cell cultures (P < 0.001) and from 0.4 to 4.1% in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures (P < 0.001). In summary, these studies utilized an engineering approach to identify a subset of TVTMs that are stably incorporated as envelope “escort” proteins into retroviral vectors and that, by functioning to improve the binding efficiency and transduction of both HUVEC and KSY1 endothelial cells, may have therapeutic potential for targeting gene delivery to the tumor-associated vasculature.
A series of polypyridyl complexes have been synthesized. All polypyridyl complexes and some of the soluble ligands have been assayed for antitumor activity in vitro against the HL-60 (the human leucocytoma) cells, BEL-7402 (the human liver carcinoma) cells, KB (the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells and HELA (the human adenocarcinoma of cervix) cells. The results indicate that several complexes have relative activity against different cell lines. Especially, the complexes [Co(bpy)2(pip)]3+, [Co(phen)2(pip)]3+, [Ru(bpy)2(pztp)]2+ and [Ru(pztp)2(bpy)]2+ show relative high activity against four tumor cell lines. Moreover, they are slightly more effective than cisplatin. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, the complexes show inhibitory rate of 72∼86% for the cancer cells and have no toxicity for MDCK and Vero cells. It is indicated that these complexes can inhibit cancer cells selectively.
Levels of the neurotrophic cytokine S100β and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) are both elevated in Alzheimer’s brain, and both have been implicated in β-amyloid plaque formation and progression. We used RT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay to assess S100β induction of IL-6 expression and the role of κB-dependent transcription in this induction in neuron-enriched cultures and in neuron–glia mixed cultures from fetal rat cortex. S100β (10 or 100 ng/ml × 24 h) increased IL-6 mRNA levels two- and fivefold, respectively (p < 0.05 in each case), and S100β (100–1,000 ng/ml) induced increases in medium levels of biologically active IL-6 (30–80%). Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry preparations localized IL-6 mRNA to neurons in these cultures. S100β induction of IL-6 expression correlated with an increase in DNA binding activity specific for a κB element and was inhibited (75%) by suppression of κB binding with double-stranded “decoy” oligonucleotides. The low levels of S100β required to induce IL-6 overexpression in neurons, shown here, suggest that overexpression of S100β induces neuronal expression of IL-6 and of IL-6-induced neurodegenerative cascades in Alzheimer’s disease.
S100β; Interleukin-6; Nuclear factor κB; Neuronal culture; Alzheimer’s disease
The Holliday junction is a central intermediate in genetic recombination. It contains four strands of DNA that are paired into four double helical arms flanking a branch point. In naturally-occurring Holliday junctions, the sequence flanking the branch point contains twofold (homologous) symmetry. As a consequence of this symmetry, the junction can undergo a conformational isomerization known as branch migration, which relocates the site of branching. In the absence of proteins and in the presence of Mg2+, the four arms are known to stack in pairs, forming two helical domains whose orientations are antiparallel. Nevertheless, the mechanistic models proposed for branch migration are all predicated on a parallel alignment of helical domains. Here, we have used antiparallel DNA double crossover molecules to demonstrate that branch migration can occur in antiparallel Holliday junctions. We have constructed a DNA double crossover molecule with three crossover points. Two adjacent branch points in this molecule are flanked by symmetric sequences. The symmetric crossover points are held immobile by the third crossover point, which is flanked by asymmetric sequences. Restriction of the helices that connect the immobile junction to the symmetric junctions releases this constraint. The restricted molecule undergoes branch migration, even though it is constrained to an antiparallel conformation.
Branch migration; DNA double crossover molecules; Branched junction conformational isomerizations; Hydroxyl radical autofootprinting; DNA topology
Lumican regulates collagenous matrix assembly as a keratan sulfate proteoglycan in the cornea and is also present in the connective tissues of other organs and embryonic corneal stroma as a glycoprotein. In normal unwounded cornea, lumican is expressed by stromal keratocytes. Our data show that injured mouse corneal epithelium ectopically and transiently expresses lumican during the early phase of wound healing, suggesting a potential lumican functionality unrelated to regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis, e.g. modulation of epithelial cell adhesion or migration. An anti-lumican antibody was found to retard corneal epithelial wound healing in cultured mouse eyes. Healing of a corneal epithelial injury in Lum−/− mice was significantly delayed compared with Lum+/− mice. These observations indicate that lumican expressed in injured epithelium may modulate cell behavior such as adhesion or migration, thus contributing to corneal epithelial wound healing.
Previous studies have shown that the S5′ β-strand (r93–r97) of the regulatory polypeptides of the aspartate transcarbamoylases (ATCases) from Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli are responsible for their diverged allosteric regulatory patterns, including conversion of CTP from an inhibitor in E. coli to an activator in S. marcescens. Similarly, mutation of residues located in the interface between the allosteric and the zinc domains resulted in conversion of the ATP responses of the E. coli enzyme from activation to inhibition, suggesting that this interface not only mediates but also discriminates the allosteric responses of ATP and CTP. To further decipher the roles and the interrelationships of these regions in allosteric communication, allosteric-zinc interface mutations (Y77F and V106A) have been introduced into both the native and the S5′ β-strand chimeric backgrounds. While the significance of this interface in the allosteric regulation has been confirmed, there is no direct evidence supporting the presence of distinct pathways for the ATP and CTP signals through this interface. The analysis of the mutational effects reported here suggested that the S5′ β-strand transmits the allosteric signal by modulating the hydrophobic allosteric–zinc interface rather than disturbing the allosteric ligand binding. Intragenic suppression by substitutions in the hydrophobic interface between the allosteric and the zinc domains of the regulatory chains resulted in the partial recovery of allosteric responses in the EC:rS5’sm chimera and reduced the activation by ATP in the Sm:rS5’ec chimera. Thus, it seems that there is a synergy between these two Structural Units.
ATCase; allosterism; S5′ β-strand; allosteric-zinc interface; mutational effect; signal transmission; ligand binding
We have attributed organ engraftment to clonal exhaustion-deletion of host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host reactions that are reciprocally induced and governed by migratory donor and recipient leukocytes. The so-called donor passenger leukocytes that migrate from the allograft into the recipients have been thoroughly studied (chimerism), but not the donor leukocytes that remain in, or return to, the transplanted organ. Therefore, using flow cytometry we determined the percentage and lineages of donor leukocytes in cell suspensions prepared from Lewis (LEW) cardiac allografts to 100 days posttransplantation. The LEW hearts were transplanted to naïve untreated Brown Norway (BN) recipients (group 2), to naïve BN recipients treated with a 28-day or continuous course of tacrolimus (TAC) (groups 3 and 4), and to drug-free BN recipients pretolerized by earlier bone marrow cell (BMC) or orthotopic LEW liver transplantation (groups 5 and 6). The findings in the heart cell suspensions were correlated with the results from parallel histopathologic-immunocytochemical studies and other studies of the grafts and of host tissues. Although the LEW heart allografts were rejected in 9.6 days by the unmodified recipients of group 2, all beat for 100 days in the recipients of groups 3 through 6. Nevertheless, all of the long-surviving cardiac allografts (but not the isografts in group 1) were the targets of an immune reaction at 5 days, reflected by dramatic increases in the ratio of leukocytes to nonleukocyte nucleated cells from normal values of 1:5–1:6 to 1:1–5:1 and by manifold other evidence of a major inflammatory event. The acute changes returned to baseline by 100 days in the chronic rejection (CR) free hearts of groups 4 and 6, but not in the CR-afflicted hearts of short-course TAC group 3 or the less-severely damaged hearts of the BMC-prime group 5. The freedom from CR in groups 4 and 6 was associated with a large donor contribution to the intracardiac leukocyte population at 5 days (28.6% and 22% in the respective groups) and at 100 days (30.5% in group 4 and 8.4% in group 6) compared with 2% and 1.2% at 100 days in the CR-blighted allografts of the partially tolerant animals of groups 3 and 5. Whether large or small, the donor leukocyte fraction always included a subset of class II leukocytes that had histopathologic features of dendritic cells. These class II+ cells were of mixed myeloid (CD11-b/c+) and lymphoid lineages; their migration was markedly inhibited by TAC and accelerated by donor-specific priming and TAC discontinuance. Although a large donor leukocyte population and a normal leukocyte/nonleukocyte cell ratio were associated with freedom from CR, these findings and the lineage profile of the intracardiac leukocytes were not associated with tolerance in the animals of groups 3 and 4 under active TAC treatment. The findings in this study, singly and in their entirety, are compatible with our previously proposed leukocyte migration-localization paradigm of organ allograft acceptance and tolerance.
Knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to point mutations in the para sodium channel gene in more than a half dozen insect pest species. In this study, we identified two novel para mutations in five highly resistant kdr-type German cockroach strains. The two mutations, from glutamic acid (E434) to lysine (K434) and from cysteine (C764) to arginine (R764), respectively, are located in the first intracellular linker connecting domains I and II. E434K is located near the beginning of the linker (closest to domain I), whereas C764R is found toward the end of the linker (closest to domain II). Two additional mutations from aspartic acid (D58) to glycine (G58), and from proline (P1880) to leucine (L1888), respectively, were found in one of the resistant strains. The four mutations coexist with the previously identified leucine to phenylalanine (L993F) kdr mutation in IIS6, and are present only in the highly resistant individuals of a given strain. These findings suggest that these mutations might be responsible for high levels of knockdown resistance toward pyrethroid insecticides in the German cockroach.
Ion channel; Insecticide resistance
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) strains differ in the number and locations of a transposon-like insertion sequence known as IS6110. Accurate detection of this sequence can be used as a fingerprint for individual strains, but can be difficult because of noisy data. In this paper, we propose a non-parametric discriminant analysis method for predicting the locations of the IS6110 sequence from microarray data.
Polymerase chain reaction extension products generated from primers specific for the insertion sequence are hybridized to a microarray containing targets corresponding to each open reading frame in M. tb. To test for insertion sites, we use microarray intensity values extracted from small windows of contiguous open reading frames. Rank-transformation of spot intensities and first-order differences in local windows provide enough information to reliably determine the presence of an insertion sequence. The non-parametric approach outperforms all other methods tested in this study.
Our aims were to examine whether oxidative DNA damage was elevated in brain cells of male C57BL/6 mice after oxidative stress, and to determine whether neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was involved in such damage. Oxidative stress was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 90 min, followed by reperfusion. Escherichia coli exonuclease III (Exo III) removes apyrimidinic or apurinic (AP) sites and 3′-phosphate termini in single-strand breaks, and converts these lesions to 3′OH termini. These ExoIII-sensitive sites (EXOSS) can then be postlabeled using digoxigenin-11-dUTP and Klenow DNA polymerase-I, and detected using fluorescein isothiocyanate-IgG against digoxigenin. Compared with the non-ischemia controls, the density of EXOSS-positive cells was elevated at least 20-fold (P < 0.01) at 15 min of reperfusion, and remained elevated for another 30 min. EXOSS mainly occurred in the cell nuclei of the astrocytes and neurons. Signs of cell death were detected at 24 h of reperfusion and occurred mostly in the neurons. Both DNA damage and cell death in the cerebral cortical neurons were abolished by treatment with 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), which specifically inhibited nNOS. Our results suggest that nNOS, its activator (calcium), and peroxynitrite exacerbate oxidative DNA damage after brain ischemia.
aging; apoptosis; oxidative DNA damage; DNA repair; stroke
Precise calculations are made of the scattering intensity I(q) from an oriented stack of lipid bilayers using a realistic model of fluctuations. The quantities of interest include the bilayer bending modulus Kc , the interbilayer interaction modulus B, and bilayer structure through the form factor F(qz). It is shown how Kc and B may be obtained from data at large qz where fluctuations dominate. Good estimates of F(qz) can be made over wide ranges of qz by using I(q) in q regions away from the peaks and for qr≠0 where details of the scattering domains play little role. Rough estimates of domain sizes can also be made from smaller qz data. Results are presented for data taken on fully hydrated, oriented DOPC bilayers in the Lα phase. These results illustrate the advantages of oriented samples compared to powder samples.
87.16.—b; 87.64.Bx; 61.30.—v; 61.10.Dp
The repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine glycosylase/apyrimidinic/apurinic lyase (OGG) removes 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine (oh8dG) in human cells. Our goal was to examine oh8dG-removing activity in the cell nuclei of male C57BL/6 mouse brains treated with either forebrain ischemia—reperfusion (FbIR) or sham operations. We found that the OGG activity in nuclear extracts, under the condition in which other nucleases did not destroy the oligodeoxynucleotide duplex, excised oh8dG with the greatest efficiency on the oligodeoxynucleotide duplex containing oh8dG/dC and with less efficiency on the heteroduplex containing oh8dG/dT, oh8dG/dG, or oh8dG/dA. This specificity was the same as for the recombinant type 1 OGG (OGG1) of humans. We observed that the OGG1 peptide and its activity in the mouse brain were significantly increased after 90 min of ischemia and 20–30 min of reperfusion. The increase in the protein level and in the activity of brain OGG1 correlated positively with the elevation of FbIR-induced DNA lesions in an indicator gene (the c-fos gene) of the brain. The data suggest a possibility that the OGG1 protein may excise oh8dG in the mouse brain and that the activity of OGG1 may have a functional role in reducing oxidative gene damage in the brain after FbIR.
Base excision repair; Oxidative DNA damage; Mouse nuclear type I 8-oxoguanine glycosylase/apyrimidinic/apurinic lyase; Stroke
Experimental stroke using a focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (FCIR) model was induced in male Long-Evans rats by a bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries and the right middle cerebral artery for 30–90 min, followed by various periods of reperfusion. Oxidative DNA lesions in the ipsilateral cortex were demonstrated using Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine DNA N-glycosylase (Fpg protein)-sensitive sites (FPGSS), as labeled in situ using digoxigenin-dUTP and detected using antibodies against digoxigenin. Because Fpg protein removes 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine (oh8dG) and other lesions in DNA, FPGSS measure oxidative DNA damage. The number of FPGSS-positive cells in the cortex from the sham-operated control group was 3 ± 3 (mean ± SD per mm2). In animals that received 90 min occlusion and 15 min of reperfusion (FCIR 90/15), FPGSS-positive cells were significantly increased by 200-fold. Oxidative DNA damage was confirmed by using monoclonal antibodies against 8-hydroxy-guanosine (oh8G) and oh8dG. A pretreatment of RNase A (100 μg/ml) to the tissue reduced, but did not abolish, the oh8dG signal. The number of animals with positive FPGSS or oh8dG was significantly (P<0.01) higher in the FCIR group than in the sham-operated control group. We detected few FPGSS of oh8dG-positive cells in the animals treated with FCIR of 90/60. No terminal UTP nicked-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, as a detection of cell death, were detected at this early reperfusion time. Our data suggest that early oxidative DNA lesions elicited by experimental stroke could be repaired. Therefore, the oxidative DNA lesions observed in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of the brain are different from the DNA fragmentation detected using TUNEL.
hydroxyl radicals; oxidative DNA damage; neurotoxicity; reactive oxygen species; stroke
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is composed of two different subunits, p40 and p35. Expression of p40 mRNA but not that of p35 mRNA in excessive amount in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suggests that IL-12 p40 may have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. However, the mode of action of p40 is completely unknown. Because nitric oxide produced from the induction of nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) also plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of MS, the present study was undertaken to explore the role of p40 in the induction of NO production and the expression of iNOS in microglia. Both IL-12 and p402, the p40 homodimer, dose-dependently induced the production of NO in BV-2 microglial cells. This induction of NO production was accompanied by an induction of iNOS protein and mRNA. Induction of NO production by the expression of mouse p40 cDNA but not that of the mouse p35 cDNA suggests that the p40 but not the p35 subunit of IL-12 is involved in the expression of iNOS. In addition to BV-2 glial cells, p402 also induced the production of NO in mouse primary microglia and peritoneal macrophages. However, both IL-12 and p402 were unable to induce the production of NO in mouse primary astrocytes. Because activation of NF-κB is important for the expression of iNOS, we investigated the effect of p402 on the activation of NF-κB. Induction of the DNA binding as well as the transcriptional activity of NF-κB by p402 and inhibition of p402-induced expression of iNOS by SN50, a cell-permeable peptide carrying the nuclear localization sequence of p50 NF-κB, but not by SN50M, a nonfunctional peptide mutant, suggests that p402 induces the expression of iNOS through the activation of NF-κB. This study delineates a novel role of IL-12 p40 in inducing the expression of iNOS in microglial cells, which may participate in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases.
AIMS—To investigate the clinical characteristics and compare the effects of several methods of treatment of Mooren's corneal ulcer.
METHODS—550 consecutive cases of Mooren's corneal ulcer were analysed in patients, including age, sex, laterality of eye, ulcer location, perforative rate, cure rate of surgeries, recurrent rate, the effects of conjunctiva excision, lamellar keratoplasty (LKP), and LKP plus 1% cyclosporin A eye drops.
RESULTS—The average age of onset was 48.4 years of age. The ratio of males to females was 1:0.74. 165 (30%) cases had the disease bilaterally, of which 52 (31.5%) occurred in the young age group and 113 (68.5%) in the old age group. Ulcers of 501 eyes (70.1%) were located at the limbus of the palpebral fissure. The perforation rate was 13.3%, with perforation of 41 eyes (43.2%) occurring in the young age group and 54 (56.8%) in the old age group. Postoperative recurrence rate was 25.6%. The cure rate of the first procedure of LKP plus 1% cyclosporin A eye drops was 73.7%. The final cure rate was 95.6%, and the postoperative preservation rate of the eye globe was 99.7%.
CONCLUSION—This primary study provided the clinical characteristics of patients with Mooren's corneal ulcer in China. LKP plus 1% cyclosporin A eye drops was an effective treatment.
OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between ventricular dysfunction and late clinical arrhythmia in adults who underwent the Mustard procedure for transposition of the great arteries.
DESIGN—Observational study based on periodic outpatient assessment of biventricular function.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre.
INTERVENTIONS—Analysis of data from 12 lead ECGs, echocardiography, exercise radionuclide ventriculography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Clinical outcome and late onset clinical arrhythmia during follow up. ECG and ventricular function indices obtained before arrhythmia onset were used for analysis.
RESULTS—51 patients (mean (SD) age 25.7 (5.0) years) fulfilled entry criteria at a mean of 23.4 (4.0) years after the Mustard procedure. Late arrhythmia occurred in 11 (22%): sustained atrial flutter/fibrillation in 10, ventricular tachycardia in one. Compared with patients who remained arrhythmia free, patients with arrhythmia had longer QRS (129 (26) v 112 (16) ms, p = 0.01), greater QT dispersion (107 (28) v 51 (24) ms, p < 0.001), and increased ratio of right to left ventricular end diastolic diameter (2.4 (0.9) v 1.7 (0.7), p = 0.02), but no difference in wall thickness. Systemic ejection fraction was also reduced in the arrhythmia subgroup (at rest: 34.1 (13)% v 47 (16)%, p = 0.04; during exercise: 37.8 (12)% v 52 (17)%, p = 0.03). QRS duration correlated with right ventricular end diastolic diameter (r = 0.59, p < 0.001), suggesting a possible mechano-electric relation after the Mustard procedure. QT dispersion was the only predictor of clinical arrhythmia in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS—Impaired ventricular function in adults with the Mustard procedure for transposition of the great arteries relates to clinical arrhythmia. Late atrial flutter/fibrillation may be a surrogate marker for ventricular dysfunction, and these patients may also be at risk of ventricular tachycardia.
Keywords: congenital heart disease; transposition of great vessels; arrhythmia; radionuclide ventriculography
AIM—This study was designed to test the ability of a portable computer driven, head mounted visual field testing system to perform automated perimetry on patients at their bedside and to compare these results with the "gold standard" for bedside examinations, confrontation visual fields.
METHODS—The Kasha visual field system is a portable automated perimeter which utilises a virtual reality headset. 37 neurosurgery patients were examined at their bedside with a central 24 degree suprathreshold testing strategy after confrontation visual field testing. The patterns of visual field defects were categorised and compared with the results of confrontation testing.
RESULTS—A total of 42 field examinations were completed on 37 patients, and the average testing time for both eyes was 4.8 minutes with the perimetry system. Each of the 11 fields (100%) classified with defects on confrontation testing was similarly categorised on head mounted perimetry. 26 out of 31 (84%) visual fields were normal on both confrontation and perimetry testing, while five out of the 31 fields (16%) which were full on confrontation had visual field defects identified by head mounted perimetry.
CONCLUSION—The head mounted, automated perimetry system proved easily portable and convenient for examining neurosurgical patients at their bedside in the perioperative period. The device demonstrated equal sensitivity to confrontation visual field testing methods in detecting field defects and offers the advantage of standardised, quantifiable testing with graphic results for follow up examinations.