Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an enzyme essential for the generation of antibody diversity in B cells and is considered to be a general gene mutator. In addition, AID expression was also implicated in the pathogenesis of human B cell malignancies and associated with poor prognosis. Here we report that siRNA silencing of AID in plasmacytoma dramatically increased its susceptibility to immunotherapy by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. AID silencing did not decrease the mutation frequencies of tumor antigen gene P1A. Gene-array analysis showed dramatically altered expression of a number of genes in AID-silenced plasmacytoma cells and upregulation of CD200 was shown to be in favor of tumor eradication by CTL. Taken together, we demonstrate a novel function of AID in tumor evasion of CTL therapy and that targeting AID should be beneficial in the immunotherapy of AID positive tumors.
Activation induced cytidine deaminase; Plasmacytoma; Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes; Immune evasion
Genome-wide association studies have identified lupus susceptibility genes such as IRF5 and PRDM1 (encoding for the IRF5 and Blimp-1) in the human genome. Accordingly, the murine Irf5 and Prdm1 genes have been shown to play a role in lupus susceptibility. However, it remains unclear how IRF5 and Blimp-1 (a transcriptional target of IRF5) contribute to lupus susceptibility. Given that the murine lupus susceptibility locus Nba2 includes the interferon-regulated genes Ifi202 (encoding for the p202 protein), Aim2 (encoding for the Aim2 protein), and Fcgr2b (encoding for the FcγRIIB receptor), we investigated whether the IRF5-Blimp-1 axis could regulate the expression of these genes. We found that an Irf5-deficiency in mice decreased the expression of Blimp-1 and reduced the expression of the Ifi202. However, the deficiency increased the expression of Aim2 and Fcgr2b. Correspondingly, increased expression of IRF5 in cells increased levels of Blimp-1 and p202 protein. Moreover, Blimp-1 expression increased the expression of Ifi202, whereas it reduced the expression of Aim2. Interestingly, an Aim2-deficiency in female mice increased the expression of IRF5. Similarly, the Fcgr2b-deficient mice expressed increased levels of IRF5. Moreover, increased expression of IRF5 and Blimp-1 in lupus-prone B6.Nba2, NZB, and B6.Sle123 female mice (as compared to age-matched C57BL/6 female mice) was associated with increased levels of the p202 protein. Together, our observations demonstrate that the IRF5-Blimp-1 axis differentially regulates the expression of Nba2 lupus susceptibility genes, and suggest an important role for the IRF5-Blimp-1-p202 axis in murine lupus susceptibility.
IRF5; Blimp-1; Nba2 locus; p202; interferon; autoimmunity; SLE
Commensal flora plays important roles in the regulation of the gene expression involved in many intestinal functions and the maintenance of immune homeostasis, as well as in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, act as key regulators in many biological processes. The miRNAs are highly conserved among species and appear to play important roles in both innate and adaptive immunity, as they can control the differentiation of various immune cells as well as their functions. However, it is still largely unknown how microbiota regulates miRNA expression, thereby contributing to intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of IBD. In our current study, we found that microbiota negatively regulated intestinal miR-10a expression, in that the intestines, as well as intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, expressed much lower levels of miR-10a compared to those in germ-free (GF) mice. Commensal bacteria downregulated DC miR-10a expression via TLR-TLR ligand interactions through a MyD88-dependent pathway. We identified IL-12/IL-23p40, a key molecule for innate immune responses to commensal bacteria, as a target of miR-10a. The ectopic expression of miR-10a precursor inhibited, whereas miR-10a inhibitor promoted, the expression of IL-12/IL-23p40 in DC. Mice with colitis expressing higher levels of IL-12/IL-23p40 exhibit lower levels of intestinal miR-10a compared to that in the control mice. Collectively, our data demonstrated that microbiota negatively regulates host miR-10a expression, which may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by targeting IL-12/IL-23p40 expression.
Naïve T cells receive stimulation from the positive selecting ligand in the periphery for their survival. This stimulation does not normally lead to overt activation of T cells, as the T cells remain largely quiescent until they receive either antigenic or lymphopenic stimuli. The underlying mechanism responsible for survival and quiescence of the naïve T cells remain largely unknown. Here we report that T cell-specific deletion of Tsc1, a negative regulator of mTOR, resulted in both spontaneous losses of quiescence and cellularity, especially within the CD8 subset. The Tsc1-deficient T cells have increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Tsc1 deletion affects the survival and quiescence of T cells in the absence of antigenic stimulation. Loss of quiescence but not cellularity was inhibited by rapamycin. Our data demonstrate that TSC-mTOR maintains quiescence and survival of T cells.
Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) expressing the Forkhead Box Transcription Factor 3 (Foxp3) are critical modulators of autoimmunity. Foxp3+ Treg may develop in the thymus as a population distinct from conventional Foxp3− αβ T cells (Tconv). Alternatively, plasticity in Foxp3 expression may allow for the interconversion of mature Treg and Tconv. We examined >160,000 TCR sequences from Foxp3+ or Foxp3− populations in the spleens or CNS of wild type mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) to determine their relatedness and identify distinguishing TCR features. Our results indicate that the CNS infiltrating Treg and Tconv arise predominantly from distinct sources. The repertoires of CNS Treg or Tconv TCR showed limited overlap with heterologous populations in either the CNS or spleen, indicating that they are largely unrelated. Indeed, Treg and Tconv TCR in the CNS were significantly less related than those populations in the spleen. In contrast, CNS Treg and Tconv repertoires strongly intersected those of the homologous cell type in the spleen. High frequency sequences more likely to be disease associated showed similar results, and some public TCR demonstrated Treg or Tconv-specific motifs. Different charge characteristics and amino acid use preferences were identified in the CDR3β of Treg and Tconv infiltrating the CNS, further indicating that their repertoires are qualitatively distinct. Therefore discrete populations of Treg and Tconv that do not substantially interconvert respond during EAE. Differences in sequence and physical characteristics distinguish Treg and Tconv TCR and imply dissimilar antigen recognition properties.
Infection with the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a potent Th2 response; however, little is known about early stages of the innate response that may contribute to protective immunity. To examine early events in this response, chemokine expression in the draining lymph node was examined after N. brasiliensis inoculation. Pronounced increases of several chemokines, including CCL2, were observed. Compared with wild-type mice, elevations in a Gr-1bright population in the draining lymph node was significantly decreased in CCL2−/− mice after N. brasiliensis inoculation. Further flow cytometric and immunofluorescent analysis showed that in wild-type mice, Gr-1+ cells transiently entered and exited the draining lymph node shortly after N. brasiliensis inoculation. The Gr-1bright population was comprised of neutrophils expressing TGF-β and TNF-α. Following Gr-1+ cell depletion, N. brasiliensis infection resulted in transient, but significantly increased levels of IFN-γ, increased serum IgG2a, reduced Th2 cytokines and serum IgE, greatly increased mortality, and delayed worm expulsion. Furthermore, bacteria were readily detected in vital organs. Infection of Gr-1+ cell-depleted mice with N. brasiliensis larvae that were pretreated with antibiotics prevented bacterial dissemination, Th1 inflammatory responses, and decreases in host survival. This study indicates that parasitic nematodes can be an important vector of potentially harmful bacteria, which is typically controlled by CCL2-dependent neutrophils that ensure the optimal development of Th2 immune responses and parasite resistance.
Previous studies have suggested that B cells promote Th2 cell development by inhibiting Th1 cell differentiation. To examine whether B cells are directly required for the development of IL-4-producing T cells in the lymph node during a highly polarized Th2 response, B cell-deficient and wild-type mice were inoculated with the nematode parasite, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. On day 7, in the absence of increased IFN-γ, IL-4 protein and gene expression from CD4 T cells in the draining lymph nodes were markedly reduced in B cell-deficient mice and could not be restored by multiple immunizations. Using a DO11.10 T cell adoptive transfer system, OVA-specific T cell IL-4 production and cell cycle progression, but not cell surface expression of early activation markers, were impaired in B cell-deficient recipient mice following immunization with N. brasiliensis plus OVA. Laser capture microdissection and immunofluorescent staining showed that pronounced IL-4 mRNA and protein secretion by donor DO11.10 T cells first occurred in the T cell:B cell zone of the lymph node shortly after inoculation of IL-4−/− recipients, suggesting that this microenvironment is critical for initial Th2 cell development. Reconstitution of B cell-deficient mice with wild-type naive B cells, or IL-4−/− B cells, substantially restored Ag-specific T cell IL-4 production. However, reconstitution with B7-1/B7-2-deficient B cells failed to rescue the IL-4-producing DO11.10 T cells. These results suggest that B cells, expressing B7 costimulatory molecules, are required in the absence of an underlying IFN-γ-mediated response for the development of a polarized primary Ag-specific Th2 response in vivo.
The intestinal nematode parasite, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, triggers potent type 2 immunity. Using OVA peptide as a model Ag, we have examined the adjuvant effects of this parasite on the in vivo development of Ag-specific Th2 cells from naive DO11.10 T cells. Our findings show that Th2 cells can develop from transferred naive OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells in recipient IL-4–/– mice inoculated with N. brasiliensis plus OVA. However, autocrine IL-4 is required for in situ Th2 cell differentiation since transferred IL-4Rα-deficient DO11.10 T cells showed greatly reduced Th2 cell development in inoculated IL-4–/– recipient mice. Surprisingly, we also found that IL-2 blockade promoted B7-dependent T cell cycling, but inhibited the development of OVA-specific Th2 cells. Furthermore, the effects of IL-2 occurred independently of CD25+ T regulatory cells. These studies establish a previously unrecognized requirement for autocrine IL-4 and IL-2 in Th2 responses elicited by nematode parasites.
The capacity of the osteoclast (OC) to resorb bone is dictated by cytoskeletal organization which, in turn, emanates from signals derived from the αvβ3 integrin and c-Fms. Syk is key to these signals and, in other cells, this tyrosine kinase exerts its effects via intermediaries including the SLP-adaptors, SLP-76 and BLNK. Thus, we asked if these two SLP proteins regulate OC function. We find BLNK-deficient OCs are normal, while cytoskeletal organization of those lacking SLP-76 is delayed, thus modestly reducing bone resorption, in vitro. Cytoskeletal organization and bone resorption are more profoundly arrested in cultured OCs deficient in BLNK and SLP-76 (double knockout; DKO). On the other hand, stimulated bone resorption, in vivo, is inhibited approximately 40% in either SLP-76−/− or DKO mice. This observation, taken with the fact that DKO OCs are rescued by retroviral transduction of only SLP-76, indicates that SLP-76 is the dominant SLP-family member in the resorptive process. We also find SLP-76 is phosphorylated in a Syk-dependent manner. Furthermore, in the absence of the adaptor protein, integrin-mediated phosphorylation of Vav3, the OC cytoskeleton-organizing guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), is abrogated. In keeping with a central role of SLP-76/Vav3 association in osteoclastic resorption, retroviral transduction of SLP-76, in which the Vav binding site is disrupted (3YF), fails to normalize the cytoskeleton of DKO OCs and the cell’s resorptive capacity. Finally, c-Fms-activated Syk also exerts its OC cytoskeleton-organizing effect in a SLP-76/Vav3-dependent manner.
Cells-Monocytes/Macrophages; Diseases-Rheumatoid Arthritis; Molecules-Adhesion Molecules; Processes-Signal Transduction
Glutathione reductase (Gsr)3 catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide to glutathione, which plays an important role in the bactericidal function of phagocytes. Since Gsr has been implicated in the oxidative burst in human neutrophils and is abundantly expressed in the lymphoid system, we hypothesized that Gsr-deficient mice would exhibit marked defects during the immune response against bacterial challenge. We report here that Gsr-null mice exhibited enhanced susceptibility to Escherichia coli challenge, indicated by dramatically increased bacterial burden, cytokine storm, striking histological abnormalities, and substantially elevated mortality. Additionally, Gsr-null mice exhibited elevated sensitivity to Staphylococcus aureus. Examination of the bactericidal functions of the neutrophils from Gsr-deficient mice in vitro revealed impaired phagocytosis and defective bacterial killing activities. Although Gsr catalyzes the regeneration of glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant, Gsr-deficient neutrophils paradoxically produced far less reactive oxygen species upon activation both ex vivo and in vivo. Unlike wildtype neutrophils that exhibited a sustained oxidative burst upon stimulation with phorbol ester and fMLP, Gsr-deficient neutrophils displayed a very transient oxidative burst that abruptly ceased shortly after stimulation. Likewise, Gsr-deficient neutrophils also exhibited an attenuated oxidative burst upon encountering E. coli. Biochemical analysis revealed that the hexose monophosphate shunt was compromised in Gsr-deficient neutrophils. Moreover, Gsr-deficient neutrophils displayed a marked impairment in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, a bactericidal mechanism which operates after neutrophil death. Thus, Gsr-mediated redox regulation is crucial for bacterial clearance during host defense against massive bacterial challenge.
IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T cells autoreactive across myelin components are central to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Using direct in vivo, adoptive transfer, and in vitro systems, here we show that the generation of these effectors in MOG35–55 induced EAE depends on interactions of locally produced C3a/C5a with APC and T cell C3aR/C5aR. In the absence of the cell surface C3/C5 convertase inhibitor decay accelerating factor (DAF) but not the combined absence of DAF and C5aR and/or C3aR on APC and T cells, a heightened local autoimmune response occurs in which myelin destruction is markedly augmented in concert with markedly more IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ T cell generation. The augmented T cell response is due to increased IL-12 and IL-23 elaboration by APCs together with increased T cell expression of the receptors for each cytokine. The results apply to initial generation of the IL-17 phenotype since naïve CD62Lhi
Daf1−/− T cells produce 3-fold more IL-17 in response to TGF-β and IL-6 while CD62Lhi
Daf1−/−C5aR−/−C3aR−/− T cells produce 4-fold less.
Decay Accelerating Factor; EAE; T cell; Autoimmunity; Epitope spreading
Genetic polymorphisms of IRF5 are associated with an increased risk of lupus in humans. Here, we examined the role of IRF5 in the pathogenesis of pristane-induced lupus in mice. The pathological response to pristane in IRF5−/− mice shared many features with IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) −/− and TLR7−/− mice: production of anti-Sm/RNP autoantibodies, glomerulonephritis, generation of Ly6Chi monocytes, and IFN-I production all were greatly attenuated. Lymphocyte activation following pristane injection was greatly diminished in IRF5−/− mice and helper T cell differentiation was deviated from TH1 in wild type mice toward TH2 in IRF5−/− mice. TH cell development was skewed similarly in TLR7−/− or IFNAR−/− mice, suggesting that IRF5 alters T cell activation and differentiation by affecting cytokine production. Indeed, production of IFN-I, IL-12, and IL-23 in response to pristane was markedly decreased, whereas IL-4 increased. Unexpectedly, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were not recruited to the site of inflammation in IRF5−/− or MyD88−/− mice, but were recruited normally in IFNAR−/− and TLR7−/− mice. In striking contrast to wild type mice, pristane did not stimulate local expression of CCL19 and CCL21 in IRF5−/− mice, suggesting that IRF5 regulates chemokine-mediated pDC migration independently of its effects on IFN-I. Collectively, these data indicate that altered production of IFN-I and other cytokines in IRF5−/− mice prevents pristane from inducing lupus pathology by broadly affecting T and B lymphocyte activation/differentiation. Additionally, we uncovered a new, IFN-I independent, role of IRF5 in regulating chemokines involved in the homing of pDCs and certain lymphocyte subsets.
Notch1 activation by Delta-like (DL) Notch ligands is essential to induce T cell commitment and to suppress B cell development from thymus-seeding progenitors. Thymus-seeding progenitor competition for DL4 is critically regulated by Lunatic Fringe (Lfng), which glycosylates epidermal growth factor repeats in the Notch1 extracellular domain to enhance binding avidity for DL ligands. Notch1 activation is also essential for the process of β-selection, which drives TCRβ+ CD4/CD8 double-negative 3 (DN3) precursors to proliferate and generate a large pool of CD4/CD8 double-positive thymocytes. We have used several genetic approaches to determine the importance of Lfng–Notch1 interactions in regulating competition of preselection and postselection DN3 thymocytes for DL ligands in vivo. Surprisingly, although Lfng overexpression enhanced DL4 binding by preselection DN3a thymocytes, it did not confer them with a competitive advantage in mixed chimeras. In contrast, Lfng overexpression enhanced competition of post–β-selection DN3b precursors for DL ligands. Lfng modification of O-fucose in the Notch1 ligand-binding domain contributed to but was not solely responsible for the developmental effects of Lfng overexpression. Although previous studies have suggested that pre–TCR-deficient DN3 thymocytes compete poorly for DL ligands, Lfng overexpression did not fully restore double-positive thymocyte pools from DN3b cells with pre-TCR signaling defects. Thus, pre-TCR and Notch signaling have largely nonoverlapping functions in β-selection. Collectively, our data reveal that Lfng enhances DN3b precursor competition for intrathymic DL ligands to maximize Notch-induced clonal expansion during the earliest stage of β-selection.
Age-related adiposity has been linked to chronic inflammatory diseases in late-life. To date, the studies on adipose tissue leukocytes and aging have not taken into account the heterogeneity of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), nor have they examined how age impacts other leukocytes such as T cell in fat. Therefore, we have performed a detailed examination of ATM subtypes in young and old mice using state of the art techniques. Our results demonstrate qualitative changes in ATMs with aging that generate a decrease in resident Type 2 (M2) ATMs. The profile of ATMs in old fat shifts towards a pro-inflammatory environment with increased numbers of CD206-CD11c- (double negative) ATMs. The mechanism of this aging-induced shift in the phenotypic profile of ATMs was found to be related to a decrease in PPARγ expression in ATMs and alterations in chemokine/chemokine receptor expression profiles. Furthermore, we have revealed a profound and unexpected expansion of adipose tissue T (ATT) cells in visceral fat with aging that includes a significant induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in fat. Our findings demonstrate a unique inflammatory cell signature in the physiologic context of aging adipose tissue that differs from those induced in setting of diet-induced obesity.
Signaling by innate immune receptors initiates and orchestrates the overall immune responses to infection. Macrophage receptors recognizing pathogens can be broadly grouped into surface receptors and receptors restricted to intracellular compartments, such as phagosomes and the cytoplasm. There is an expectation that ingestion and degradation of microorganisms by phagocytes contributes to activation of intracellular innate receptors, although direct demonstrations of this are rare and many model ligands are studied in soluble form, outside of their microbial context. By comparing a wild-type strain of Staphylococcus aureus and a lysozyme-sensitive mutant, we have been able to directly address the role of degradation of live bacteria by mouse macrophages in determining the overall innate cellular inflammatory response. Our investigations revealed a biphasic response to S. aureus that consisted of an initial signal resulting from the engagement of surface TLR2, followed by a later, second wave on inflammatory gene induction. This second wave of inflammatory signaling was dependent on and correlated with the timing of bacterial degradation in phagosomes. We found that TLR2 signaling followed by TLR2/TLR9 signaling enhanced sensitivity to small numbers of bacteria. We further found that treating wild-type bacteria with the peptidoglycan synthesis-inhibiting antibiotic vancomycin made S. aureus more susceptible to degradation and resulted in increased inflammatory responses, similar to those observed for mutant degradation-sensitive bacteria.
An immuno-inhibitory role of B7-H1 expressed by non-T cells has been established, however, the function of B7-H1 expressed by T cells is not clear. Peak expression of B7-H1 on antigen-primed CD8 T cells was observed during the contraction phase of an immune response. Unexpectedly, B7-H1 blockade at this stage reduced the numbers of effector CD8 T cells, suggesting B7-H1 blocking antibody may disturb an unknown function of B7-H1 expressed by CD8 T cells. To exclusively examine the role of B7-H1 expressed by T cells, we introduced B7-H1 deficiency into TCR transgenic (OT-1) mice. Naive B7-H1 deficient CD8 T cells proliferated normally following antigen stimulation, however once activated, they underwent more robust contraction in vivo and more apoptosis in vitro. In addition, B7-H1 deficient CD8 T cells were more sensitive to Ca-dependent and Fas ligand-dependent killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Activation-induced Bcl-xL expression was lower in activated B7-H1 deficient CD8 T cells, while Bcl-2 and Bim expression were comparable to the wild type. Transfer of effector B7-H1 deficient CD8 T cells failed to suppress tumor growth in vivo. Thus, up-regulation of B7-H1 on primed T cells helps effector T cells survive the contraction phase and consequently generate optimal protective immunity.
The canonical Wnt-β catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in thymocyte development and T cell migration but little is known about its role in naïve-to-effector differentiation in human peripheral T cells. We show that activation of Wnt-β catenin signaling arrests human peripheral blood and cord blood T lymphocytes in the naïve stage and blocks their transition into functional T effector cells. Wnt signaling was induced in polyclonally activated human T cells by treatment either with the GSK3β inhibitor TWS119 or the physiological Wnt agonist Wnt-3a and these T cells preserved a naïve CD45RA+ CD62L+ phenotype compared to control activated T cells that progressed to a CD45RO+ CD62L- effector phenotype and this occurred in a TWS119 dose-dependent manner. TWS119-induced Wnt signaling reduced T cell expansion, as a result of block in cell division, and impaired acquisition of T cell effector function, measured by degranulation and IFN-γ production in response to T cell activation. The block in T cell division may be attributed to the reduced IL-2Rα expression in TWS119-treated T cells that lowers their capacity to utilize autocrine IL-2 for expansion. Altogether, our data suggest that Wnt-β catenin signaling is a negative regulator of naïve-to-effector T cell differentiation in human T lymphocytes. The arrest in T cell differentiation induced by Wnt signaling might have relevant clinical applications such as to preserve the naïve T cell compartment in antigen-specific T cells generated ex vivo for adoptive T cell immunotherapy.
Autophagy delivers cytoplasmic constituents to autophagosomes and is involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Cytosolic phospholipase (cPLA2) initiated pro-inflammatory lipid mediator pathways play a critical role in host defense and inflammation. The crosstalk between the two pathways remains unclear. Here, we report that cPLA2 and its metabolite lipid mediators induced autophagy in the RAW246.7 macrophage cell line and in primary monocytes. IFN-γ triggered autophagy involves activation of cPLA2. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) D4 and E4 and Prostagladin D2 (PGD2) also induced these effects. The autophagy is independent of changes in mTOR or autophagic flux. cPLA2 and lipid mediator-induced autophagy is ATG5 dependent. These data suggest that lipid mediators play a role in the regulation of autophagy, demonstrating a connection between the two seemingly separate innate immune responses, induction of autophagy and lipid mediator generation.
Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients despite modern advances in critical care. Intestinal barrier dysfunction may lead to secondary bacterial translocation and the development of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome during sepsis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is highly upregulated in the intestine during sepsis and we hypothesized that it may be critical in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial barrier function during peritonitis-induced polymicrobial sepsis. COX-2−/− and COX-2+/+ BALB/c mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery. Mice chimeric for COX-2 were derived by bone marrow transplantation and underwent CLP. C2BBe1 cells, an intestinal epithelial cell line, were treated with the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398, PGD2, or vehicle and stimulated with cytokines. COX-2−/− mice developed exaggerated bacteremia and increased mortality compared with COX-2+/+ mice following CLP. Mice chimeric for COX-2 exhibited the recipient phenotype suggesting that epithelial COX-2 expression in the ileum attenuates bacteremia following CLP. Absence of COX-2 significantly increased epithelial permeability of the ileum and reduced expression of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1 in the ileum following CLP. Furthermore, PGD2 attenuated cytokine-induced hyperpermeability and ZO-1 downregulation in NS-398-treated C2BBe1 cells. Our findings reveal that absence of COX-2 is associated with enhanced intestinal epithelial permeability and leads to exaggerated bacterial translocation and increased mortality during peritonitis-induced sepsis. Taken together, our results suggest that epithelial expression of COX-2 in the ileum is a critical modulator of tight junction protein expression and intestinal barrier function during sepsis.
Inhalation of ambient ozone alters populations of lung macrophages. However, the impact of altered lung macrophage populations on the pathobiology of ozone is poorly understood. We hypothesized that sub-populations of macrophages modulate the response to ozone. We exposed C57BL/6 mice to ozone (2 ppm × 3h) or filtered air. 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were harvested and digested and the cells underwent flow cytometry. Analysis revealed a novel macrophage subset present in ozone exposed mice, which were distinct from resident alveolar macrophages (AM) and identified by enhanced Gr-1+ expression (Gr-1 Macs). Further analysis identified that Gr-1+ Macs exhibited high expression of MARCO, CX3CR1, and NQO1. Gr-1+ Macs were present in the absence of CCR2, suggesting that they were not derived from a CCR2-dependent circulating intermediate. Using PKH26-PCL to label resident phagocytic cells, we demonstrated that Gr-1 Macs were derived from resident lung cells. This new subset was diminished in the absence of CX3CR1. Interestingly, CX3CR1-null mice exhibited enhanced responses to ozone, including increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), exacerbated neutrophil influx, accumulation of 8-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls, and increased expression of cytokines (CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and TNF-α). Our results identify a novel subset of lung macrophages, which are derived from a resident intermediate, dependent upon CX3CR1, and appear to protect the host from the biological response to ozone.
A prominent phenotype of IRF8 knock out (IRF8 KO) mice is the uncontrolled expansion of immature myeloid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this myeloproliferative syndrome is still elusive. In this study, we observed that Bax expression level is low in bone marrow (BM) preginitor cells and increased dramatically in primary myeloid cells in wt mice. In contrast, Bax expression level remained at low level in primary myeloid cells in IRF8 KO mice. However, in vitro IRF8 KO BM-differentiated myeloid cells expressed Bax at a level as high as that in wt myeloid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IRF8 specifically binds to the Bax promoter region in primary myeloid cells. Functional analysis indicated that IRF8 deficiency results in increased resistance of the primary myeloid cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Our findings thus determine that IRF8 directly regulates Bax transcription in vivo but no in vitro during myeloid cell lineage differentiation.
Bax; Fas; Myeloid cell; IRF8
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved protein with multiple intracellular and extracellular functions, including transcriptional regulation as well as modulation of inflammation, cell migration, and ingestion of apoptotic cells. In the present experiments, we examined a potential role for intracellular HMGB1 in modulating phagocytosis. We found that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells resulted in translocation of HMGB1 into the cytoplasm and extracellular space. Transient or stable inhibition of HMGB1 expression in bone marrow derived macrophages resulted in increased phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes and apoptotic neutrophils. Knockdown of HMGB1 was associated with enhanced activation of Rac-1 as well as cytoskeletal rearrangement. Intracellular events involved in phagocytosis and upstream of Rac-1 activation, such as phosphorylation of ERK and FAK, were increased after knockdown of HMGB1. Inhibition of Src kinase activity prevented the increase in phosphorylation of FAK and ERK present during phagocytosis in HMGB1 knockdown cells, and also abrogated the enhancement in phagocytosis associated with HMGB1 knockdown. Interaction between Src and FAK in the cytoplasm of HMGB1 knockdown fibroblasts was enhanced compared with that present in control fibroblasts. Under in vitro conditions, the presence of HMGB1 diminished interactions between purified FAK and Src. The present studies demonstrate a novel role for HMGB1 in the regulation of phagocytosis. In particular, these experiments show that intracellular HMGB1, through associating with Src kinase and inhibiting interactions between Src and FAK, diminishes the phagocytic ability of macrophages and other cell populations.
IL-33 administration is associated with facilitation of Th type-2 (Th2) responses and cardioprotective properties in rodent models. However, in heart transplantation, the mechanism by which IL-33, signaling through ST2L, the membrane-bound form of ST2, promotes transplant survival is unclear. We report that IL-33 administration, while facilitating Th2 responses, also increases immunoregulatory myeloid cells and CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in mice. IL-33 expands functional myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), -CD11b+ cells that exhibit intermediate (int) levels of Gr-1 and potent T cell suppressive function. Furthermore, IL-33 administration causes a St2-dependent expansion of suppressive CD4+ Foxp3+ Treg, including a ST2L+ population. IL-33 monotherapy following fully allogeneic mouse heart transplantation resulted in significant graft prolongation, associated with increased Th2-type responses and decreased systemic CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells. Also, despite reducing overall CD3+ cell infiltration of the graft, IL-33 administration markedly increased intragraft Foxp3+ cells. Whereas control graft recipients displayed increases in systemic CD11b+ Gr-1hi cells, IL-33-treated recipients exhibited increased CD11b+ Gr-1int cells. Enhanced ST2 expression was observed in the myocardium and endothelium of rejecting allografts, however the therapeutic effect of IL-33 required recipient St2 expression and was dependent on Treg. These findings reveal a new immunoregulatory property of IL-33. Specifically, in addition to supporting Th2 responses, IL-33 facilitates regulatory cells, particularly functional CD4+ Foxp3+ Treg that underlie IL-33-mediated cardiac allograft survival.
Cytokines; Dendritic cells; Monocytes/Macrophages; Transplantation; Tolerance/Suppression/Anergy; T cells
SAP, an adaptor molecule that recruits Fyn to the SLAM-family of immunomodulatory receptors, is mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. CD4+ T cells from SAP-deficient mice have defective TCR-induced IL-4 production and impaired T cell-mediated help for germinal center formation; however, the downstream intermediates contributing to these defects remain unclear. We previously found that SAP-deficient CD4+ T cells exhibit decreased PKC-θ recruitment upon TCR stimulation. We demonstrate here using GST-pulldowns and co-immunoprecipitation studies that SAP constitutively associates with PKC-θ in T cells. SAP-PKC-θ interactions required R78 of SAP, a residue previously implicated in Fyn recruitment, yet SAP’s interactions with PKC-θ occurred independent of phosphotyrosine binding and Fyn. Overexpression of SAP in T cells increased and sustained PKC-θ recruitment to the immune synapse and elevated IL-4 production in response to TCR plus SLAM-mediated stimulation. Moreover, PKC-θ, like SAP, was required for SLAM-mediated increases in IL-4 production and conversely, membrane-targeted PKC-θ mutants rescued IL-4 expression in SAP−/− CD4+ T cells, providing genetic evidence that PKC-θ is a critical component of SLAM/SAP-mediated pathways that influence TCR-driven IL-4 production.
TH2 Differentiation; IL-4; Protein Kinases; T Cell Receptor; SLAM receptors
Most cancer vaccines, thus far, fail to control established tumors. However, their application in preventing tumors is another question that is understudied. In the current study, we investigated the CD8 memory T cell responses of lentivector (lv) immunization and its potential to prevent melanoma using both transplantable B16 tumor and autochthonous melanoma models. We found that lv expressing xenogenic human glycoprotein (hgp100) could induce potent CD8 responses that cross react with mouse gp100. Importantly, the lv primed CD8 response consisted of a high number of memory precursors and could be further increased by recombinant vaccinia virus vector (vv) boost, resulting in enhanced CD8 memory response. These long-lasting CD8 memory T cells played a critical role in immune surveillance and could rapidly respond and expand after sensing B16 tumor cells to prevent tumor establishment. Although CD8 response plays a dominant role after lv immunization, both CD4 and CD8 T cells are responsible for the immune prevention. In addition, we surprisingly found that CD4 help was not only critical for generating primary CD8 responses, but also important for secondary CD8 responses of vv boost. CD4 depletion prior to lv prime or prior to vv boost substantially reduced the magnitude of secondary CD8 effector and memory responses, and severely compromised the effect of cancer immune prevention. More importantly, the CD8 memory response from lv-vv prime-boost immunization could effectively prevent autochthonous melanoma in tumor-prone transgenic (Tg) mice, providing a strong evidence that lv-vv prime-boost strategy is an effective approach for cancer immune prevention.
Immune prevention; viral vectors; memory CD8 T cells; genetic immunization