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1.  Identification of Norovirus as the Top Enteric Viruses Detected in Adult Cases with Acute Gastroenteritis 
To elucidate the importance of the norovirus and other enteric viruses, and the difference of the genetic relatedness on norovirus between the outbreak and sporadic cases, a total of 557 stool samples, consisting of 503 sporadic cases and 54 samples of 4 outbreaks were collected and tested for norovirus and other enteric viruses in Beijing, China, July 2007–June 2008. The data showed norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus, were detected in 26.6%, 6.1%, 1.8%, and 0.5%, respectively. Norovirus was detected almost throughout the surveillance period, norovirus co-infecting with rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus, respectively, were identified both in outbreak and the sporadic cases. GII.4/2006 was identified as the predominant strain circulating both in outbreak and sporadic cases. The results showed that norovirus was rather the important agent than other enteric viruses affected adults with acute gastroenteritis; no significant genetic relatedness of the dominant strains was found between the outbreak and sporadic cases.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0491
PMCID: PMC2844560  PMID: 20348525
2.  Therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(6):R210.
Introduction
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a T-cell-mediated systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by synovium inflammation and articular destruction. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be effective in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. However, there has been thus far no report on umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs in the treatment of RA. Here, potential immunosuppressive effects of human UC-MSCs in RA were evaluated.
Methods
The effects of UC-MSCs on the responses of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and T cells in RA patients were explored. The possible molecular mechanism mediating this immunosuppressive effect of UC-MSCs was explored by addition of inhibitors to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). The therapeutic effects of systemic infusion of human UC-MSCs on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in a mouse model were explored.
Results
In vitro, UC-MSCs were capable of inhibiting proliferation of FLSs from RA patients, via IL-10, IDO and TGF-β1. Furthermore, the invasive behavior and IL-6 secretion of FLSs were also significantly suppressed. On the other hand, UC-MSCs induced hyporesponsiveness of T cells mediated by PGE2, TGF-β1 and NO and UC-MSCs could promote the expansion of CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells from RA patients. More importantly, systemic infusion of human UC-MSCs reduced the severity of CIA in a mouse model. Consistently, there were reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokine (IL-10) in sera of UC-MSCs treated mice. Moreover, such treatment shifted Th1/Th2 type responses and induced Tregs in CIA.
Conclusions
In conclusion, human UC-MSCs suppressed the various inflammatory effects of FLSs and T cells of RA in vitro, and attenuated the development of CIA in vivo, strongly suggesting that UC-MSCs might be a therapeutic strategy in RA. In addition, the immunosuppressive activitiy of UC-MSCs could be prolonged by the participation of Tregs.
doi:10.1186/ar3187
PMCID: PMC3046518  PMID: 21080925
3.  Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies 
Genome Biology  2010;11(1):R8.
Twelve cDNA libraries from two species of catfish have been sequenced, resulting in the generation of nearly 500,000 ESTs.
Background
Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification.
Results
A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35% of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis.
Conclusions
This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.
doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-1-r8
PMCID: PMC2847720  PMID: 20096101
4.  Use of a sensitive and robust UPLC-MS/MS method to determine the gender-dependent pharmacokinetics in rats of emodin and its glucuronide 
The purpose of this research was to set up a sensitive and consistent UPLC-UV and UPLCMS/MS method to analyze emodin and its glucuronidated metabolite, and to determine how gender differences affect its pharmacokinetic behaviors. In addition, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor dipyridamole was used to test how significant the absolute oral biovailabilty of emodin or its glucuronide is increased. A sensitive and fast UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine emodin and its metabolite in male and female SD rat plasma. The absolute oral bioavailability of emodin was extremely low whether in male rats (7.5%) and female rats (5%). Following a single intravenous injection of 4 mg/kg emodin, the emodin plasma concentration-time data fit for a good two-compartment model either in male or female SD rats. The t1/2α were 13.26±6.28min (male rats) and 13.52±7.28min (female rats). The t1/2β were 187.38±0.16min (male rats) and 118.50±83.09min (female rats). Emodin showed significant gender differences in i.v. PK profiles with higher AUC values in male (422.71 ± 163.40 mg*μg/ml) than female (282.52 ± 98.42 mg*μg/ml) SD rats (n=6). Emodin glucuronide was suggested a good fit for single compartmental model for the plasma emodin metabolite concentrations. The t1/2Ke were 167.40±50.91min(male rats) and 251.31±114.20min (female rats), the area under the curve (AUC0-∞, i.v.) were 2210.02 ± 950.09 mg*μg/ml and 1054.42 ± 290.31 mg*μg/ml (female rats)(n=6). There was no good fit for any PK compartmental model for the plasma concentration-time data for single dose oral administration of emodin (8mg/kg) and its metabolite. Analyzing the oral PK data using non-compartmental model, Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-∞, p.o. of emodin in male rats were: 0.31±0.094 were μg/ml, 18.00±6.71min and 65.76±34.77 mg*μg/ml respectively; whereas Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-∞, p.o. of emodin in female rats were: 0.039±0.011 μg/ml, 18.75±7.51min and 33.82±4.09 mg*μg/ml respectively. The parameters of emodin glucuronide were significant different with emodin, the Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-∞, p.o of emodin glucuronide in male rats were 6.69±1.06 μg/ml, 240min and 2261.89±655.87 mg*μg/ml respectively, in female rats, the Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-∞, p.o. were 1.81±0.58 μg/ml, 60min and 458.50±373.29 mg*μg/ml respectively. The absolute bioavailability of emodin glucuronide was 60% (male rats) and 15% (female rats). The absolute bioavailability of emodin was no significant changed (7.3%) in male rats by using dipyridamole, the bioavailability of metabolite of emodin was significant declined to 14.6%.
doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.12.004
PMCID: PMC4010304  PMID: 21195574
emodin; absolute oral bioavailability; pharmacokinetics; UPLC-MS/MS; emodin
5.  Optical Imaging of Integrin αv β3 Expression with Near-Infrared Fluorescent RGD Dimer with Tetra(ethylene glycol) Linkers 
Molecular imaging  2010;9(1):21-29.
Integrin αv β3 plays great roles in tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We report here the noninvasive visualization of tumor integrin αv β3 expression by using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging of an IRDye800-labeled new cyclic RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) dimer with tetra(ethylene glycol) (PEG4) linkers (ie, E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2, PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) in a U87MG tumor model. Fluorescent dye–labeled E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 were subjected to in vitro cell staining, in vivo NIRF imaging, ex vivo NIRF imaging, and histologic studies. The in vitro and in vivo characterization of dye-labeled E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 were compared with dye-labeled RGD dimer without PEG4 linkers (namely, E[c(RGDfK)]2). Both Cy5.5-E[PEG4 -c(RGDfK)]2 and Cy5.5-E[c(RGDfK)]2 exhibited integrin αv β3 binding specificity in a cell-staining experiment. In vivo NIRF imaging showed higher tumor accumulation and tumor to background contrast of IRDye800-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 over IRDye800-E[c(RGDfK)]2. The tumor integrin αv β3 specificity of IRDye800-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 was confirmed by successful inhibition of tumor uptake in the presence of an excess dose of c(RGDfK). Histologic examination revealed both tumor vasculature and tumor cell integrin αv β3 binding of IRDye800-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 in vivo. In summary, NIRF imaging with IRDye800-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 offers an easy, fast, and low-cost way to detect and semiquantify tumor integrin αv β3 expression in living subjects.
PMCID: PMC3629979  PMID: 20128995
6.  Normobaric hyperoxia delays and attenuates early nitric oxide production in focal cerebral ischemic rats 
Brain research  2010;1352:248-254.
Overproduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-derived NO is detrimental during cerebral ischemia. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) has been shown to be neuroprotective, extending the therapeutic time window for ischemic stroke, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, using a rat model of ischemic stroke, we investigated the effect of early NBO treatment on neuronal NO production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given normoxia (30% O2) or NBO (95% O2) during 10, 30, 60 or 90 minutes filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. NOx− (nitrite plus nitrate) and 3-nitrotyrosine were measured in the ischemic cortex. Ischemia caused a rapid increase in the production of NOx−, with a peak at 10 minutes after ischemia onset, then gradually declining to the baseline level at 60 minutes. NBO treatment delayed the NOx− production peak to 30 minutes and attenuated the total amount of NOx−. Ischemia also increased 3-nitrotyrosine formation, which was significantly reduced by NBO treatment. Inhibition of nNOS by pre-treatment with 7-nitroindazole had similar effect as NBO treatment on NOx− and 3-nitrotyrosine production, and when combined with NBO, no further reduction in NO production was observed. Furthermore, NBO treatment significantly decreased brain infarct volume. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that delaying and attenuating the early NO release from nNOS may be an important mechanism accounting for NBO’s neuroprotection.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.07.010
PMCID: PMC2930605  PMID: 20633543
cerebral ischemia; nitric oxide; normobaric hyperoxia
7.  Prediabetes Is not All About Obesity: Association between Plasma Leptin and Prediabetes in Lean Rural Chinese Adults 
Objective
This study investigated the associations of plasma leptin levels with insulin resistance (IR) and prediabetes in relatively lean, rural Chinese men and women.
Design and methods
This study included 574 subjects aged 21–45 years from a community-based twin cohort. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by sandwich immunoassays using flowemetric xMAP technology. Prediabetes was defined based on fasting plasma glucose and 75g oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate gender-specific associations of leptin with IR measures and prediabetes, adjusting for intra-twin correlation, measures of adiposity, and other pertinent covariates.
Results
The body mass index(BMI) is 22.3±2.7 kg/m2 in men and 22.5±2.7 kg/m2 in women. Leptin levels were positively associated with IR. Individuals with higher tertiles of leptin also had increased risk of prediabetes with OR of 2.6 (95%CI: 1.4–5.1) and 4.3 (95%CI: 2.1–8.7) in men; OR of 1.1 (95%CI: 0.6–2.1) and 3.1 (95%CI 1.5–6.2) in women for 2nd and 3rd tertile, respectively. These associations were attenuated after further adjusting for adiposity measurements only in men. The Leptin-prediabetes associations disappeared after adjusting for the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in both genders.
Conclusion
In this sample of relatively lean rural Chinese adults, plasma leptin levels were associated with IR and prediabetes in a dose-response fashion, which were not totally explained by adiposity. Our data underscored that prediabetes is not all about obesity, and leptin may be an additional biomarker for screening individuals at high risk for prediabetes in this population.
doi:10.1530/EJE-10-0145
PMCID: PMC3163476  PMID: 20511357
Leptin; insulin resistance; prediabetes; Chinese
8.  Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis 
Background
Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.
Objectives
To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis.
Search methods
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied.
Selection criteria
Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included.
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials.
Results
Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects.
Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported.
Authors' conclusions
Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003711.pub3
PMCID: PMC3155696  PMID: 20614436
9.  Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identified the Importance of Regulation-of-Autophagy Pathway for Ultradistal Radius BMD 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research  2010;25(7):1572-1580.
Wrist fracture is not only one of the most common osteoporotic fractures but also a predictor of future fractures at other sites. Wrist bone mineral density (BMD) is an important determinant of wrist fracture risk, with high heritability. Specific genes underlying wrist BMD variation are largely unknown. Most published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have focused only on a few top-ranking single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/genes and considered each of the identified SNPs/genes independently. To identify biologic pathways important to wrist BMD variation, we used a novel pathway-based analysis approach in our GWAS of wrist ultradistal radius (UD) BMD, examining approximately 500,000 SNPs genome-wide from 984 unrelated whites. A total of 963 biologic pathways/gene sets were analyzed. We identified the regulation-of-autophagy (ROA) pathway that achieved the most significant result (p = .005, qfdr = 0.043, pfwer = 0.016) for association with UD BMD. The ROA pathway also showed significant association with arm BMD in the Framingham Heart Study sample containing 2187 subjects, which further confirmed our findings in the discovery cohort. Earlier studies indicated that during endochondral ossification, autophagy occurs prior to apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes, and it also has been shown that some genes in the ROA pathway (e.g., INFG) may play important roles in osteoblastogenesis or osteoclastogenesis. Our study supports the potential role of the ROA pathway in human wrist BMD variation and osteoporosis. Further functional evaluation of this pathway to determine the mechanism by which it regulates wrist BMD should be pursued to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of wrist osteoporosis. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.36
PMCID: PMC3153999  PMID: 20200951
osteoporosis; bone mineral density; genome-wide association; regulation of autophagy; whites
10.  Targeting Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase Overcome Tumor Evasion of Immunotherapy by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes 
Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an enzyme essential for the generation of antibody diversity in B cells and is considered to be a general gene mutator. In addition, AID expression was also implicated in the pathogenesis of human B cell malignancies and associated with poor prognosis. Here we report that siRNA silencing of AID in plasmacytoma dramatically increased its susceptibility to immunotherapy by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. AID silencing did not decrease the mutation frequencies of tumor antigen gene P1A. Gene-array analysis showed dramatically altered expression of a number of genes in AID-silenced plasmacytoma cells and upregulation of CD200 was shown to be in favor of tumor eradication by CTL. Taken together, we demonstrate a novel function of AID in tumor evasion of CTL therapy and that targeting AID should be beneficial in the immunotherapy of AID positive tumors.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0903322
PMCID: PMC2874093  PMID: 20404277
Activation induced cytidine deaminase; Plasmacytoma; Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes; Immune evasion
11.  Spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Different Provinces of China▿ †  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(11):4102-4106.
A total of 2,346 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 13 provinces in China were genotyped by spoligotyping. Two hundred seventy-eight spoligotypes were identified: 2,153 isolates were grouped into 85 clusters, and the remaining 193 isolates were orphans. Comparison with the SpolDB4.0 database revealed that 118 spoligotypes had shared international type numbers in the database and the other 160 were novel. These 160 novel spoligotypes were assigned to families and subfamilies using the SpotClust program. The most prevalent family was the Beijing family (74.08%), followed by the T family (14.11%). CAS family strains were found only in the Xinjiang and Tibet regions, while EAI family strains were found only in Fujian Province. In conclusion, the present study of the M. tuberculosis population in China demonstrated that Beijing family isolates are the most prevalent strains in China and that they exhibit geographical variation. Furthermore, many new spoligotypes were found in this study.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00549-10
PMCID: PMC3020837  PMID: 20739484
12.  Effect of 2, 5-Substituents on the Stability of Cyclic Nitrone Superoxide Spin Adducts: A Density Functional Theory Approach 
Free radical research  2010;44(7):751-778.
To design efficient spin traps for superoxide radicals, interest in the elucidation of substituent effects on the stability of superoxide spin adducts has become a necessary priority. In the present study, five cyclic nitrone superoxide spin adducts, i.e. DMPO-OOH, M3PO-OOH, EMPO-OOH, DEPMPO-OOH, and DEPDMPO-OOH, were chosen as model compounds to investigate the effect of 2,5-subsitituents on their stability, through structural analysis and decay thermodynamics using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Analysis of the optimized geometries reveals that none of the previously proposed stabilizing factors, including intramolecular H-bonds, intramolecular nonbonding interactions, bulky steric protection, nor the C(2)–N(1) bond distance can be used to clearly explain the effect of 2,5-substituents on the stability of the spin adducts. Additionally the effect of the 2,5-substituents on the stability of the superoxide spin adducts cannot be simply clarified by Milliken charges on both atoms (nitroxyl nitrogen and nitroxyl oxygen). Subsequent study found that spin densities on the nitroxyl nitrogen and oxygen are well correlated with the half-life times of the spin adducts, and consequently are the proper parameters to characterize the effect of 2,5-substituents on their stability. Examination of the decomposition thermodynamics further supports the effect of the substituents on the persistence of cyclic nitrone superoxide spin adducts.
doi:10.3109/10715761003758130
PMCID: PMC3074479  PMID: 20370568
13.  Molecular Cloning of the Genes Encoding the PR55/Bβ/δ Regulatory Subunits for PP-2A and Analysis of Their Functions in Regulating Development of Goldfish, Carassius auratus 
The protein phosphatase-2A (PP-2A), one of the major phosphatases in eukaryotes, is a heterotrimer, consisting of a scaffold A subunit, a catalytic C subunit and a regulatory B subunit. Previous studies have shown that besides regulating specific PP-2A activity, various B subunits encoded by more than 16 different genes, may have other functions. To explore the possible roles of the regulatory subunits of PP-2A in vertebrate development, we have cloned the PR55/B family regulatory subunits: β and δ, analyzed their tissue specific and developmental expression patterns in Goldfish ( Carassius auratus). Our results revealed that the full-length cDNA for PR55/Bβ consists of 1940 bp with an open reading frame of 1332 nucleotides coding for a deduced protein of 443 amino acids. The full length PR55/Bδ cDNA is 2163 bp containing an open reading frame of 1347 nucleotides encoding a deduced protein of 448 amino acids. The two isoforms of PR55/B display high levels of sequence identity with their counterparts in other species. The PR55/Bβ mRNA and protein are detected in brain and heart. In contrast, the PR55/Bδ is expressed in all 9 tissues examined at both mRNA and protein levels. During development of goldfish, the mRNAs for PR55/Bβ and PR55/Bδ show distinct patterns. At the protein level, PR55/Bδ is expressed at all developmental stages examined, suggesting its important role in regulating goldfish development. Expression of the PR55/Bδ anti-sense RNA leads to significant downregulation of PR55/Bδ proteins and caused severe abnormality in goldfish trunk and eye development. Together, our results suggested that PR55/Bδ plays an important role in governing normal trunk and eye formation during goldfish development.
doi:10.4137/GRSB.S6065
PMCID: PMC3020040  PMID: 21245947
protein phosphatase; PP-2A; PR55/Bβ/δ; eye; lens; gene expression; developmental regulation; phosphorylation
14.  Induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases and cAMP-dependent differentiation in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:684.
Background
Differentiation therapy has been shown effective in treatment of several types of cancer cells and may prove to be effective in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. Although extensively used as a reagent to inhibit protein synthesis in mammalian cells, whether cycloheximide treatment leads to glioma cell differentiation has not been reported.
Methods
C6 glioma cell was treated with or without cycloheximide at low concentrations (0.5-1 μg/ml) for 1, 2 and 3 days. Cell proliferation rate was assessed by direct cell counting and colony formation assays. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining and FACS analysis. Changes in several cell cycle regulators such as Cyclins D1 and E, PCNA and Ki67, and several apoptosis-related regulators such as p53, p-JNK, p-AKT, and PARP were determined by Western blot analysis. C6 glioma differentiation was determined by morphological characterization, immunostaining and Western blot analysis on upregulation of GFAP and o p-STAT3 expression, and upregulation of intracellular cAMP.
Results
Treatment of C6 cell with low concentration of cycloheximide inhibited cell proliferation and depleted cells at both G2 and M phases, suggesting blockade at G1 and S phases. While no cell death was observed, cells underwent profound morphological transformation that indicated cell differentiation. Western blotting and immunostaining analyses further indicated that changes in expression of several cell cycle regulators and the differentiation marker GFAP were accompanied with cycloheximide-induced cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation. Increase in intracellular cAMP, a known promoter for C6 cell differentiation, was found to be elevated and required for cycloheximide-promoted C6 cell differentiation.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that partial inhibition of protein synthesis in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide induces cell cycle arrest at G1 and M phases and cAMP-dependent cell differentiation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-684
PMCID: PMC3009684  PMID: 21159181
15.  Effects of Flos carthami on CYP2D6 and on the Pharmacokinetics of Metoprolol in Rats 
Flos carthami is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Clinically, the Flos carthami Injection has been used concomitantly with other Western drugs and may be used concomitantly with β-blockers, such as metoprolol, to treat cerebrovascular and coronary heart diseases, in China. Metoprolol is a CYP2D6 substrate and is predominantly metabolized by this isozyme. However, we do not know whether there is an effect of Flos carthami on CYP2D6 and the consequences of such an effect. Concern is raised regarding the possible herb-drug interaction. In this report, the effects of Flos carthami on the activity of CYP2D6 in vivo and in vitro and on the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol, in rats, are investigated. To assess the inhibitory potency of Flos carthami, the concentration associated with 50% inhibition (IC50) of dextromethorphan metabolism was determined based on the concentration-inhibition curves. The inhibitory effect of Flos carthami on CYP2D6 was also compared with cimetidine in vitro. Flos carthami could significantly inhibit CYP2D6 in rats both in vitro and in vivo (P < .05) and could slow down the metabolic rate of metoprolol as suggested by prolonged t1/2 (67.45%), by increased Cmax (74.51%) and AUC0−∞ (76.89%). These results suggest that CYP2D6 is a risk factor when Flos carthami is administered concomitantly with metoprolol or other CYP2D6 substrates.
doi:10.1155/2011/207076
PMCID: PMC2994065  PMID: 21127727
16.  Fresh raspberry phytochemical extract inhibits hepatic lesion in a Wistar rat model 
Background
Red raspberry possesses potent antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer in vitro.
Methods
The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of raspberry 80% acetone extract in a rat hepatic lesions model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Rats were treated with the red raspberry extract (0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 g/kg of body weight) by gavage starting 2 h after DEN administration and continuing for 20 weeks.
Results
A dose-dependent inhibition by red raspberry extract of DEN-induced hepatic nodule formation which stands for hepatic lesions was observed. Corresponding hepatic nodule incidence rates were 45.0, 40.0, 25.0 and 5.0% in positive control, low, middle and high groups, respectively (P < 0.01 or 0.05). Gross findings, histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations of hepatic lesion were performed on 9, 8, 5 and 1 hepatic nodule in positive control, low, middle and high doses of groups, respectively, identified in rats from the respective groups of 20. A decreasing trend of proportions of hepatocellular carcinoma masses accompanied the increasing doses of red raspberry extract.
Conclusions
These findings demonstrate that the potent capacity of red raspberry diet could not only suppress DEN-induced hepatic lesions in rats, but also reduce the definite diagnostic features of neoplasm.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-84
PMCID: PMC2999596  PMID: 21108811
17.  Guinea Pig Model for Evaluating the Potential Public Health Risk of Swine and Avian Influenza Viruses 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e15537.
Background
The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung.
Conclusions/Significance
We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015537
PMCID: PMC2990763  PMID: 21124850
18.  1,1′-(p-Phenyl­enedimethyl­idene)diimidazol-3-ium bis­{2-[(2-carb­oxy­phen­yl)disulfan­yl]benzoate} dihydrate 
The title salt, C14H16N4 2+·2C14H9O4S2 −·2H2O, was obtained by the co-crystalization of 2,2′-dithio­dibenzoic acid with 1,4-bis­(imidazol-1-ylmeth­yl)benzene. It consists of 2-[(2-carb­oxy­phen­yl)disulfan­yl]benzoate anions, centrosymmetric 1,1′-(p-phenyl­enedimethyl­idene)diimidazol-3-ium cations and water mol­ecules. O—H⋯O, O—H⋯S and N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions among the components lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S1600536810047021
PMCID: PMC3011651  PMID: 21589520
19.  CADgene: a comprehensive database for coronary artery disease genes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(Database issue):D991-D996.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex, multifactorial disease and a leading cause of mortality world wide. Over the past decades, great efforts have been made to elucidate the underlying genetic basis of CAD and massive data have been accumulated. To integrate these data together and to provide a useful resource for researchers, we developed the CADgene, a comprehensive database for CAD genes. We manually extracted CAD-related evidence for more than 300 candidate genes for CAD from over 1300 publications of genetic studies. We classified these candidate genes into 12 functional categories based on their roles in CAD. For each gene, we extracted detailed information from related studies (e.g. the size of case–control, population, SNP, odds ratio, P-value, etc.) and made useful annotations, which include general gene information, Gene Ontology annotations, KEGG pathways, protein–protein interactions and others. Besides the statistical number of studies for each gene, CADgene also provides tools to search and show the most frequently studied candidate genes. In addition, CADgene provides cumulative data from 11 publications of CAD-related genome-wide association studies. CADgene has a user-friendly web interface with multiple browse and search functions. It is freely available at http://www.bioguo.org/CADgene/.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1106
PMCID: PMC3013698  PMID: 21045063
20.  N-(2-Chloro­pyrimidin-4-yl)-N,2-di­methyl-2H-indazol-6-amine 
In the title compound, C13H12ClN5, which is a derivative of the anti­tumor agent pazopanib {systematic name: 5-[[4-[(2,3-di­methyl-2H-indazol-6-yl)methylamino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-2-methylbenzolsulfonamide}, the indazole and pyrim­idine fragments form a dihedral angle of 62.63 (5)°. In the crystal, pairs of mol­ecules related by twofold rotational symmetry are linked into dimers through π–π inter­actions between the indazole ring systems [centroid–centroid distance = 3.720 (2) Å]. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds further assemble these dimers into columns propagated in [001].
doi:10.1107/S1600536810042753
PMCID: PMC3009102  PMID: 21589123
21.  The Role of Interleukin-15 Polymorphisms in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13626.
Background
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) plays important roles in the immune system and in the development of hematopoietic cells. Previous studies revealed that five SNPs in IL-15, rs10519612, rs10519613, rs35964658, rs17007695 and rs17015014, were significantly associated with childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) treatment response. In adult ALL, the expression of IL-15 was also correlated with the immunophenotypes of ALL. Therefore, we hypothesize that SNPs of IL-15 might also be associated with adult ALL.
Methods and Findings
We genotyped the above five SNPs of IL-15 gene by PCR-RFLP assays in adult ALL case-control studies. The current study included 121 adult ALL patients and 263 healthy controls. IL-15 genotypes and haplotypes were determined and the associations with the risk of ALL were analyzed by logistic regression. SNPs rs10519612 and rs17007695 were significantly associated with ALL (P = 0.013 and P = 0.001). We observed a 2-fold and 2.4-fold excess risk of developing ALL for the rs10519612 CC and rs17007695 TC genotype carriers compared with non-carriers, respectively. Haplotype analysis revealed that haplotypes ACAC, CAGT and CCAT were significantly associated with adult B-ALL, while haplotype CCAT conferred susceptibility to T-ALL.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that IL-15 gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with ALL in adult Chinese population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013626
PMCID: PMC2963612  PMID: 21049047
22.  Correction: Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Activating HIF-1α Acts Synergistically with Erythropoietin to Promote Tissue Plasticity 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):10.1371/annotation/433064f4-e30a-4000-8e5a-9e8d1775d820.
doi:10.1371/annotation/433064f4-e30a-4000-8e5a-9e8d1775d820
PMCID: PMC2951981
23.  Alpha-Adducin Gly460Trp Polymorphism and Hypertension Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 22 Studies Including 14303 Cases and 15961 Controls 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(9):e13057.
Background
No clear consensus has been reached on the alpha-adducin polymorphism (Gly460Trp) and essential hypertension risk. We performed a meta-analysis in an effort to systematically summarize the possible association.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases complemented with perusal of bibliographies of retrieved articles and correspondence with original authors. The fixed-effects model and the random-effects model were applied for dichotomous outcomes to combine the results of the individual studies. We selected 22 studies that met the inclusion criteria including a total of 14303 hypertensive patients and 15961 normotensive controls. Overall, the 460Trp allele showed no statistically significant association with hypertension risk compared to Gly460 allele (P = 0.69, OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.94–1.10, Pheterogeneity<0.0001) in all subjects. Meta-analysis under other genetic contrasts still did not reveal any significant association in all subjects, Caucasians, East Asians and others. The results were similar but heterogeneity did not persist when sensitivity analyses were limited to these studies.
Conclusions/Significance
Our meta-analysis failed to provide evidence for the genetic association of α-adducin gene Gly460Trp polymorphism with hypertension. Further studies investigating the effect of genetic networks, environmental factors, individual biological characteristics and their mutual interactions are needed to elucidate the possible mechanism for hypertension in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013057
PMCID: PMC2946925  PMID: 20927398
24.  Multiple genetic switches spontaneously modulating bacterial mutability 
Background
All life forms need both high genetic stability to survive as species and a degree of mutability to evolve for adaptation, but little is known about how the organisms balance the two seemingly conflicting aspects of life: genetic stability and mutability. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is essential for maintaining genetic stability and defects in MMR lead to high mutability. Evolution is driven by genetic novelty, such as point mutation and lateral gene transfer, both of which require genetic mutability. However, normally a functional MMR system would strongly inhibit such genomic changes. Our previous work indicated that MMR gene allele conversion between functional and non-functional states through copy number changes of small tandem repeats could occur spontaneously via slipped-strand mis-pairing during DNA replication and therefore may play a role of genetic switches to modulate the bacterial mutability at the population level. The open question was: when the conversion from functional to defective MMR is prohibited, will bacteria still be able to evolve by accepting laterally transferred DNA or accumulating mutations?
Results
To prohibit allele conversion, we "locked" the MMR genes through nucleotide replacements. We then scored changes in bacterial mutability and found that Salmonella strains with MMR locked at the functional state had significantly decreased mutability. To determine the generalizability of this kind of mutability 'switching' among a wider range of bacteria, we examined the distribution of tandem repeats within MMR genes in over 100 bacterial species and found that multiple genetic switches might exist in these bacteria and may spontaneously modulate bacterial mutability during evolution.
Conclusions
MMR allele conversion through repeats-mediated slipped-strand mis-pairing may function as a spontaneous mechanism to switch between high genetic stability and mutability during bacterial evolution.
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-277
PMCID: PMC2955026  PMID: 20836863
25.  Evaluation of multicomponent recombinant vaccines against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in mice 
Background
Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP) is a highly contagious disease that is caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) and characterized by severe fibrinous necrotizing hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia, which is a severe threat to the swine industry. In addition to APP RTX-toxins I (ApxI), APP RTX-toxin II (ApxII), APP RTX-toxin III (ApxIII) and Outer membrane protein (OMP), there may be other useful antigens that can contribute to protection. In the development of an efficacious vaccine against APP, the immunogenicities of multicomponent recombinant subunit vaccines were evaluated.
Methods
Six major virulent factor genes of APP, i.e., apxI, apxII, apxIII, APP RTX-toxins IV (apxIV), omp and type 4 fimbrial structural (apfa) were expressed. BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant ApxI ( rApxI), recombinant ApxII (rApxII), recombinant ApxIII (rApxIII) and recombinant OMP (rOMP) (Group I); rApxI, rApxII, rApxIII, recombinant ApxIV (rApxIV), recombinant Apfa (rApfa) and rOMP (Group II); APP serotype 1 (APP1) inactivated vaccine (Group III); or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (Control group), respectively. After the first immunization, mice were subjected to two booster immunizations at 2-week intervals, followed by challenge with APP1 Shope 4074 and APP2 S1536.
Results
The efficacy of the multicomponent recombinant subunit vaccines was evaluated on the basis of antibody titers, survival rates, lung lesions and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) detection of APP. The antibody level of Group I was significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P < 0.05). The survival rate of Group I was higher than that of Groups II and III (P < 0.05) and the control (P < 0.01). Compared with the other three groups, the lungs of Group I did not exhibit obvious hemorrhage or necrosis, and only showed weak and scattered fluorescent dots by IIF detection.
Conclusion
The result indicates that the multicomponent recombinant subunit vaccine composed of rApxI, rApxII, rApxIII and rOMP can provide effective cross-protection against homologous and heterologous APP challenge.
doi:10.1186/1751-0147-52-52
PMCID: PMC2944310  PMID: 20831818

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