The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)–mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a key regulator of cellular metabolism. We used conditional deletion of Tsc1 to address how quiescence is associated with the function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We demonstrate that Tsc1 deletion in the HSCs drives them from quiescence into rapid cycling, with increased mitochondrial biogenesis and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, this deletion dramatically reduced both hematopoiesis and self-renewal of HSCs, as revealed by serial and competitive bone marrow transplantation. In vivo treatment with an ROS antagonist restored HSC numbers and functions. These data demonstrated that the TSC–mTOR pathway maintains the quiescence and function of HSCs by repressing ROS production. The detrimental effect of up-regulated ROS in metabolically active HSCs may explain the well-documented association between quiescence and the “stemness” of HSCs.
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) cascades after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation contributes to innate immune responses. Signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α, a member of the SIRP family that is abundantly expressed in macrophages, has been implicated in regulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In addition, SIRPα can negatively regulate the phagocytosis of host cells by macrophages, indicating an inhibitory role of SIRPα in innate immunity. We provide evidences that SIRPα is an essential endogenous regulator of the innate immune activation upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. SIRPα expression was promptly reduced in macrophages after LPS stimulation. The decrease in SIRPα expression levels was required for initiation of LPS-induced innate immune responses because overexpression of SIRPα reduced macrophage responses to LPS. Knockdown of SIRPα caused prolonged activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways and augmented production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN). Mice transferred with SIRPα-depleted macrophages were highly susceptible to endotoxic shock, developing multiple organ failure and exhibiting a remarkable increase in mortality. SIRPα may accomplish this mainly through its association and sequestration of the LPS signal transducer SHP-2. Thus, SIRPα functions as a biologically important modulator of TLR signaling and innate immunity.
B7H/B7RP (hereby called B7H) is a new member of the B7 family of costimulatory molecules and interacts with inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS). Its function for CD8 T cells has not been reported. We report here that expression of B7H on the tumor cells reduced tumorigenicity and induced immunity to subsequent challenge with parental tumor cells. The immune protection correlates with an enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against P1A, the major tumor antigen expressed in the J558 tumor. To understand the mechanism of immune protection, we adoptively transferred transgenic T cells specific for tumor antigen P1A into mice that bore P1A-expressing tumors. We found that while the transgenic T cells divided faster in mice bearing the B7H+ tumors, optimal B7H-induced clonal expansion of P1CTL required costimulation by B7–1 and B7–2 on the endogenous host antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Interestingly, when B7H+ and B7H− tumors were coinjected, P1CTL selectively eliminated the B7H+ tumor cells. Moreover, B7H expressed on the tumor cells made them highly susceptible to destruction by CTL in vivo, even if the CTL was administrated into mice with large tumor burdens. Tumors that recurred in the P1CTL-treated mice lost transfected B7H and/or H-2Ld, the class I molecule that presents the P1A peptide. Taken together, our results reveal that B7H costimulates clonal expansion of, and cognate destruction by CD8+ T lymphocytes in vivo.
cytotoxic T lymphocytes; tumor immunity; B7H; effector function; clonal expansion
As shown in humanized mice, a population of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can reduce the severity and mortality of disease caused by infection with human and avian influenza viruses.
There are few antiviral drugs for treating influenza, and the emergence of antiviral resistance has further limited the available therapeutic options. Furthermore, antivirals are not invariably effective in severe influenza, such as that caused by H5N1 viruses. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells expanded by the aminobisphosphonate pamidronate (PAM) kill influenza virus–infected cells and inhibit viral replication in vitro. In Rag2−/−γc−/− immunodeficient mice reconstituted with human peripheral mononuclear cells (huPBMCs), PAM reduces disease severity and mortality caused by human seasonal H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza virus, and controls the lung inflammation and viral replication. PAM has no such effects in influenza virus–infected Rag2−/−γc−/− mice reconstituted with Vγ9Vδ2 T cell–depleted huPBMCs. Our study provides proof-of-concept of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating influenza by targeting the host rather than the virus, thereby reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. As PAM has been commonly used to treat osteoporosis and Paget’s disease, this new application of an old drug potentially offers a safe and readily available option for treating influenza.
Memory CD4+ T cells that produce both Th2 and Th17 cytokines are increased in the blood of patients with atopic asthma and in the lungs of asthmatic mice, where they contribute to inflammation.
The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. However, the identity and functions of IL-17–producing T cells during the pathogenesis of allergic diseases remain unclear. Here, we report a novel subset of TH2 memory/effector cells that coexpress the transcription factors GATA3 and RORγt and coproduce TH17 and TH2 cytokines. Classical TH2 memory/effector cells had the potential to produce IL-17 after stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-21. The number of IL-17-TH2 cells was significantly increased in blood of patients with atopic asthma. In a mouse model of allergic lung diseases, IL-17–producing CD4+ TH2 cells were induced in the inflamed lung and persisted as the dominant IL-17–producing T cell population during the chronic stage of asthma. Treating cultured bronchial epithelial cells with IL-17 plus TH2 cytokines induced strong up-regulation of chemokine eotaxin-3, Il8, Mip1b, and Groa gene expression. Compared with classical TH17 and TH2 cells, antigen-specific IL-17–producing TH2 cells induced a profound influx of heterogeneous inflammatory leukocytes and exacerbated asthma. Our findings highlight the plasticity of TH2 memory cells and suggest that IL-17–producing TH2 cells may represent the key pathogenic TH2 cells promoting the exacerbation of allergic asthma.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) polymorphisms are independent risk factors for Crohn's disease and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In Crohn's disease, the proinflammatory state resulting from NOD2 mutations have been associated with a loss of antibacterial function of enterocytes such as paneth cells. NOD2 has not been studied in experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Using chimeric recipients with NOD2−/− hematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that NOD2 deficiency in host hematopoietic cells exacerbates GVHD. We found that proliferation and activation of donor T cells was enhanced in NOD-deficient allo-BMT recipients, suggesting that NOD2 plays a role in the regulation of host antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Next, we used bone marrow chimeras in an experimental colitis model and observed again that NOD2 deficiency in the hematopoietic cells results in increased intestinal inflammation. We conclude that NOD2 regulates the development of GVHD through its inhibitory effect on host APC function.
If irradiated tumor cells could be rendered immunogenic, they would provide a safe, broad, and patient-specific array of antigens for immunotherapies. Prior approaches have emphasized genetic transduction of live tumor cells to express cytokines, costimulators, and surrogate foreign antigens. We asked if immunity could be achieved by delivering irradiated, major histocompatibility complex–negative plasmacytoma cells to maturing mouse dendritic cells (DCs) within lymphoid organs. Tumor cells injected intravenously (i.v.) were captured by splenic DCs, whereas subcutaneous (s.c.) injection led only to weak uptake in lymph node or spleen. The natural killer T (NKT) cells mobilizing glycolipid α-galactosyl ceramide, used to mature splenic DCs, served as an effective adjuvant to induce protective immunity. This adjuvant function was mimicked by a combination of poly IC and agonistic αCD40 antibody. The adjuvant glycolipid had to be coadministered with tumor cells i.v. rather than s.c. Specific resistance was generated both to a plasmacytoma and lymphoma. The resistance afforded by a single vaccination lasted >2 mo and required both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Mature tumor capturing DCs stimulated the differentiation of P1A tumor antigen-specific, CD8+ T cells and uniquely transferred tumor resistance to naive mice. Therefore, the access of dying tumor cells to DCs that are maturing to activated NKT cells efficiently induces long-lived adaptive resistance.
In the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis (MS), autoreactive T cells must be activated and clonally expand in the lymphoid organs, and then migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) where they undergo further activation. It is unclear whether the autoreactive T cells further expand in the CNS and if so, what interactions are required for this process. We have demonstrated previously that expression by the host cells of the heat-stable antigen (CD24), which was recently identified as a genetic modifier for MS, is essential for their susceptibility to EAE. Here we show that CD24 is essential for local clonal expansion and persistence of T cells after their migration into the CNS, and that expression of CD24 on either hematopoietic cells or nonhematopoietic antigen-presenting cells in the recipient is sufficient to confer susceptibility to EAE.
costimulatory molecules; autoimmune diseases; central nervous system; multiple sclerosis; clonal expansion
B7H1 (PDL1) and B7DC (PDL2) are two new members of the B7 family that can interact with PD-1, a putative negative regulator for immune function. Recent studies have provided evidence for inhibitory functions of both members via PD-1. Meanwhile, compelling evidence exists for costimulatory function of both members. Here we demonstrate that expression of B7DC on the tumor cells promotes CD8 T cell–mediated rejection of tumor cells, at both the induction and effector phase of antitumor immunity. Moreover, B7DC binds to PD-1(−/−) cells and enhances T cell killing in a PD-1–independent mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel pathway for B7DC to promote tumor immunity and may reconcile the apparently contradictory findings on the function of B7DC.
tumor immunity; costimulatory molecules; cytolytic T lymphocytes
A number of in vitro studies have suggested that costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 and their receptor CD28 can promote clonal deletion, and limited in vivo studies have indicated that CD28 is involved in the clonal deletion of some T cells. However, the significance of B7-mediated clonal deletion in preventing autoimmune diseases has not been studied systematically. Here we report that the perinatal blockade of B7-1 and B7-2 substantially inhibits the clonal deletion of T cells in the thymus and leads to an accumulation of T cells capable of inducing fatal multiorgan inflammation. These results reveal a critical role for costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in deleting pathogenic autoreactive T cells in the thymus. The critical role of B7-1 and B7-2 in T cell clonal deletion may explain, at least in part, the paradoxical increase of autoimmune disease in mice deficient for this family of costimulatory molecules, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated molecule 4, CD28, and B7-2. The strong pathogenicity of the self-reactive T cells supports a central hypothesis in immunology, which is that clonal deletion plays an important role in preventing autoimmune diseases.
autoimmunity; clonal deletion; B7-1 and B7-2; CD28; CTLA-4
Conventional DCs from mice lacking zDC (also known as Zbtb46) express more MHCII and produce more VEGF in the steady state.
Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) process and present antigens to T cells. Under steady-state conditions, antigen presentation by cDCs induces tolerance. In contrast, during infection or inflammation, cDCs become activated, express higher levels of cell surface MHC molecules, and induce strong adaptive immune responses. We recently identified a cDC-restricted zinc finger transcription factor, zDC (also known as Zbtb46 or Btbd4), that is not expressed by other immune cell populations, including plasmacytoid DCs, monocytes, or macrophages. We define the zDC consensus DNA binding motif and the genes regulated by zDC using chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing. By deleting zDC from the mouse genome, we show that zDC is primarily a negative regulator of cDC gene expression. zDC deficiency alters the cDC subset composition in the spleen in favor of CD8+ DCs, up-regulates activation pathways in steady-state cDCs, including elevated MHC II expression, and enhances cDC production of vascular endothelial growth factor leading to increased vascularization of skin-draining lymph nodes. Consistent with these observations, zDC protein expression is rapidly down-regulated after TLR stimulation. Thus, zDC is a TLR-responsive, cDC-specific transcriptional repressor that is in part responsible for preventing cDC maturation in the steady state.
HMGB1 orchestrates leukocyte recruitment and their induction to secrete inflammatory cytokines by switching between mutually exclusive redox states.
Tissue damage causes inflammation, by recruiting leukocytes and activating them to release proinflammatory mediators. We show that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) orchestrates both processes by switching among mutually exclusive redox states. Reduced cysteines make HMGB1 a chemoattractant, whereas a disulfide bond makes it a proinflammatory cytokine and further cysteine oxidation to sulfonates by reactive oxygen species abrogates both activities. We show that leukocyte recruitment and activation can be separated. A nonoxidizable HMGB1 mutant in which serines replace all cysteines (3S-HMGB1) does not promote cytokine production, but is more effective than wild-type HMGB1 in recruiting leukocytes in vivo. BoxA, a HMGB1 inhibitor, interferes with leukocyte recruitment but not with activation. We detected the different redox forms of HMGB1 ex vivo within injured muscle. HMGB1 is completely reduced at first and disulfide-bonded later. Thus, HMGB1 orchestrates both key events in sterile inflammation, leukocyte recruitment and their induction to secrete inflammatory cytokines, by adopting mutually exclusive redox states.
By suppressing expression of TRAF6 and IRAK1, miR-146a regulates NF-κB activation in T cells through a negative feedback loop and controls the resolution of T cell responses in mice.
T cell responses in mammals must be tightly regulated to both provide effective immune protection and avoid inflammation-induced pathology. NF-κB activation is a key signaling event induced by T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Dysregulation of NF-κB is associated with T cell–mediated inflammatory diseases and malignancies, highlighting the importance of negative feedback control of TCR-induced NF-κB activity. In this study we show that in mice, T cells lacking miR-146a are hyperactive in both acute antigenic responses and chronic inflammatory autoimmune responses. TCR-driven NF-κB activation up-regulates the expression of miR-146a, which in turn down-regulates NF-κB activity, at least partly through repressing the NF-κB signaling transducers TRAF6 and IRAK1. Thus, our results identify miR-146a as an important new member of the negative feedback loop that controls TCR signaling to NF-κB. Our findings also add microRNA to the list of regulators that control the resolution of T cell responses.
A new method is used to isolate neutralizing antibodies recognizing a new epitope on the cell surface–expressed, but not soluble, HIV-1 spike.
Two to three years after infection, a fraction of HIV-1–infected individuals develop serologic activity that neutralizes most viral isolates. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize the HIV-1 envelope protein have been isolated from these patients by single-cell sorting and by neutralization screens. Here, we report a new method for anti–HIV-1 antibody isolation based on capturing single B cells that recognize the HIV-1 envelope protein expressed on the surface of transfected cells. Although far less efficient than soluble protein baits, the cell-based capture method identified antibodies that bind to a new broadly neutralizing epitope in the vicinity of the V3 loop and the CD4-induced site (CD4i). The new epitope is expressed on the cell surface form of the HIV-1 spike, but not on soluble forms of the same envelope protein. Moreover, the new antibodies complement the neutralization spectrum of potent broadly neutralizing anti-CD4 binding site (CD4bs) antibodies obtained from the same individual. Thus, combinations of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies with complementary activity can account for the breadth and potency of naturally arising anti–HIV-1 serologic activity. Therefore, vaccines aimed at eliciting anti–HIV-1 serologic breadth and potency should not be limited to single epitopes.
The zinc finger transcription factor zDC is uniquely expressed by the cDC lineage among immune cells, and the insertion of diphtheria toxin receptor cDNA into the zDC locus allows specific ablation of the cDC lineage in mice.
Classical dendritic cells (cDCs), monocytes, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) arise from a common bone marrow precursor (macrophage and DC progenitors [MDPs]) and express many of the same surface markers, including CD11c. We describe a previously uncharacterized zinc finger transcription factor, zDC (Zbtb46, Btbd4), which is specifically expressed by cDCs and committed cDC precursors but not by monocytes, pDCs, or other immune cell populations. We inserted diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) cDNA into the 3′ UTR of the zDC locus to serve as an indicator of zDC expression and as a means to specifically deplete cDCs. Mice bearing this knockin express DTR in cDCs but not other immune cell populations, and DT injection into zDC-DTR bone marrow chimeras results in cDC depletion. In contrast to previously characterized CD11c-DTR mice, non-cDCs, including pDCs, monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, were spared after DT injection in zDC-DTR mice. We compared immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii and MO4 melanoma in DT-treated zDC- and CD11c-DTR mice and found that immunity was only partially impaired in zDC-DTR mice. Our results indicate that CD11c-expressing non-cDCs make significant contributions to initiating immunity to parasites and tumors.
Blocking Dll4–Notch signaling can reverse established diabetes via Flt3-independent induction of immature thymic DCs that enhance Treg cell generation in mice.
Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)–Notch signaling is essential for T cell development and alternative thymic lineage decisions. How Dll4–Notch signaling affects pro-T cell fate and thymic dendritic cell (tDC) development is unknown. We found that Dll4 pharmacological blockade induces accumulation of tDCs and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the thymic cortex. Both genetic inactivation models and anti-Dll4 antibody (Ab) treatment promote de novo natural Treg cell expansion by a DC-dependent mechanism that requires major histocompatibility complex II expression on DCs. Anti-Dll4 treatment converts CD4−CD8−c-kit+CD44+CD25− (DN1) T cell progenitors to immature DCs that induce ex vivo differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into Treg cells. Induction of these tolerogenic DN1-derived tDCs and the ensuing expansion of Treg cells are Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) independent, occur in the context of transcriptional up-regulation of PU.1, Irf-4, Irf-8, and CSF-1, genes critical for DC differentiation, and are abrogated in thymectomized mice. Anti-Dll4 treatment fully prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) via a Treg cell–mediated mechanism and inhibits CD8+ T cell pancreatic islet infiltration. Furthermore, a single injection of anti-Dll4 Ab reverses established T1D. Disease remission and recurrence are correlated with increased Treg cell numbers in the pancreas-draining lymph nodes. These results identify Dll4–Notch as a novel Flt3-alternative pathway important for regulating tDC-mediated Treg cell homeostasis and autoimmunity.
GVHD is associated with significant shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in human and mouse models; manipulating the microbiota can alter the severity of GVHD in mice.
Despite a growing understanding of the link between intestinal inflammation and resident gut microbes, longitudinal studies of human flora before initial onset of intestinal inflammation have not been reported. Here, we demonstrate in murine and human recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) that intestinal inflammation secondary to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is associated with major shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiota. The microbiota, in turn, can modulate the severity of intestinal inflammation. In mouse models of GVHD, we observed loss of overall diversity and expansion of Lactobacillales and loss of Clostridiales. Eliminating Lactobacillales from the flora of mice before BMT aggravated GVHD, whereas reintroducing the predominant species of Lactobacillus mediated significant protection against GVHD. We then characterized gut flora of patients during onset of intestinal inflammation caused by GVHD and found patterns mirroring those in mice. We also identified increased microbial chaos early after allogeneic BMT as a potential risk factor for subsequent GVHD. Together, these data demonstrate regulation of flora by intestinal inflammation and suggest that flora manipulation may reduce intestinal inflammation and improve outcomes for allogeneic BMT recipients.
The PET imaging agent CuII(atsm) improves motor and cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, chronic disease characterized by dyskinesia, rigidity, instability, and tremors. The disease is defined by the presence of Lewy bodies, which primarily consist of aggregated α-synuclein protein, and is accompanied by the loss of monoaminergic neurons. Current therapeutic strategies only give symptomatic relief of motor impairment and do not address the underlying neurodegeneration. Hence, we have identified CuII(atsm) as a potential therapeutic for PD. Drug administration to four different animal models of PD resulted in improved motor and cognition function, rescued nigral cell loss, and improved dopamine metabolism. In vitro, this compound is able to inhibit the effects of peroxynitrite-driven toxicity, including the formation of nitrated α-synuclein oligomers. Our results show that CuII(atsm) is effective in reversing parkinsonian defects in animal models and has the potential to be a successful treatment of PD.
B cells from Cernunnos-deficient patients contain aberrant class switch recombination junctions, and a dominant-negative Cernunnos mutation was detected in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma sample.
Cernunnos is involved in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) process during DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we studied immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR), a physiological process which relies on proper repair of the DSBs, in B cells from Cernunnos-deficient patients. The pattern of in vivo generated CSR junctions is altered in these cells, with unusually long microhomologies and a lack of direct end-joining. The CSR junctions from Cernunnos-deficient patients largely resemble those from patients lacking DNA ligase IV, Artemis, or ATM, suggesting that these factors are involved in the same end-joining pathway during CSR. By screening 269 mature B cell lymphoma biopsies, we also identified a somatic missense Cernunnos mutation in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma sample. This mutation has a dominant-negative effect on joining of a subset of DNA ends in an in vitro NHEJ assay. Translocations involving both Ig heavy chain loci and clonal-like, dynamic IgA switching activities were observed in this tumor. Collectively, our results suggest a link between defects in the Cernunnos-dependent NHEJ pathway and aberrant CSR or switch translocations during the development of B cell malignancies.
BMP7 released by bone marrow stromal cells induces reversible senescence of prostate cancer stem-like cells, and BMPR2 expression inversely correlates with bone metastasis and recurrence in prostate cancer patients.
Metastatic disease is the major cause of cancer deaths, and recurrent tumors at distant organs are a critical issue. However, how metastatic tumor cells become dormant and how and why tumors recur in target organs are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that BMP7 (bone morphogenetic protein 7) secreted from bone stromal cells induces senescence in prostate cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and increasing expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21, and the metastasis suppressor gene, NDRG1 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1). This effect of BMP7 depended on BMPR2 (BMP receptor 2), and BMPR2 expression inversely correlated with recurrence and bone metastasis in prostate cancer patients. Importantly, this BMP7-induced senescence in CSCs was reversible upon withdrawal of BMP7. Furthermore, treatment of mice with BMP7 significantly suppressed the growth of CSCs in bone, whereas the withdrawal of BMP7 restarted growth of these cells. These results suggest that the BMP7–BMPR2–p38–NDRG1 axis plays a critical role in dormancy and recurrence of prostate CSCs in bone and suggest a potential therapeutic utility of BMP7 for recurrent metastatic disease.
In a manner dependent on CD4 T cell help and Toll-like receptor signals, B cells lacking WASp induce autoantibody production and autoimmune disease in mice.
Patients with the immunodeficiency Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) frequently develop systemic autoimmunity. Here, we demonstrate that mutation of the WAS gene results in B cells that are hyperresponsive to B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals in vitro, thereby promoting a B cell–intrinsic break in tolerance. Whereas this defect leads to autoantibody production in WAS protein–deficient (WASp−/−) mice without overt disease, chimeric mice in which only the B cell lineage lacks WASp exhibit severe autoimmunity characterized by spontaneous germinal center formation, class-switched autoantibodies, renal histopathology, and early mortality. Both T cell help and B cell–intrinsic TLR engagement play important roles in promoting disease in this model, as depletion with anti-CD4 antibodies or generation of chimeric mice with B cells deficient in both WASp and MyD88 prevented development of autoimmune disease. These data highlight the potentially harmful role for cell-intrinsic loss of B cell tolerance in the setting of normal T cell function, and may explain why WAS patients with mixed chimerism after stem cell transplantation often develop severe humoral autoimmunity.
Bcl11b is required for optimal FoxP3 expression and suppressor function by regulatory T cells and for the generation of inducible regulatory T cells.
Dysregulated CD4+ T cell responses and alterations in T regulatory cells (Treg cells) play a critical role in autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The current study demonstrates that removal of Bcl11b at the double-positive stage of T cell development or only in Treg cells causes IBD because of proinflammatory cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells infiltrating the colon. Provision of WT Treg cells prevented IBD, demonstrating that alterations in Treg cells are responsible for the disease. Furthermore, Bcl11b-deficient Treg cells had reduced suppressor activity with altered gene expression profiles, including reduced expression of the genes encoding Foxp3 and IL-10, and up-regulation of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, the absence of Bcl11b altered the induction of Foxp3 expression and reduced the generation of induced Treg cells (iTreg cells) after Tgf-β treatment of conventional CD4+ T cells. Bcl11b bound to Foxp3 and IL-10 promoters, as well as to critical conserved noncoding sequences within the Foxp3 and IL-10 loci, and mutating the Bcl11b binding site in the Foxp3 promoter reduced expression of a luciferase reporter gene. These experiments demonstrate that Bcl11b is indispensable for Treg suppressor function and for maintenance of optimal Foxp3 and IL-10 gene expression, as well as for the induction of Foxp3 expression in conventional CD4+ T cells in response to Tgf-β and generation of iTreg cells.
A common Shp2 mutation leads to myeloproliferative disease and malignant acute leukemia in stem cells and committed progenitors, associated with Shp2 maintaining chromosomal stability
Activating mutations in protein tyrosine phosphatase 11 (Ptpn11) have been identified in childhood acute leukemias, in addition to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), which is a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD). It is not clear whether activating mutations of this phosphatase play a causal role in the pathogenesis of acute leukemias. If so, the cell origin of leukemia-initiating stem cells (LSCs) remains to be determined. Ptpn11E76K mutation is the most common and most active Ptpn11 mutation found in JMML and acute leukemias. However, the pathogenic effects of this mutation have not been well characterized. We have created Ptpn11E76K conditional knock-in mice. Global Ptpn11E76K/+ mutation results in early embryonic lethality. Induced knock-in of this mutation in pan hematopoietic cells leads to MPD as a result of aberrant activation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors. These animals subsequently progress to acute leukemias. Intriguingly, in addition to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) and B-ALL are evolved. Moreover, tissue-specific knock-in of Ptpn11E76K/+ mutation in lineage-committed myeloid, T lymphoid, and B lymphoid progenitors also results in AML, T-ALL, and B-ALL, respectively. Further analyses have revealed that Shp2 (encoded by Ptpn11) is distributed to centrosomes and that Ptpn11E76K/+ mutation promotes LSC development, partly by causing centrosome amplification and genomic instability. Thus, Ptpn11E76K mutation has non–lineage-specific effects on malignant transformation of hematopoietic cells and initiates acute leukemias at various stages of hematopoiesis.
As shown by analyses of morphology, gene expression, antigen-presenting function, and Flt3 dependence, the steady-state mouse brain contains a population of DCs that exhibits similarities to splenic DCs and differences from microglia.
Antigen-presenting cells in the disease-free brain have been identified primarily by expression of antigens such as CD11b, CD11c, and MHC II, which can be shared by dendritic cells (DCs), microglia, and monocytes. In this study, starting with the criterion of Flt3 (FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3)-dependent development, we characterize the features of authentic DCs within the meninges and choroid plexus in healthy mouse brains. Analyses of morphology, gene expression, and antigen-presenting function established a close relationship between meningeal and choroid plexus DCs (m/chDCs) and spleen DCs. DCs in both sites shared an intrinsic requirement for Flt3 ligand. Microarrays revealed differences in expression of transcripts encoding surface molecules, transcription factors, pattern recognition receptors, and other genes in m/chDCs compared with monocytes and microglia. Migrating pre-DC progenitors from bone marrow gave rise to m/chDCs that had a 5–7-d half-life. In contrast to microglia, DCs actively present self-antigens and stimulate T cells. Therefore, the meninges and choroid plexus of a steady-state brain contain DCs that derive from local precursors and exhibit a differentiation and antigen-presenting program similar to spleen DCs and distinct from microglia.