In this paper, we described the symptoms and treatment of a patient with diabetic nephropathy accompanied by spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage after hemodialysis. An elderly female patient with diabetic nephropathy presented with severe pain, numbness, and an increasing swelling in the left hip and left thigh after six sessions of hemodialysis involving the use of an antiplatelet drug and an anticoagulant agent. Her hemoglobin decreased to 46 g/L. An abdominal ultrasound showed a hematoma in the left retroperitoneal space, and computed tomography (CT) findings revealed a 6 cm×8 cm×10 cm hematoma in the left psoas muscle. After aggressive supportive therapy [the administration of packed red blood cell transfusion, carbazochrome sodium sulfonate injection, and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)], the patient’s vital signs stabilized and her hemoglobin increased to 86 g/L. Repeat CT showed that the hematoma had been partially absorbed after two weeks. Eventually, the patient was discharged with stable vital signs. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage, particularly in patients with diabetic nephropathy undergoing hemodialysis involving the use of anticoagulant agents.
Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage; Diabetic nephropathy; Hemodialysis; Nadroparin calcium
Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines. Of these isolates, lp15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 µg/ml of linoleic acid (LA). Compared to other strains, L. plantarum strain lp15 showed the highest tolerance upon increased levels of LA in the medium, i.e., up to 600 µg/ml. This strain converted about 25% of LA into CLA isomers [predominantly cis-9, trans-11 CLA (9-CLA) and trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10-CLA)], of which 75% was 9-CLA. Interestingly, though the conversion rate of LA into CLA by lp15 remained stable between 100 to 600 µg/ml LA levels in the medium, it dropped sharply at 1000 µg/ml. Taken together, the lp15 strain displayed relatively high LA tolerance with higher conversion rate, which implies that this strain is a valuable candidate for enhancing the CLA content in food-sources like pickles.
Conjugated linoleic acids; Lactobacillus plantarum; Lactic acid bacteria; Pickle; Gas chromatography
A high affinity polyclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of zeranol in bovine urine. On the basis of urine matrix studies, the optimized dilution factors producing insignificant matrix interference were selected as 1:5 in pretreatment. In the improved ELISA, the linear response range was between 0.02 and 1 μg/ml , and the detection limit was 0.02 μg/ml for the assay. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range of 82%~127% and 3.5%~8.8%, respectively. Thirty-six bovine urine samples spiked with zeranol (ranging from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml) were detected by the ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC) method, and good correlations were obtained between the two methods (R
2=0.9643). We conclude that this improved ELISA is suitable tool for a mass zeranol screening and can be an alternative for the conventional LC method for zeranol in bovine urine.
Zeranol; Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Bovine urine
Plants encounter a variety of stresses in natural environments. One-year-old pot-grown trees of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Cuiguan and Wonhwang) were exposed to two heat stress regimes. Under constant short-term heat stress, chloroplasts and mitochondria were visibly damaged. Relative chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were significantly decreased, which indicated that the leaf photosynthetic capability declined. Under chronic heat stress, mesophyll cell ultrastructure was not obviously damaged, but leaf photosynthetic capability was still restrained. As chronic heat stress was a simulation of the natural environment in summer, further study of the responses under this stress regime was undertaken. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was increased in ‘Cuiguan’, but not in ‘Wonhwang’. Inducible expression of PpAPX genes in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts and peroxisomes was consistent with increased APX activity in ‘Cuiguan’, whereas only weak induction of PpAPX genes was observed in ‘Wonhwang’. The isoenzymes cytosolic APX1 (cAPX1) and stromal APX (sAPX) were confirmed to be localized in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts, respectively.
Pear; Ultrastructure; Ascorbate peroxidase; Subcellular localization; Synergistic effect
An 888-bp full-length ascorbate peroxidase (APX) complementary DNA (cDNA) gene was cloned from Anthurium andraeanum, and designated as AnAPX. It contains a 110-bp 5′-noncoding region, a 28-bp 3′-noncoding region, and a 750-bp open reading frame (ORF). This protein is hydrophilic with an aliphatic index of 81.64 and its structure consisting of α-helixes, β-turns, and random coils. The AnAPX protein showed 93%, 87%, 87%, 87%, and 86% similarities to the APX homologs from Zantedeschia aethiopica, Vitis pseudoreticulata, Gossypium hirsutum, Elaeis guineensis, and Zea mays, respectively. AnAPX gene transcript was measured non-significantly in roots, stems, leaves, spathes, and spadices by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Interestingly, this gene expression was remarkably up-regulated in response to a cold stress under 6 °C, implying that AnAPX might play an important role in A. andraeanum tolerance to cold stress. To confirm this function we overexpressed AnAPX in tobacco plants by transformation with an AnAPX expression construct driven by CaMV 35S promoter. The transformed tobacco seedlings under 4 °C showed less electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content than the control. The content of MDA was correlated with chilling tolerance in these transgenic plants. These results show that AnAPX can prevent the chilling challenged plant from cell membrane damage and ultimately enhance the plant cold tolerance.
AnAPX; Gene expression; Cold stress; Anthurium andraeanum
In our study, 50 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were selected to investigate the correlation between virus persistent infection and cardic function. We found that 44% of patients with DCM were coxsackie virus B-RNA (CVB-RNA) positive, significantly different from that (20%) of the normal control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) in patients with DCM were significantly higher than those in the normal control group (P<0.01). In CVB-RNA-positive patients, expression levels of CAR were significantly higher than those in CVB-RNA-negative patients (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between CAR expression and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in patients with DCM, but no significant correlations between the CAR expression level and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDd). These results showed that expression levels of CAR on the surface of white cells can be used as an indicator for detecting persistent virus infection. We found that expression levels of CAR and heart function in patients with DCM were highly correlated.
This paper presents the results from a survey of first-level hospitals in Urumqi, China. The survey had two parts: the first part was aimed at understanding the operation of the ethics committees of first-level hospitals, including the process for electing members and the variety of members’ backgrounds. Information was also gathered about the establishment of criteria, operational rules and regulations, and standard operational procedures. The aim of the second part was to investigate the level of understanding among technicians and doctors about the function of the ethics committees. This paper identifies and analyzes some deficiencies found in the operation of hospital ethics committees, offers some constructive suggestions for improvement, and promotes the role of the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region hospital ethics committees.
First-level hospital; Ethics committee; Xinjiang Urumqi
Objective: To investigate the relationship between growth patterns and mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology in a Chinese population with normal occlusion. Methods: Forty-five patients with normal occlusion (23 males, 22 females) were included in this study. Among these patients, 20 displayed the vertical growth pattern, and 20 had the horizontal growth pattern, while the remaining patients displayed the average growth pattern. All of the patients underwent dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which included the region of the mandibular posterior teeth and the alveolar. A linear regression analysis and a correlation analysis between the facial height index (FHI) and the alveolar bone morphology were performed. Results: The inclination of the molars, the thickness of the cortical bone, and the height of the mandibular bone differed significantly between patients with the horizontal growth pattern and those with the vertical growth pattern (P<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between: the FHI and the inclination of the molars; the FHI and the thickness of the cortical bone; and the FHI and the height of the mandibular bone. Conclusions: The mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology may be affected by growth patterns.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT); Growth pattern; Alveolar morphology; Normal occlusion
To propose a method of establishing the reference mandibular plane (MP), which could be reestablished according to the coordinates of the reference points, and then facilitate the assessment of anterior alveolar morphology using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), sixty patients with bimaxillary protrusion were randomly selected and CBCT scans were taken. The CBCT scans were transferred to Materialism’s interactive medical image control system 10.01 (MIMICS 10.01), and three dimensional models of the entire jaws were constructed. Reference points determining the reference MP were positioned in the coronal, axial, sagittal windows, and the points were exactly located by recording their coordinates in the interfaces of software. The reference MP provided high intra-observer reliability (Pearson’s r 0.992 to 0.999), and inter-observer reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) 0.996 to 0.999).
Reference Plane; Cone beam computed tomography; Alveolar morphology
In recent years, there were two reported outbreaks of food borne illness associated with melamine. The presence of melamine and its related compounds in milk, feed, and other foods has resulted in the need for reliable methods for the detection and accurate quantification of this class of contaminants. The sample pretreatment for melamine in a complex matrix usually involves a liquid extraction by a polar solvent, followed by a further clean-up with solid phase extraction. Analyses of melamine and related compounds are commonly carried out by liquid or gas chromatographic methods conjugated with mass spectrometry. Other innovative screening methods, which use antibodies, molecularly imprinted polymers, capillary electrophoresis, and gold nanoparticles, are also used to develop assays and biosensors to melamine. However, many of these methods have been hindered by matrix effects, the solubility of melamine-cyanuric acid complex, and background contamination. This article reviews recent developments for detecting melamine and discusses future directions.
Melamine; Detection; Confirmation methods; Screening methods; Sample pretreatment
To detect gatifloxacin (GAT) residue in swine urine, an electrochemical immunoassay was established. An indirect competitive immunoassay was developed, in which the coating antigen is immobilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate and GAT residue from the sample competes with the limited binding sites in added anti-GAT antibody. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated to goat anti-rabbit IgG was used as the enzymatic label. A carbon fiber working electrode was constructed and current signals were detected by using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate and hydroquinone as an electrochemical mediator. The electrochemical immunoassay was evaluated by analysis of GAT in buffer or swine urine and an average value of half inhibition concentration (IC50) of 8.9 ng/ml was obtained. Excellent specificity of the antibody was achieved with little cross-reaction with lomefloxacin (3.0%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and ofloxacin (1.9%) among commonly used (fluoro)quinolones. In conclusion, the immunoassay system developed in this research can be used as a rapid, powerful and on-site analytical tool to detect GAT residue in foods and food products.
Gatifloxacin; Drug residue; Antibody; Carbon fiber electrode; Electrochemical immunoassay
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone during incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with maximum anchorage. Methods: Twenty adult patients with bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion had the four first premolars extracted. Miniscrews were placed to provide maximum anchorage for upper incisor retraction and intrusion. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed after placement of the miniscrews and treatment. The 3D reconstructions of pre- and post-CT data were used to assess the dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone. Results: The amounts of upper incisor retraction at the edge and apex were (7.64±1.68) and (3.91±2.10) mm, respectively, and (1.34±0.74) mm of upper central incisor intrusion. Upper alveolar bone height losses at labial alveolar ridge crest (LAC) and palatal alveolar ridge crest (PAC) were 0.543 and 2.612 mm, respectively, and the percentages were (6.49±3.54)% and (27.42±9.77)%, respectively. The shape deformations of LAC-labial cortex bending point (LBP) and PAC-palatal cortex bending point (PBP) were (15.37±5.20)° and (6.43±3.27)°, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, for adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion, mechanobiological response of anterior alveolus should be taken into account during incisor retraction and intrusion. Pursuit of maximum anchorage might lead to upper anterior alveolar bone loss.
Alveolar bone loss; Adult patients; Computed tomography; Three-dimensional registration
The effects of different fatty acid (FA) contents in diet on serum parameters, FA compositions of eggs and meat, and liver morphological changes were studied in Shaoxing laying ducks. A total of 264 ducks at 17 weeks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 30 g/kg fish oil (FO), 25 g/kg sunflower oil (SO), or 30 g/kg palm oil with 20 g/kg beef tallow (PBO). Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver and the serum of ducks fed the PBO diet was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of ducks fed the other diets. Triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the FO diet. Serum TC also was lower in ducks fed the SO diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was also affected by diets. The contents of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in eggs and meat were significantly higher (P<0.001) in ducks fed the FO and SO diets than in ducks fed the control diet. The level of C22:6 (n-3) FA in ducks fed the FO diet was significantly higher than that in ducks fed the other diets. However, the conversion efficiency of the longer-chain C20:5 (n-3) FA was higher than that of C22:6 (n-3). Ducks fed the PBO diet exhibited lipid droplet accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrate that a diet enriched with different FAs has strong effects on serum lipid levels and the deposition of PUFAs into tissue lipids.
Duck; Liver; Egg; Meat; Fatty acid; Lipid oxidation
At 0.12 mmol/L γ-glutamyl p-nitroaniline (GGPNA), an improved integrated method was developed for kinetic analysis of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) reaction process and the integration with the classical initial rate method to measure serum GGT. For the improved integrated method, an integrated rate equation, which used the predictor variable of reaction time and considered inhibitions by both GGPNA and products, was nonlinearly fit to GGT reaction processes. For the integration strategy, classical initial rates were estimated when GGPNA consumption percentages were below 50%; otherwise, maximal reaction rates of GGT were estimated by the improved integrated method and converted into initial rates according to the differential rate equation at 0.11 mmol/L GGPNA. The integration strategy was validated using optimized GGT kinetic parameters and 10-s intervals to record reaction curves within 8.0 min. By the integration strategy, there was a linear response from 0.9 to 32.0 U/L GGT, coefficients of variation were below 3.5% for GGT from 8.0 to 32.0 U/L (n=5), and GGT activities in clinical sera responded linearly to their classical initial rates at 2.00 mmol/L GGPNA with an expected slope. Therefore, the integration strategy was successful in measuring GGT at 0.12 mmol/L GGPNA.
Integration strategy; Chromogenic substrate; Data processing; γ-Glutamyltransferase; Kinetic analysis; Serum enzyme assay
The aim of this work was to construct a novel food-grade industrial arming yeast displaying β-1,3-1,4-glucanase and to evaluate the thermal stability of the glucanase for practical application. For this purpose, a bi-directional vector containing galactokinase (GAL1) and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) promoters in different orientations was constructed. The β-1,3-1,4-glucanase gene from Bacillus subtilis was fused to α-agglutinin and expressed under the control of the GAL1 promoter. α-galactosidase induced by the constitutive PGK1 promoter was used as a food-grade selection marker. The feasibility of the α-galactosidase marker was confirmed by the growth of transformants harboring the constructed vector on a medium containing melibiose as a sole carbon source, and by the clear halo around the transformants in Congo-red plates owing to the expression of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The analysis of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity in cell pellets and in the supernatant of the recombinant yeast strain revealed that β-1,3-1,4-glucanase was successfully displayed on the cell surface of the yeast. The displayed β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity in the recombinant yeast cells increased immediately after the addition of galactose and reached 45.1 U/ml after 32-h induction. The thermal stability of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase displayed in the recombinant yeast cells was enhanced compared with the free enzyme. These results suggest that the constructed food-grade yeast has the potential to improve the brewing properties of beer.
α-agglutinin; Food-grade selection marker; β-1,3-1,4-glucanase; α-galactosidase; Thermostability
The ecological effects of plant-virus-vector interactions on invasion of alien plant viral vectors have been rarely investigated. We examined the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) by the invasive Q biotype and the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a plant viral vector, as well as the influence of TYLCCNV-infection of plants on the performance of the two whitefly biotypes. Both whitefly biotypes were able to acquire viruses from infected plants and retained them in their bodies, but were unable to transmit them to either tobacco or tomato plants. However, when the Q biotype fed on tobacco plants infected with TYLCCNV, its fecundity and longevity were increased by 7- and 1-fold, respectively, compared to those of the Q biotype fed on uninfected tobacco plants. When the ZHJ2 biotype fed on virus-infected plants, its fecundity and longevity were increased by only 2- and 0.5-fold, respectively. These data show that the Q biotype acquired higher beneficial effects from TYLCCNV-infection of tobacco plants than the ZHJ2 biotype. Thus, the Q biotype whitefly may have advantages in its invasion and displacement of the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype.
Bemisia tabaci; Biotypes; Begomovirus; Vector-virus interaction; Biological invasion
We investigated the higher structure of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in the amorphous state and solution using a laser particle size analyzer and a water activity meter. The results show that the thermodynamic structures of native KGM were primarily composed of the lamella structure units, which involve both granular crystalline and amorphous regions, and that the connection zones of such units contained both loose and tight aggregation regions. The value of surface tension (σ) of native KGM, resting with the density of its hydroxyl groups’ self-association, was an important parameter to analyze the higher structures of native KGM in the thermodynamic swelling model of native KGM.
Swelling model; Thermodynamic structure; Konjac glucomannan (KGM); Higher structure
The effect of L-proline as a promoter on the condensation reaction of salicylaldehyde or its derivatives with ethyl acetoacetate in neutral ionic liquid [emim]BF4 was studied. All reactions were carried out under mild reaction conditions and achieved high yields. Moreover, the ionic liquid containing L-proline could be recycled and reused for several times without noticeably decreasing in productivity. The results show that the L-proline-[emim]BF4 system has a potential in contribution to the development of environmentally friendly and inexpensive processes in organic syntheses.
L-Proline; Ionic liquid; Coumarins; Knoevenagel condensation
Appressorium formation is an important event in establishing a successful interaction between the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, and its host plant, rice. An understanding of molecular events occurring in appressorium differentiation will give new strategies to control rice blast. A quick and reliable method to extract total RNA from appressorium is essential for studying gene expression during appressorium formation and its mechanism. We found that duplicate film is an efficient substratum for appressorium formation, even when inoculated with high density conidia. When inoculated with conidia at 1×106 ml−1, the percentages of conidium germination and appressorium formation were (97.98±0.67)% and (97.88±0.45)%, respectively. We applied Trizol before appressorium collection for total RNA isolation, and as much as 113.6 μg total RNA was isolated from the mature appressoria at 24 h after inoculation. Functional analysis of two genes, MNH6 and MgATG1, isolated from the cDNA subtractive library, revealed that the quantity of RNA was good enough to construct a cDNA (complementary DNA) library or a cDNA subtractive library. This method may be also applicable for the appressorium RNA isolation of other pathogenic fungi in which conidia differentiate into appressoria in the early stages of host infection.
Appressorium; Magnaporthe oryzae; RNA isolation
Resistin, a newly discovered peptide hormone mainly secreted by adipose tissues, is present at high levels in serum of obese mice and may be a potential link between obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. However, some studies of rat and mouse models have associated insulin resistance and obesity with decreased resistin expression. In humans, no relationship between resistin level and insulin resistance or adiposity was observed. This suggests that additional studies are necessary to determine the specific role of resistin in the regulation of energy metabolism and adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resistin in vivo on glucose and lipid metabolism by over-expressing resistin in mice by intramuscular injection of a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-Retn encoding porcine resistin gene. After injection, serum resistin and serum glucose (GLU) levels were significantly increased in the pcDNA3.1-Retn-treated mice; there was an obvious difference in total cholesterol (TC) level between the experiment and the control groups on Day 30. In pcDNA3.1-Retn-treated mice, both free fatty acid (FFA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were markedly lower than those of control, whereas HDL cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels did not differ between the two groups. Furthermore, lipase activity was expressly lower on Day 20. Our data suggest that resistin over-expressed in mice might be responsible for insulin resistance and parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolism were changed accordingly.
Resistin; Glucose; Lipid; Metabolism
Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus, also known as Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS), is a rare complication of successful cardiopulmanry resuscitation often accompanied by action myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia. It is seen in patients who have undergone a cardiorespiratory arrest, regained consciousness afterwards, and then developed myoclonus days or weeks after the event. Worldwide, 122 cases have been reported in the literature so far, including 1 case of Chinese. Here we report 2 Chinese LAS patients with detailed neuroimagings. Cranial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of patient 1, a 52-year-old woman, showed a mild hypoperfusion in her left temporal lobe, whereas patient 2, a 54-year-old woman, manifested a mild bilateral decrease of glucose metabolism in the frontal lobes and a mild to moderate decrease of the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) peak in the bilateral hippocampi by cranial [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic (PET) scan and cranial magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), respectively. We also review the literature on the neuroimaging, pathogenesis, and treatment of LAS.
Lance-Adams syndrome; Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus; Action myoclonus; Cerebellar ataxia; Single photon emission computed tomography; Positron emission tomography; Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
In this study, the effects of cardiac fibroblast proliferation on cardiac electric excitation conduction and mechanical contraction were investigated using a proposed integrated myocardial-fibroblastic electromechanical model. At the cellular level, models of the human ventricular myocyte and fibroblast were modified to incorporate a model of cardiac mechanical contraction and cooperativity mechanisms. Cellular electromechanical coupling was realized with a calcium buffer. At the tissue level, electrical excitation conduction was coupled to an elastic mechanics model in which the finite difference method (FDM) was used to solve electrical excitation equations, and the finite element method (FEM) was used to solve mechanics equations. The electromechanical properties of the proposed integrated model were investigated in one or two dimensions under normal and ischemic pathological conditions. Fibroblast proliferation slowed wave propagation, induced a conduction block, decreased strains in the fibroblast proliferous tissue, and increased dispersions in depolarization, repolarization, and action potential duration (APD). It also distorted the wave-front, leading to the initiation and maintenance of re-entry, and resulted in a sustained contraction in the proliferous areas. This study demonstrated the important role that fibroblast proliferation plays in modulating cardiac electromechanical behaviour and which should be considered in planning future heart-modeling studies.
Cardiac model; Electromechanics; Fibroblast proliferation
The aim of this present study is to investigate the effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum oil (essential oil from Z. bungeanum Maxim.) on cytotoxicity and the transdermal permeation of 5-fluorouracil and indomethacin. The cytotoxicity of Z. bungeanum oil on dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes was studied using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The rat skin was employed to determine the percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of Z. bungeanum oil on hydrophilic and lipophilic model drugs, i.e., 5-fluorouracil and indomethacin. The secondary structure changes of the rat stratum corneum (SC) were determined using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and saturated solubilities and SC/vehicle partition coefficients of two model drugs with and without Z. bungeanum oil were also measured to understand its related mechanisms of action. It was found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Z. bungeanum oil were significantly lower in HaCaT and CCC-ESF-1 cell lines compared to the well-established and standard penetration enhancer Azone. The Z. bungeanum oil at various concentrations effectively facilitated the percutaneous penetration of two model drugs across the rat skin. In addition, the mechanisms of permeation enhancement by Z. bungeanum oil could be explained with saturated solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient, and secondary structure changes of SC.
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.; Essential oil; Transdermal delivery; Penetration enhancer; HaCaT; Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)
Our intent is to examine the predictive role of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) on mortality of patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Based on the CCI score, the severity of comorbidity was categorized into three grades: mild, with CCI scores of 1–2; moderate, with CCI scores of 3–4; and severe, with CCI scores ≥5. Factors influencing mortality and differences between groups stratified by CCI were determined by logistical regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The impact of CCI on mortality was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 533 patients with type 2 DN were enrolled in this study, all of them had comorbidity (CCI score >1), and 44.7% (238/533) died. The mortality increased with CCI scores: 21.0% (50/238) patients with CCI scores of 1–2, 56.7% (135/238) patients with CCI scores of 3–4, and 22.3% (53/238) patients with CCI scores ≥5. Logistical regression analysis showed that CCI scores, hemoglobin, and serum albumin were the potential predictors of mortality (P<0.05). One-way ANOVA analysis showed that DN patients with higher CCI scores had lower levels of hemoglobulin, higher levels of serum creatinine, and higher mortality rates than those with lower CCI scores. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that survival time decreased when the CCI scores and mortality rates went up. In conclusion, CCI provides a simple, readily applicable, and valid method for classifying comorbidities and predicting the mortality of type 2 DN. An increased awareness of the potential comorbidities in type 2 DN patients may provide insights into this complicated disease and improve the outcomes by identifying and treating patients earlier and more effectively.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN); Charlson comorbidity index (CCI); Mortality
In this study, we investigated the molecular phylogeny of 64 clinical isolates which were identified as Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato by morphological identification. All of the strains were isolates from patients from several provinces in China. The phylogeny was inferred by DNA sequence analyses based on datasets of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a combined ITS and partial β-tubulin region. Reference sequences were retrieved from GenBank. Results showed that all of the isolates were clustered in a distinct clade with a type of Sporothrix globosa. Our analysis showed that S. globosa is the causal agent of the tested sporotrichosis in China, rather than S. schenckii that was generally believed to be the case. The existence of S. schenckii in China remains to be confirmed. This study improved our understanding of the distribution of the species in S. schenckii complex.
Internal transcribed spacer (ITS); Diagnosis; Sporothrix globosa; Taxonomy; Phylogeny