AIM: To investigate the effect of probiotics on regulating T regulatory cells and reducing the severity of experimental colitis in mice.
METHODS: Forty C57/BL mice were randomly divided into four groups. Colitis was induced in the mice using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). After 10-d treatment with Bifico capsules (combined bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and enterococcus), body weight, colonic weight, colonic weight index, length of colon, and histological scores were evaluated. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cell in mesenteric lymph nodes were measured by flow cytometry, and cytokines in colonic tissue homogenates were analyzed by a cytometric bead array.
RESULTS: The colonic weight index and the colonic weight of colitis mice treated with Bifico were lower than that of TNBS-induced mice without treatment. However, colonic length and percent of body weight amplification were higher than in TNBS-induced mice without treatment. Compared with TNBS-induced mice without treatment, the level of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes, the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in colonic tissues from colitis mice treated with Bifico were upregulated, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ were downregulated.
CONCLUSION: Probiotics effectively treat experimental colitis by increasing CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cell and regulating the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the colonic mucosa.
Probiotics; Ulcerative colitis; CD4+CD25+T cell; Cytokine
AIM: To study the effects of combined early fluid resuscitation and hydrogen inhalation on septic shock-induced lung and intestine injuries.
METHODS: Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (Group A, n = 15); septic shock group (Group B, n = 15); early fluid resuscitation-treated septic shock group (Group C, n = 15); and early fluid resuscitation and inhalation of 2% hydrogen-treated septic shock group (Group D, n = 15). The activity of hydroxyl radicals, myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), diamine oxidase (DAO), and the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA) in the lung and intestinal tissue were assessed according to the corresponding kits. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was carried out to detect the pathology of the lung and intestine. The expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lung and intestine tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The expression levels of Fas and Bcl2 in lung tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.
RESULTS: Septic shock elicited a significant increase in the levels of MDA (10.17 ± 1.12 nmol/mg protein vs 2.98 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein) and MPO (6.79 ± 1.02 U/g wet tissue vs 1.69 ± 0.14 U/g wet tissue) in lung tissues. These effects were not significantly decreased by Group C pretreatment, but were significantly reduced by Group D pretreatment (MDA: 4.45 ± 1.13 nmol/mg protein vs 9.56 ± 1.37 nmol/mg protein; MPO: 2.58 ± 0.21 U/g wet tissue vs 6.02 ± 1.16 U/g wet tissue). The activity of SOD (250.32 ± 8.56 U/mg protein vs 365.78 ± 10.26 U/mg protein) in lung tissues was decreased after septic shock, and was not significantly increased by Group C pretreatment, but was significantly enhanced by Group D pretreatment (331.15 ± 9.64 U/mg protein vs 262.98 ± 5.47 U/mg protein). Histological evidence of lung hemorrhage, neutrophil infiltration and overexpression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was observed in lung tissues, all of which were attenuated by Group C and further alleviated by Group D pretreatment. Septic shock also elicited a significant increase in the levels of MDA, MPO and DAO (6.54 ± 0.68 kU/L vs 4.32 ± 0.33 kU/L) in intestinal tissues, all of which were further increased by Group C, but significantly reduced by Group D pretreatment. Increased Chiu scoring and overexpression of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were observed in intestinal tissues, all of which were attenuated by Group C and further attenuated by Group D pretreatment.
CONCLUSION: Combined early fluid resuscitation and hydrogen inhalation may protect the lung and intestine of the septic shock rats from the damage induced by oxidative stress and the inflammatory reaction.
Early fluid resuscitation; Inhalation of hydrogen gas; Septic shock; Lung; Intestine; Oxidative damage
AIM: To explore the prognostic value in the monitoring of treatment efficacy of serial α-fetoprotein (AFP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE LIBRARY through April 21, 2012, to find qualifying articles. Our overall search strategy included terms for HCC, AFP, treatment response, and prognosis. Literature was limited to English-language, human studies. Studies reporting cumulative survival rates were summarized qualitatively. For the prognostic meta-analysis, we undertook a series of meta-analyses that summarised the Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) by assuming a random effects model. With regards to the correlation of AFP change with radiologic response, the categorical dichotomous variables were assessed using Poisson relative risks (RRs), which were incorporated into the random effects model meta-analysis of accuracy prediction. Between-study heterogeneity was estimated by use of the I² statistic. Publication bias was evaluated using the Begg funnel plot and Egger plot. Sensitivity analyses were conducted first by separating systemic treatment estimates from locoregional therapy estimates, evaluating different AFP response cut-off point effects, and exploring the impact of different study sizes.
RESULTS: Of 142 titles identified in our original search, 11 articles (12 clinical studies) met our criteria. Six studies investigated outcome in a total of 464 cases who underwent systemic treatment, and six studies investigated outcome in a total of 510 patients who received locoregional therapy. A random-effects model meta-analysis showed that AFP response was associated with an mortality HR of 0.55 (95%CI, 0.47-0.65) across HCC in overall survival (OS) and 0.50 (95%CI, 0.38-0.65) in progression-free survival. Restricting analysis to the six eligible analyses of systemic treatment, the pooled HRs were 0.64 (95%CI, 0.53-0.77) for OS. Limiting analysis to the six analyses of locoregional therapy, the pooled HRs for OS was 0.39 (95%CI, 0.29-0.53). We showed a larger pooled HR in the 50% definition studies (HR, 0.67, 95%CI, 0.55-0.83) compared with that from the 20% definition studies (HR, 0.41, 95%CI, 0.32-0.53). Restricting analysis to the four studies including over 100 patients individually, the pooled HR was 0.65 (95%CI, 0.54-0.79), with a pooled HR for OS of 0.35 (95%CI, 0.23-0.46) in the studies of less than 100 patients. As to radiological imaging, 43.1% (155/360) of the patients in the AFP response group presented with a radiological overall response, while the response rate decreased to 11.5% (36/313) in the patients from the AFP nonresponse group. The RR of having no overall response was significantly lower in the AFP response group than the AFP nonresponse group (RR, 0.67; 95%CI, 0.61-0.75). In terms of disease control rate, 86.9% (287/330) in the AFP response group and 51.0% (153/300) in the AFP nonresponse group showed successful disease control, respectively. The RR of disease control failure, similarly, was significantly lower in the AFP response group (RR, 0.37; 95%CI, 0.23-0.58). But these ﬁndings could be overestimates because of publication and reporting bias.
CONCLUSION: HCC patients presenting with an AFP response are at decreased risk of mortality. In addition, patients with an AFP response also present with a higher overall response rate and disease control rate.
Liver cancer; α-fetoprotein; Response; Prognosis; Monitoring
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) and to evaluate the risk of symptomatic GSD among diabetic patients.
METHODS: The study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) dataset of ambulatory care patients, inpatient claims, and the updated registry of beneficiaries from 2000 to 2008. A total of 615 532 diabetic patients without a prior history of hospital treatment or ambulatory care visits for symptomatic GSD were identified in the year 2000. Age- and gender-matched control individuals free from both GSD and diabetes from 1997 to 1999 were randomly selected from the NHIR database (n = 614 871). The incidence densities of symptomatic GSD were estimated according to the subjects’ diabetic status. The distributions of age, gender, occupation, income, and residential area urbanization were compared between diabetic patients and control subjects using Cox proportion hazards models. Differences between the rates of selected comorbidities were also assessed in the two groups.
RESULTS: Overall, 60 734 diabetic patients and 48 116 control patients developed symptomatic GSD and underwent operations, resulting in cumulative operation rates of 9.87% and 7.83%, respectively. The age and gender distributions of both groups were similar, with a mean age of 60 years and a predominance of females. The diabetic group had a significantly higher prevalence of all comorbidities of interest. A higher incidence of symptomatic GSD was observed in females than in males in both groups. In the control group, females under the age of 64 had a significantly higher incidence of GSD than the corresponding males, but this difference was reduced with increasing age. The cumulative incidences of operations for symptomatic GSD in the diabetic and control groups were 13.06 and 9.52 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. Diabetic men exhibited a higher incidence of operations for symptomatic GSD than did their counterparts in the control group (12.35 vs 8.75 cases per 1000 person-years).
CONCLUSION: The association of diabetes with increased symptomatic GSD may provide insight to the treatment or management of diabetes in clinical settings.
Gallstone disease; Diabetes; Symptomatic; Incidence density; Hazard ratio
AIM: To analyze the possible protective role of Arctium lappa L. (AL) in a murine model of ulcerative colitis (UC).
METHODS: BALB/c mice were administered 100 mg/kg AL powder orally each day. After 7 d, colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) (5% W/V) in drinking water for a further 8 consecutive days. Diarrhea and bloody stools as well as colonic histology were observed. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in colonic sections were detected by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: There were significant differences in mean body weight values and disease activity indices between controls and AL-treated animals. Moreover, the histological findings showed that AL treatment can prevent mucosal edema, submucosal erosions, ulceration, inflammatory cell infiltration and colon damage. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α were also decreased in AL-treated groups.
CONCLUSION: We suggest that AL can prevent intestinal damage and decrease inflammatory cytokines in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Thus, AL could prove to be a useful food for UC.
Arctium lappa L.; Colitis; Cytokine; Inflammatory bowel disease; Ulcerative colitis
AIM: To evaluate the value of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication mouse model with regard to several aspects of the study of HBV biology.
METHODS: To evaluate the HBV replication mouse model in detecting the efficacy of anti-HBV agents, the interferon inducer polyinosinic-polytidylin acid (polyIC) and nucleotide analogues adefovir and entecavir were administered to mice injected with wild type pHBV4.1, and the inhibiting effect of these agents on HBV DNA replication was evaluated. To identify the model’s value in a replication ability study of HBV drug-resistant mutants and a HBx-minus mutant, telbivudine resistance mutants (rtM204I, ayw subtype), adefovir resistance mutants (rtA181V + rtN236T, ayw subtype) and HBx-minus mutants were injected respectively, and their corresponding HBV DNA replication intermediates in mouse liver were assessed.
RESULTS: Compared with the wild type HBV replication mouse model without antiviral agent treatment, the HBV DNA replication intermediates of the polyIC-treated group were decreased 1-fold; while in the entecavir- and adefovir-treated groups, the levels of HBV DNA replication intermediates were inhibited 13.6-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. For the mouse models injected with telbivudine resistance mutant, adefovir resistance mutant and HBx-minus mutant, HBV DNA replication intermediates could still be detected, but the levels of HBV DNA replication intermediates of these mutants decreased 4.5-fold, 5.6-fold and 2.9-fold respectively, compared with the mouse model with wild type HBV plasmid.
CONCLUSION: The HBV replication mouse model we established was a useful and convenient tool to detect the efficacy of antiviral agents and to study the replication ability of HBV mutants in vivo.
Hepatitis B virus; Antiviral agents; Drug resistance; Mutants; Mouse model
AIM: To investigate and evaluate the pathological features and diagnostic value of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with multi-section spiral computed tomography (MSCT) and postprocessing.
METHODS: A total of 25 patients with FNH who had undergone MSCT and postprocessing were included in the investigation. All patients had been pathologically or clinically confirmed with FNH. A number of 75 cases of hepatic carcinomas, hemangiomas and adenomas were randomly selected at a same period for a comparative study.
RESULTS: There was a single focus in 22 cases and multiple foci in 3 cases. On the plain scan, 17 lesions showed hypodensity, 7 isodensity and 4 hyperdensity (the case with fatty liver). With contrast, 28 lesions were enhanced evenly or in the nodules in the arterial phase; 13 lesions still showed hyperdensity, 11 lesions isodensity and 4 lesions hypodensity in the parenchymatous phase; in the delayed phase only 5 lesions showed hyperdensity but 9 lesions showed isodensity or slight hypodensity and 14 lesions showed hypodensity. Twelve lesions of 28 had central asteroid scars. Thickened feeding arteries in postprocessing were seen in 24 lesions, and were integrated into the parenchymatous lesions with a gradual and smooth course. On the contrary, there were no artery penetrated into the lesion found in any of comparative hepatic tumors.
CONCLUSION: Doctors could make a correct diagnosis and differentiation of FNH on evaluation of the characteristic appearance on MSCT with postprocessing.
Angiography; Computer-assisted image processing; Focal nodular hyperplasia; Liver diseases; X-ray; Computed tomography
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF).
METHODS: Fifty-five patients with HBV-associated ACLF were randomized into two groups: the treatment group and the control group. Twenty-seven patients in the treatment group received G-CSF (5 μg/kg per day, six doses) treatment plus standard therapy, and 28 patients in the control group received standard therapy only. The peripheral CD34+ cell count was measured consecutively by flow cytometry. Circulating white blood cell count, biochemical parameters, and other clinical data of these patients were recorded and analyzed. All patients were followed up for a period of 3 mo to evaluate the changes in liver function and survival rate.
RESULTS: The peripheral neutrophil and CD34+ cell counts in the G-CSF group increased on day 3 from the onset of therapy, continued to rise on day 7, and remained elevated on day 15 compared to those of the control group. Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of patients in the treatment group was improved on day 30 from the onset of G-CSF therapy, compared to that in the controls (P = 0.041). Model for End-Stage of Liver Disease score of patients in the treatment group was improved on day 7 (P = 0.004) and remained high on day 30 from the onset of G-CSF therapy (P < 0.001) compared to that in controls. After 3 mo of follow-up observation, the survival rate in the treatment group (48.1%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (21.4%) (P = 0.0181).
CONCLUSION: G-CSF therapy promoted CD34+ cell mobilization in patients with HBV-associated ACLF, and improved the liver function and the survival rate of these patients.
Acute-on-chronic liver failure; Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; Hepatitis B virus
AIM: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during follow-up after percutaneous ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: A total of 141 patients with HCCs who received percutaneous ablation therapy were assessed by paired follow-up CEUS and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). The follow-up scheme was designed prospectively and the intervals between CEUS and CECT examinations were less than 14 d. Both images of follow-up CEUS and CECT were reviewed by radiologists. The ablated lesions were evaluated and classified as local tumor progression (LTP) and LTP-free. LTP was defined as regrowth of tumor inside or adjacent to the successfully treated nodule. The detected new intrahepatic recurrences were also evaluated and defined as presence of intrahepatic new foci. On CEUS and CECT, LTP and new intrahepatic recurrence both were displayed as typical enhancement pattern of HCC (i.e., hyper-enhancing during the arterial phase and washout in the late phase). With CECT as the reference standard, the ability of CEUS in detecting LTP or new intrahepatic recurrence during follow-up was evaluated.
RESULTS: During a follow-up period of 1-31 mo (median, 4 mo), 169 paired CEUS and CECT examinations were carried out for the 141 patients. For a total of 221 ablated lesions, 266 comparisons between CEUS and CECT findings were performed. Thirty-three LTPs were detected on CEUS whereas 40 LTPs were detected on CECT, there was significant difference (P < 0.001). In comparison with CECT, the numbers of false positive and false negative LTPs detected on CEUS were 6 and 13, respectively; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and overall accuracy of CEUS in detecting LTPs were 67.5%, 97.4%, 81.8%, 94.4% and 92.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, 131 new intrahepatic recurrent foci were detected on CEUS whereas 183 were detected on CECT, there was also significant difference (P < 0.05). In comparison with CECT, the numbers of false positive and false negative intrahepatic recurrences detected on CEUS were 13 and 65, respectively; the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and overall accuracy of CEUS in detecting new intrahepatic recurrent foci were 77.7%, 92.0%, 92.4%, 76.7% and 84.0%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of CEUS in detecting LTP and new intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous ablation therapy is relatively low in comparison with CECT.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound; Contrast-enhanced computed tomography; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Radiofrequency ablation; Microwave ablation
Left supraclavicular lymph node metastasis is a rare presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This phenomenon is easily neglected in the clinic. A 56-year-old man presented with HCC. On examination, a 1cm long left supraclavicular lymph node was palpated. Auxiliary examination indicated a lesion located in the right lobe of the liver. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the enlarged lymph node was performed; however, only necrosis was found. Hepatectomy was performed and HCC was confirmed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. However, 14 d after surgery, significantly enlarged left supraclavicular lymph nodes, a new intrahepatic lesion, and pulmonary and mediastinal metastasis appeared. An excisional biopsy of the left supraclavicular lymph node was performed, and its findings confirmed metastatic HCC. The patient’s HCC rapidly progressed and he died one month later. It is possible for HCC to metastasize to the left supraclavicular lymph node. Surgeons should always consider an overall physical examination. When left supraclavicular lymphadenopathy of unknown origin is encountered, FNAC should be performed initially. If the results are negative, an excisional biopsy and subsequent Positron emission tomography - computed tomography scanning should be performed. These are very important for making the correct diagnosis and for selecting reasonable therapies.
Left supraclavicular lymph node; Metastasis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Fine needle aspiration cytology; Misdiagnosis
AIM: To compare the efficacy of modified percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization (PTVE) with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) and endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) with an injection of 2-OCA for prophylaxis of gastric variceal rebleeding.
METHODS: In this retrospective study, the medical records of liver cirrhosis patients with gastric variceal bleeding who underwent either endoscopic 2-OCA (EVO) or modified PTVE using 2-OCA at Shandong Provincial Hospital from January 2006 to December 2008 were reviewed. Patient demographics, rebleeding rate, survival rate, and complications were compared between the two groups (PTVE and EVO). All results were expressed as mean ± SD, or as a percentage. Quantitative variables were compared by two sample Student t tests, and qualitative variables were compared by the Fisher exact test or the χ2 test (with Yates correction) where appropriate. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical computation was performed using SPSS 13.0 software.
RESULTS: A total of 77 patients were included; 45 patients who underwent EVO and 32 patients who received PTVE. During the follow-up (19.78 ± 7.70 mo in the EVO group, vs 21.53 ± 8.56 mo in the PTVE group) rebleeding occurred in 17 patients in the EVO group and in 4 patients in the PTVE group (37.78% vs 12.5%, P = 0.028). The cumulative rebleeding-free rate was 75%, 59%, and 49% in 1, 2, and 3 years respectively for EVO, and 93%, 84%, and 84% for PTVE (P = 0.011). Cox analysis was used to identify independent factors that predicted rebleeding after treatment. Variables including age, gender, cause, Child-Pugh classification, size of gastric varices (GV), location of GV, and treatment methods were analyzed. It was revealed that Child-Pugh classification [risk ratio (RR) 2.10, 95%CI: 1.03-4.28, P = 0.040], choice of treatment (RR 0.25, 95%CI: 0.08-0.80, P = 0.019), and size of GV (RR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.07-4.28, P = 0.032) were the independent factors for predicting rebleeding. Follow-up computed tomography revealed that cyanoacrylate was retained in the varices and in the feeding veins of PTVE patients. During the follow-up, eight patients in the EVO group and four patients in the PTVE group died. The cumulative survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 93%, 84%, and 67% respectively in the EVO group, and 97%, 88%, and 74% respectively in the PTVE group. The survival rates were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.432). Cox analysis showed that the Child-Pugh classification was the most significant prognostic factor of survival (RR 2.77, 95%CI: 1.12-6.80, P = 0.027). The incidence of complications was similar in both groups.
CONCLUSION: With extensive and permanent obliteration of gastric varices and its feeding veins, PTVE with 2-OCA is superior to endoscopic 2-OCA injection for preventing gastric variceal rebleeding.
Gastric varices; Endoscopic variceal obturation; Percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization; 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate; Bleeding
AIM: To explore the optimal steroid therapeutic strategy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP).
METHODS: This study was conducted retrospectively in two large institutions in China. Patients with clinically, radiologically and biochemically diagnosed AIP were enrolled. The performed radiological investigations and biochemical tests, the regimen of the given steroid treatment, remission and relapse whether with and without steroid therapy were analyzed.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with AIP received steroid treatment, while 40 patients were treated surgically by pancreatoduodenectomy, distal pancreatectomy and choledochojejunostomy, radiofrequency ablation for the enlarged pancreatic head, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and endoscopic biliary drainage. The starting oral prednisolone dose was 30 mg/d in 18 (64.3%) patients and 40 mg/d in 10 (35.7%) patients administered for 3 wk. The remission rate of AIP patients with steroid treatment (96.4%) was significantly higher than in those without steroid treatment (75%). Maintenance therapy (oral prednisolone dose 5 mg/d) was performed after remission for at least 6-12 mo to complete the treatment course. Similarly, the relapse rate was significantly lower in AIP patients with steroid treatment (28.6%) than in those without steroid treatment (42.5%). Steroid re-treatment was effective in all relapsed patients with or without steroid therapy.
CONCLUSION: Steroid therapy should be considered in all patients with active inflammatory phase of AIP. However, the optimal regimen still should be trailed in larger numbers of patients with AIP.
Autoimmune pancreatitis; Chinese population; Steroid therapy; Remission; Relapse
Ingested fish bone induced intestinal perforations are seldom diagnosed preoperatively due to incomplete patient history taking and difficulties in image evidence identification. Most literature suggests early surgical intervention to prevent sepsis and complications resulting from fish bone migrations. We report the case of a 44-year-old man suffered from acute abdomen induced by a fish bone micro-perforation. The diagnosis was supported by computed tomography (CT) imaging of fish bone lodged in distal ileum and a history of fish ingestion recalled by the patient. Medical treatment was elected to manage the patient’s condition instead of surgical intervention. The treatment resulted in a complete resolution of abdominal pain on hospital day number 4 without complication. Factors affecting clinical treatment decisions include the nature of micro-perforation, the patient’s good overall health condition, and the early diagnosis before sepsis signs develop. Micro-perforation means the puncture of intestine wall without CT evidence of free air, purulent peritoneum or abscess. We subsequently reviewed the literature to support our decision to pursue medical instead of surgical intervention.
Fish bone ingestion; Micro-perforation; Decision-making; Medical treatment; Small intestine
AIM: To investigate whether the incidence of hiccups in patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or same-day bidirectional endoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy; BDE) with sedation is different from those without sedation in terms of quantity, duration and typical onset time.
METHODS: Consecutive patients scheduled for elective EGD or same-day BDE at the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit or the health examination center were allocated to two groups: EGD without sedation (Group A) and BDE with sedation (Group B). The use of sedation was based on the patients’ request. Anesthesiologists participated in this study by administrating sedative drugs as usual. A single experienced gastroenterologist performed both the EGD and the colonoscopic examinations for all the patients. The incidence, duration and onset time of hiccups were measured in both groups. In addition, the association between clinical variables and hiccups were analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 435 patients were enrolled in the study. The incidences of hiccups in the patients with and without sedation were significantly different (20.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The use of sedation for patients undergoing endoscopy was still significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups (adjusted odds ratio: 8.79, P < 0.001) after adjustment. The incidence of hiccups in males under sedation was high (67.4%). The sedated patients who received 2 mg midazolam developed hiccups more frequently compared to those receiving 1 mg midazolam (P = 0.0028). The patients with the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were prone to develop hiccups (P = 0.018).
CONCLUSION: Male patients undergoing EGD or BDE with sedation are significantly more likely to suffer from hiccups compared to those without sedation. Midazolam was significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups. Furthermore, patients with GERD are prone to develop hiccups.
Anesthesia; Midazolam; Hiccup; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Esophagogastroduodenoscopy; Bidirectional endoscopy
AIM: To explore endoscopic therapy methods for gastric stromal tumors originating from the muscularis propria.
METHODS: For 69 cases diagnosed as gastric stromal tumors originating from the muscularis propria, three types of endoscopic therapy were selected, based on the size of the tumor. These methods included endoscopic ligation and resection (ELR), endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) and endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR). The wound surface and the perforation of the gastric wall were closed with metal clips. Immunohistostaining for CD34, CD117, Dog-1, S-100 and smooth muscle actin (SMA) was performed on the resected tumors.
RESULTS: A total of 38 cases in which the tumor size was less than 1.2 cm were treated with ELR; three cases were complicated by perforation, and the perforations were closed with metal clips. Additionally, 18 cases in which the tumor size was more than 1.5 cm were treated with ESE, and no perforation occurred. Finally, 13 cases in which the tumor size was more than 2.0 cm were treated with EFR; all of the cases were complicated by artificial perforation, and all of the perforations were closed with metal clips. All of the 69 cases recovered with medical treatment, and none required surgical operation. Immunohistostaining demonstrated that among all of the 69 gastric stromal tumors diagnosed by gastroscopy, 12 cases were gastric leiomyomas (SMA-positive), and the other 57 cases were gastric stromal tumors.
CONCLUSION: Gastric stromal tumors originating from the muscularis propria can be treated successfully with endoscopic techniques, which could replace certain surgical operations and should be considered for further application.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Therapy; Endoscopy; Muscularis propria; Resection
AIM: To investigate the cellular mechanisms of action of Yiguanjian (YGJ) decoction in treatment of chronic hepatic injury.
METHODS: One group of mice was irradiated, and received enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-positive bone marrow transplants followed by 13 wk of CCl4 injection and 6 wk of oral YGJ administration. A second group of Institute for Cancer Research mice was treated with 13 wk of CCl4 injection and 6 wk of oral YGJ administration. Liver function, histological changes in the liver, and Hyp content were analyzed. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), F4/80, albumin (Alb), EGFP, mitogen-activated protein kinase-2 (PKM2), Ki-67, α fetoprotein (AFP), monocyte chemotaxis protein-1 and CC chemokine receptor 2 were assayed.
RESULTS: As hepatic damage progressed, EGFP-positive marrow cells migrated into the liver and were mainly distributed along the fibrous septa. They showed a conspicuous coexpression of EGFP with α-SMA and F4/80 but no coexpression with Alb. Moreover, the expression of PKM2, AFP and Ki-67 was enhanced dynamically and steadily over the course of liver injury. YGJ abrogated the increases in the number of bone marrow-derived fibrogenic cells in the liver, inhibited expression of both progenitor and mature hepatocyte markers, and reduced fibrogenesis.
CONCLUSION: YGJ decoction improves liver fibrosis by inhibiting the migration of bone marrow cells into the liver as well as inhibiting their differentiation and suppressing the proliferation of both progenitors and hepatocytes in the injured liver.
Yiguanjian decoction; Bone marrow transplantation; Hepatic progenitors; Hepatocytes; Hepatic injury
AIM: To investigate whether DNA-dependent activator of interferon-regulatory factors (DAI) inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and what the mechanism is.
METHODS: After the human hepatoma cell line Huh7 was cotransfected with DAI and HBV expressing plasmid, viral protein (HBV surface antigen and HBV e antigen) secretion was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HBV RNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting, and viral DNA replicative intermediates were examined by Southern blotting. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation were analyzed via Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining respectively. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity induced by DAI was detected by immunofluorescence staining of P65 and dual luciferase reporter assay. Transwell co-culture experiment was performed in order to investigate whether the antiviral effects of DAI were dependent on the secreted cytokines.
RESULTS: Viral protein secretion was significantly reduced by 57% (P < 0.05), and the level of total HBV RNA was reduced by 67% (P < 0.05). The viral core particle-associated DNA was also dramatically down-regulated in DAI-expressing Huh7 cells. Analysis of involved signaling pathways revealed that activation of NF-κB signaling was essential for DAI to elicit antiviral response in Huh7 cells. When the NF-κB signaling pathway was blocked by a NF-κB signaling suppressor (IκBα-SR), the anti-HBV activity of DAI was remarkably abrogated. The inhibitory effect of DAI was independent of IRF3 signaling and secreted cytokines.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that DAI can inhibit HBV replication and the inhibitory effect is associated with activation of NF-κB but independent of IRF3 and secreted cytokines.
DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor; Antiviral activity; Hepatitis B virus; Nuclear factor-κB; Interferon regulatory factor-3
AIM: To investigate the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor θ subunit (GABRQ) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for detecting the expression of GABRQ receptor among HCC cell line HepG2, normal liver cell line L-02, non-malignant Chang’s liver cells, 8 samples of HCC tissues and paired non-cancerous tissues. HepG2 cells were treated with GABA at serial concentrations (0, 1, 10, 20, 40 and 60 μmol/L), and their proliferating abilities were analyzed with the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, cell cycle analysis and tumor implanted in nude mice. Small interfering RNA was used for knocking down the endogenous GABRQ in HepG2. Proliferating abilities of these cells treated with or without GABA were analyzed.
RESULTS: We identified the overexpression of GABRQ in HCC cell lines and half of the tested HCC tissues. Knockdown of endogenous GABRQ expression in HepG2 attenuated HCC cell growth, suggesting its role in HCC cell viability. We studied the effect of GABA in the proliferation of GABRQ-positive cell lines in vitro and in vivo, and found that GABA increased HCC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRQ-expressing HepG2 cells, but not GABRQ-knockdown HepG2 cells, which means that GABA stimulates HepG2 cell growth through GABRQ.
CONCLUSION: GABRQ play important roles in HCC development and progression and could be a promising molecular target for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Proliferation; Gamma-aminobutyric acid; Gamma-aminobutyric receptor θ; small interfering RNA
AIM: To compare the endomicroscopic image quality of integrated confocal laser endomicroscopy (iCLE) and sedation efficacy of propofol vs midazolam plus fentanyl (M/F).
METHODS: Consecutive outpatients undergoing iCLE were prospectively recruited and randomized to the propofol group (P group) or M/F group. The patient, performing endoscopist and endoscopic assistant were blinded to the randomization. The quality of endomicroscopic images and anesthetic efficacy outcomes were blindly evaluated after iCLE examination.
RESULTS: There were significantly more good quality endomicroscopic images in the propofol group than in the M/F group (72.75% vs 52.89%, P < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracy for upper gastrointestinal mucosal lesions using confocal laser endomicroscopy favors the P group, although this did not reach statistical significance. Adverse events and patient assessment were not significantly different for M/F vs propofol except for more frequent intraprocedural recall with M/F. Procedure duration and sedation times were significantly longer in the M/F group, while the scores of endoscopist, anesthetist and assistant assessment were all significantly better in the P group.
CONCLUSION: Sedation with propofol might increase the proportion of good quality endomicroscopic images, and may result in improved procedural efficacy and diagnostic accuracy during iCLE examination.
Confocal laser endomicroscopy; Conscious sedation; Randomized trial; Sensitivity and specificity; Image quality
AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of the biological roles of Dickkopf-3 (Dkk-3) in cell invasion, survival and apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
METHODS: Three human colon cancer cell lines, i.e., HT-29, LoVo and SW480, were used. Overexpression of Dkk-3 induced by pEGFP-N1-Dkk-3-GFP plasmid in LoVo cells was performed using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of Dkk-3, respectively. Cell proliferation assay, cell cycle analysis, hoechst 33258 assay and Matrigel invasion assay were performed on Dkk-3 overexpressing transfectants.
RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expressions of Dkk-3 in HT-29 (mRNA: 0.06 ± 0.02, protein: 0.06 ± 0.01) and LoVo (mRNA: 0.07 ± 0.02, protein: 0.07 ± 0.02) cells were significantly lower than that in SW480 cells (mRNA: 0.92 ± 0.04, protein: 0.69 ± 0.13; all P < 0.05), and the greatest levels of invasiveness was in LoVo cells. Dkk-3 overexpression inhibited the proliferation and invasion of LoVo cells and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragments, upregulated Bax and cytochrome c protein, downregulated survivin and Bcl-2 protein, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Furthermore, Dkk-3 overexpression reduced the accumulation of cytosolic fraction of β-catenin.
CONCLUSION: Dkk-3 overexpression induced apoptosis in human colon cancer possibly through the mitochondrial pathway. Dkk-3 may be involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in colon cancer.
Dickkopf-3; Overexpression; Invasion; Apotosis; Colon cancer; Mitochondria
AIM: To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis.
METHODS: The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM). Eight databases including MEDLINE, EMbase, Cochrane Central (CCTR), four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals, Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center, were searched. Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected, categorized according to study design, the strength of evidence, the first author’s hospital type, and analyzed statistically.
RESULTS: A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies. No article was of level I evidence, and 9.26% were of level II evidence. The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI), MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%, 0.68% and 7.29%, respectively. Typically, the articles featured in case reports of illness, examined from the perspective of EBM, were weak in both quality and evidence level, which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals, the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China.
CONCLUSION: The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence, and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation.
Cholecystitis; Traditional Chinese medicine; Literature analysis; Randomized controlled trials; Cognition-based medicine
AIM: To investigate the relationship between donor liver cold preservation, lung surfactant (LS) changes and acute lung injury (ALI) after liver transplantation.
METHODS: Liver transplantation models were established using male Wistar rats. Donor livers were preserved in University of Wisconsin solution at 4 °C for different lengths of time. The effect of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) on ALI was also detected. All samples were harvested after 3 h reperfusion. The severity of ALI was evaluated by lung weight/body weight ratio, lung histopathological score, serum nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET)-1 levels, lung tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. Lung surfactants (LSs) were determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.
RESULTS: With extended donor liver cold preservation time (CPT), lung histopathological scores, serum ET-1 levels, lung weight/body weight ratio and the level of TNF-α and IL-1β in lung were increased significantly in the 180-min group compared with the sham group (3.16 ± 0.28 vs 1.12 ± 0.21, P < 0.001; 343.59 ± 53.97 vs 141.53 ± 48.48, P < 0.001; 0.00687 ± 0.00037 vs 0.00557 ± 0.00056, P < 0.001; 17.5 ± 3.0 vs 1.3 ± 0.3, P < 0.001; 10.8 ± 2.3 vs 1.8 ± 0.4, P < 0.001), but serum NO levels decreased remarkably (74.67 ± 10.01 vs 24.97 ± 3.18, P < 0.001). The expression of lung phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS) increased when CPT was < 120 min, and decreased when CPT was > 180 min (PC: 1318.89 ± 54.79 vs 1011.18 ± 59.99, P < 0.001; PE: 1504.45 ± 119.96 vs 1340.80 ± 76.39, P = 0.0019; PI: 201.23 ± 34.82 vs 185.88 ± 17.04, P = 0.2265; PS: 300.43 ± 32.95 vs 286.55 ± 55.55, P = 0.5054). All these ALI-associated indexes could be partially reversed by PDTC treatment.
CONCLUSION: Prolonged CPT could induce or inhibit the expression of LSs at the compensation or decompensation stage, and some antioxidants (e.g., PDTC) may reverse the pathological process partially.
Liver transplantation; Acute lung injury; Organ preservation; Lung surfactants
AIM: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) occurrence after treatment of primary small hepatocellular carcinoma (sHCC).
METHODS: A total of 423 patients with primary sHCC admitted to our hospital underwent surgical resection or local ablation. During follow-up, only six patients were hospitalized due to obstructive jaundice, which occurred 5-76 mo after initial treatment. The clinicopathologic features of these six patients were reviewed.
RESULTS: Six patients underwent hepatic resection (n = 5) or radio-frequency ablation (n = 1) due to primary sHCC. Five cases had an R1 resection margin, and one case had an ablative margin less than 5.0 mm. No vascular infiltration, microsatellites or bile duct/canaliculus affection was noted in the initial resected specimens. During the follow-up, imaging studies revealed a macroscopic BDTT extending to the common bile duct in all six patients. Four patients had a concomitant intrahepatic recurrent tumor. Surgical re-resection of intrahepatic recurrent tumors and removal of BDTTs (n = 4), BDTT removal through choledochotomy (n = 1), and conservative treatment (n = 1) was performed. Microscopic portal vein invasion was noted in three of the four resected specimens. All six patients died, with a mean survival of 11 mo after BDTT removal or conservative treatment.
CONCLUSION: BDTT occurrence is a rare, special recurrent pattern of primary sHCC. Patients with BDTTs extending to the common bile duct usually have an unfavorable prognosis even following aggressive surgery. Insufficient resection or ablative margins against primary sHCC may be a risk factor for BDTT development.
Small hepatocellular carcinoma; Recurrence; Bile ducts; Jaundice; Diagnosis
AIM: To evaluate the clinical significance of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in plasma and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progress.
METHODS: CIMP status of 108 HCC patients was analyzed using a methylation marker panel in tumor tissues and plasma with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Fifteen samples of non-neoplastic liver tissues and 60 of plasma from healthy persons were examined simultaneously. Examined genes included APC, WIF-1, RUNX-3, DLC-1, SFRP-1, DKK and E-cad.
RESULTS: The frequencies of high-level methylation in HCC tissue and plasma were at least 15% for the seven genes: APC, 48/108, 44.44% in tissue and 26/108, 24.07% in plasma; WIF-1, 53/108, 49.07% in tissue and 35/108, 32.41% in plasma; RUNX-3, 52/108, 48.14% in tissue and 42/108, 38.89% in plasma; DLC-1, 38/108, 35.18% in tissue and 23/108, 21.30% in plasma; SFRP-1, 40/108, 37.04% in tissue and 31/108, 28.7% in plasma; DKK, 39/108, 36.1% in tissue and 25/108, 23.14% in plasma; and E-cad, 37/108, 34.3% in tissue and 18/108, 16.67% in plasma. CIMP+ (≥ 3 methylated genes) was detected in 68 (60.2%) tumor tissue samples and 62 (57.4%) plasma samples. CIMP was not detected in non-neoplastic liver tissues or plasma of healthy persons. CIMP status in tumor tissues differed significantly in gender, hepatitis B surface antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained with plasma samples (P < 0.05). There was no difference in CIMP status in age, presence of hepatitis C virus antibody, cirrhosis, number of nodes, number of tumors, tumor size, or Edmondson-Steiner stage. A one-year follow-up found that the metastatic rate and recurrence rate in the CIMP+ group were significantly higher than in the CIMP- group as assessed with plasma samples (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Plasma DNA can be a reliable sample source for CIMP analysis. CIMP in plasma may serve as a molecular marker of late-stage and poor-prognosis HCC.
CpG island methylator phenotype; Methylation; Plasma; Prognosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma
AIM: To investigate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on adipose tissue infiltration and lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression in rat aortas.
METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomized into three groups: normal chow (control), high fat diet (HD) and high fat diet with sleeve gastrectomy (SG). After surgery, the HD and SG groups were fed a high fat diet. Animals were sacrificed and plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were determined. LOX-1 protein and LOX-1 mRNA expression was also measured. Aortas were stained with Nile red to visualize adipose tissue.
RESULT: Body weights were higher in the HD group compared to the other groups. HDL levels in control, HD, and SG groups were 32.9 ± 6.2 mg/dL, 43.4 ± 4.0 mg/dL and 37.5 ± 4.3 mg/dL, respectively. LDL levels in control, HD, and SG groups were 31.8 ± 4.5 mg/dL, 53.3 ± 5.1 mg/dL and 40.5 ± 3.7 mg/dL, respectively. LOX-1 protein and LOX-1 mRNA expression was greater in the HD group versus the other groups. Staining for adipose tissue in aortas was greater in the HD group in comparison to the other groups. Thus, a high fat diet elevates LOX-1 protein and mRNA expression in aorta.
CONCLUSION: Sleeve gastrectomy decreases plasma LDL levels, and downregulates LOX-1 protein and mRNA expression.
Sleeve gastrectomy; Morbid obesity; High fat diet; Aorta; Lipoprotein receptor-1 expression