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1.  The PA and HA Gene-Mediated High Viral Load and Intense Innate Immune Response in the Brain Contribute to the High Pathogenicity of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus in Mallard Ducks 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(20):11063-11075.
Most highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses cause only mild clinical signs in ducks, serving as an important natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. However, we isolated two H5N1 viruses that are genetically similar but differ greatly in virulence in ducks. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly pathogenic, whereas A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 (GS10) is low pathogenic. To determine the genetic basis for the high virulence of CK10 in ducks, we generated a series of single-gene reassortants between CK10 and GS10 and tested their virulence in ducks. Expression of the CK10 PA or hemagglutinin (HA) gene in the GS10 context resulted in increased virulence and virus replication. Conversely, inclusion of the GS10 PA or HA gene in the CK10 background attenuated the virulence and virus replication. Moreover, the PA gene had a greater contribution. We further determined that residues 101G and 237E in the PA gene contribute to the high virulence of CK10. Mutations at these two positions produced changes in virulence, virus replication, and polymerase activity of CK10 or GS10. Position 237 plays a greater role in determining these phenotypes. Moreover, the K237E mutation in the GS10 PA gene increased PA nuclear accumulation. Mutant GS10 viruses carrying the CK10 HA gene or the PA101G or PA237E mutation induced an enhanced innate immune response. A sustained innate response was detected in the brain rather than in the lung and spleen. Our results suggest that the PA and HA gene-mediated high virus replication and the intense innate immune response in the brain contribute to the high virulence of H5N1 virus in ducks.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00760-13
PMCID: PMC3807287  PMID: 23926340
2.  The PA-Gene-Mediated Lethal Dissemination and Excessive Innate Immune Response Contribute to the High Virulence of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus in Mice 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(5):2660-2672.
Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus remains a substantial threat to public health. To understand the molecular basis and host mechanism for the high virulence of H5N1 viruses in mammals, we compared two H5N1 isolates which have similar genetic backgrounds but greatly differ in their virulence in mice. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly pathogenic, whereas A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 (GS10) is nonpathogenic. We first showed that CK10 elicited a more potent innate immune response than did GS10 in mouse lungs by increasing the number and expression levels of activated genes. We then generated a series of reassortants between the two viruses and evaluated their virulence in mice. Inclusion of the CK10 PA gene in the GS10 background resulted in a dramatic increase in virulence. Conversely, expression of the GS10 PA gene in the CK10 background significantly attenuated the virulence. These results demonstrated that the PA gene mainly determines the pathogenicity discrepancy between CK10 and GS10 in mice. We further determined that arginine (R) at position 353 of the PA gene contributes to the high virulence of CK10 in mice. The reciprocal substitution at position 353 in PA or the exchange of the entire PA gene largely caused the transfer of viral phenotypes, including virus replication, polymerase activity, and manipulation of the innate response, between CK10 and GS10. We therefore defined a novel molecular marker associated with the high virulence of H5N1 influenza viruses, providing further insights into the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses in mammals.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02891-12
PMCID: PMC3571398  PMID: 23255810
3.  A Novel Genotype H9N2 Influenza Virus Possessing Human H5N1 Internal Genomes Has Been Circulating in Poultry in Eastern China since 1998 ▿ †  
Journal of Virology  2009;83(17):8428-8438.
Many novel reassortant influenza viruses of the H9N2 genotype have emerged in aquatic birds in southern China since their initial isolation in this region in 1994. However, the genesis and evolution of H9N2 viruses in poultry in eastern China have not been investigated systematically. In the current study, H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from poultry in eastern China during the past 10 years were characterized genetically and antigenically. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these H9N2 viruses have undergone extensive reassortment to generate multiple novel genotypes, including four genotypes (J, F, K, and L) that have never been recognized before. The major H9N2 influenza viruses represented by A/Chicken/Beijing/1/1994 (Ck/BJ/1/94)-like viruses circulating in poultry in eastern China before 1998 have been gradually replaced by A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98)-like viruses, which have a genotype different from that of viruses isolated in southern China. The similarity of the internal genes of these H9N2 viruses to those of the H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from 2001 onwards suggests that the Ck/SH/F/98-like virus may have been the donor of internal genes of human and poultry H5N1 influenza viruses circulating in Eurasia. Experimental studies showed that some of these H9N2 viruses could be efficiently transmitted by the respiratory tract in chicken flocks. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses and supports the notion that some of these viruses may have been the donors of internal genes found in H5N1 viruses.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00659-09
PMCID: PMC2738149  PMID: 19553328
4.  Hepatitis C Virus Activates Bcl-2 and MMP-2 Expression through Multiple Cellular Signaling Pathways 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(23):12531-12543.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with numerous liver diseases and causes serious global health problems, but the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCV infections remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) are significantly stimulated in HCV-infected patients. We further show that HCV activates STAT3, MMP-2, Bcl-2, extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in infected Huh7.5.1 cells. Functional screening of HCV proteins revealed that nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is responsible for the activation of MMP-2 and Bcl-2 by stimulating STAT3 through repression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Our results also demonstrate that multiple signaling cascades, including several members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family, JNK, ERK, and STAT3, play critical roles in the activation of MMP-2 and Bcl-2 mediated by NS4B. Further studies revealed that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B is sufficient for the activation of STAT3, JNK, ERK, MMP-2, and Bcl-2. We also show that amino acids 227 to 250 of NS4B are essential for regulation of STAT3, JNK, ERK, MMP-2, and Bcl-2, and among them, three residues (237L, 239S, and 245L) are crucial for this regulation. Thus, we reveal a novel mechanism underlying HCV pathogenesis in which multiple intracellular signaling cascades are cooperatively involved in the activation of two important cellular factors, MMP-2 and Bcl-2, in response to HCV infection.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01136-12
PMCID: PMC3497616  PMID: 22951829
5.  Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Living Host Cells Visualized through Quantum Dot Labeling of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus▿† 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(13):6252-6262.
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an important fish pathogen that infects both wild and cultured salmonids. As a species of the genus Novirhabdovirus, IHNV is a valuable model system for exploring the host entry mechanisms of rhabdoviruses. In this study, quantum dots (QDs) were used as fluorescent labels for sensitive, long-term tracking of IHNV entry. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we found that IHNV is internalized through clathrin-coated pits after the virus binds to host cell membranes. Pretreatment of host cells with chlorpromazine, a drug that blocks clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and clathrin light chain (LCa) depletion using RNA interference both resulted in a marked reduction in viral entry. We also visualized transport of the virus via the cytoskeleton (i.e., actin filaments and microtubules) in real time. Actin polymerization is involved in the transport of endocytic vesicles into the cytosol, whereas microtubules are required for the trafficking of clathrin-coated vesicles to early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Disrupting the host cell cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D or nocodazole significantly impaired IHNV infectivity. Furthermore, infection was significantly affected by pretreating the host cells with bafilomycin A1, a compound that inhibits the acidification of endosomes and lysosomes. Strong colocalizations of IHNV with endosomes indicated that the virus is internalized into these membrane-bound compartments. This is the first report in which QD labeling is used to visualize the dynamic interactions between viruses and endocytic structures; the results presented demonstrate that IHNV enters host cells via clathrin-mediated endocytic, cytoskeleton-dependent, and low-pH-dependent pathways.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00109-11
PMCID: PMC3126507  PMID: 21525360
6.  Subversion of Cellular Autophagy Machinery by Hepatitis B Virus for Viral Envelopment▿ 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(13):6319-6333.
Autophagy is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that mediates the removal of long-lived cytoplasmic macromolecules and damaged organelles via a lysosomal degradative pathway. Recently, a multitude of studies have reported that viral infections may have complex interconnections with the autophagic process. The findings reported here demonstrate that hepatitis B virus (HBV) can enhance the autophagic process in hepatoma cells without promoting protein degradation by the lysosome. Mutation analysis showed that HBV small surface protein (SHBs) was required for HBV to induce autophagy. The overexpression of SHBs was sufficient to induce autophagy. Furthermore, SHBs could trigger unfolded protein responses (UPR), and the blockage of UPR signaling pathways abrogated the SHB-induced lipidation of LC3-I. Meanwhile, the role of the autophagosome in HBV replication was examined. The inhibition of autophagosome formation by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or small interfering RNA duplexes targeting the genes critical for autophagosome formation (Beclin1 and ATG5 genes) markedly inhibited HBV production, and the induction of autophagy by rapamycin or starvation greatly contributed to HBV production. Furthermore, evidence was provided to suggest that the autophagy machinery was required for HBV envelopment but not for the efficiency of HBV release. Finally, SHBs partially colocalized and interacted with autophagy protein LC3. Taken together, these results suggest that the host's autophagy machinery is activated during HBV infection to enhance HBV replication.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02627-10
PMCID: PMC3126540  PMID: 21507968
7.  Civets Are Equally Susceptible to Experimental Infection by Two Different Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Isolates 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(4):2620-2625.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a novel virus now known as SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The discovery of SARS-CoV-like viruses in masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) raises the possibility that civets play a role in SARS-CoV transmission. To test the susceptibility of civets to experimental infection by different SARS-CoV isolates, 10 civets were inoculated with two human isolates of SARS-CoV, BJ01 (with a 29-nucleotide deletion) and GZ01 (without the 29-nucleotide deletion). All inoculated animals displayed clinical symptoms, such as fever, lethargy, and loss of aggressiveness, and the infection was confirmed by virus isolation, detection of viral genomic RNA, and serum-neutralizing antibodies. Our data show that civets were equally susceptible to SARS-CoV isolates GZ01 and BJ01.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.4.2620-2625.2005
PMCID: PMC546564  PMID: 15681462
8.  Evaluation of Transcriptional Efficiency of Hepatitis B Virus Covalently Closed Circular DNA by Reverse Transcription-PCR Combined with the Restriction Enzyme Digestion Method†  
Journal of Virology  2005;79(3):1813-1823.
Virus persistence in chronic hepatitis B patients is due to the sustaining level of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) within the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. In this study, we used a modified 1.3-fold hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome, with a BclI genetic marker embedded in the redundancy region, to examine the transcriptional activity of cccDNA and the effect of the HBx protein on transcriptional regulation. After harvesting total RNA from transfected cells or stable lines, we specifically identified and monitored the transcripts from cccDNA by using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) combined with the restriction enzyme digestion method. In this approach, we have found that (i) RT-PCR combined with detection of the BclI marker is a highly specific method for distinguishing cccDNA-derived transcripts from the original integrated viral genome, (ii) the transcriptional ability of cccDNA was less efficient than that from the integrated viral genome, and (iii) the transcriptional activity of cccDNA was significantly regulated by the HBx protein, a potential transcription activator. In conclusion, we provided a tool with which to elucidate the transcriptional regulation of cccDNA and clarified the transcriptional regulation mechanism of HBx on cccDNA. The results obtained may be helpful in the development of a clinical intervention for patients with chronic HBV infections.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.3.1813-1823.2005
PMCID: PMC544084  PMID: 15650205
9.  Novel Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus Vectors Efficiently Deliver Protein and RNA Encoding Genes into Primary Hepatocytes 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(12):6615-6624.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has extremely restricted host and hepatocyte tropism. HBV-based vectors could form the basis of novel therapies for chronic hepatitis B and other liver diseases and would also be invaluable for the study of HBV infection. Previous attempts at developing HBV-based vectors encountered low yields of recombinant viruses and/or lack of sufficient infectivity/cargo gene expression in primary hepatocytes, which hampered follow-up applications. In this work, we constructed a novel vector based on a naturally occurring, highly replicative HBV mutant with a 207-bp deletion in the preS1/polymerase spacer region. By applying a novel insertion strategy that preserves the continuity of the polymerase open reading frame (ORF), recombinant HBV (rHBV) carrying protein or small interfering RNA (siRNA) genes were obtained that replicated and were packaged efficiently in cultured hepatocytes. We demonstrated that rHBV expressing a fluorescent reporter (DsRed) is highly infective in primary tree shrew hepatocytes, and rHBV expressing HBV-targeting siRNA successfully inhibited antigen expression from coinfected wild-type HBV. This novel HBV vector will be a powerful tool for hepatocyte-targeting gene delivery, as well as the study of HBV infection.
doi:10.1128/JVI.03328-12
PMCID: PMC3676104  PMID: 23552416
10.  Tyrosine 132 Phosphorylation of Influenza A Virus M1 Protein Is Crucial for Virus Replication by Controlling the Nuclear Import of M1 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(11):6182-6191.
Phosphorylation of viral proteins plays important roles in the influenza A virus (IAV) life cycle. By using mass spectrometry, we identified tyrosine 132 (Y132) as a phosphorylation site of the matrix protein (M1) of the influenza virus A/WSN/1933(H1N1). Phosphorylation at this site is essential to the process of virus replication by controlling the nuclear import of M1. We further demonstrated that the phosphorylated tyrosine is crucial for the binding of M1 to the nuclear import factor importin-α1, since any substitutions at this site severely reduce this protein-protein interaction and damage the importin-α1-mediated nuclear import of M1. Additionally, the tyrosine phosphorylation which leads to the nuclear import of M1 is blocked by a Janus kinase inhibitor. The present study reveals a pivotal role of this tyrosine phosphorylation in the intracellular transportation of M1, which controls the process of viral replication.
doi:10.1128/JVI.03024-12
PMCID: PMC3648105  PMID: 23536660
12.  Complete Genome Sequence of Seoul Virus Isolated from Rattus norvegicus in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(24):13853.
Seoul virus (SEOV) is responsible for 25% of cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia. Here we report the complete genome of strain DPRK08. The sequence information provided here is useful for understanding the molecular character of SEOV in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the circulation of SEOV in East Asia.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02668-12
PMCID: PMC3503101  PMID: 23166256
13.  Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Natural Reassortant Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in China 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(21):11942-11943.
A novel isolate of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was designated GX-NN-L. The GX-NN-L IBDV was a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolated from broiler flocks in Guangxi province, China, in 2011. The GX-NN-L IBDV caused high mortality, immunosuppression, low weight gain, and bursal atrophy in commercial broilers. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the GX-NN-L IBDV, a reassortment strain with segments A and B derived from very virulent strains and attenuated IBDV, respectively. These findings from this study provide additional insights into the genetic exchange between attenuated and very virulent strains of IBDV and continuous monitoring of the spread of the virus in chicken.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02043-12
PMCID: PMC3486314  PMID: 23043174
14.  Complete Genomic Sequence of a Novel Reassortant H11N3 Influenza Virus Isolated from Domestic Ducks in Jiangsu, China 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(21):11950-11951.
For the first time we report the complete genomic sequence of an H11N3 influenza virus from domestic ducks in China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H11N3 virus was a novel reassortant with its genes from different subtypes of domestic duck-origin avian influenza viruses, which further underlined that domestic ducks play a key role in the genetic reassortment and evolution of influenza viruses in China.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02167-12
PMCID: PMC3486340  PMID: 23043179
15.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from Broiler Breeder Flocks in China 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(22):12461-12462.
In 2010 and 2011, several devastating Newcastle disease (ND) outbreaks occurred in China, affecting broilers, layers, and breeders. The CK-JSX1-201005 virus was isolated from broiler breeder flocks vaccinated with the classical ND virus (NDV) vaccine program, but laying rate decreased from 80% to 30 to 40% in the clinic. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and molecular characteristic of the CK-JSX1-201005 NDV. These findings provide additional insights into the genetic variation of NDV circulating in China and are useful for vaccine development for NDV.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02314-12
PMCID: PMC3486497  PMID: 23087120
16.  Genome Sequence of a Natural Reassortant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus from Domestic Mallard Ducks in Eastern China 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(22):12463-12464.
Here, we report the genomic sequence of a Chinese reassortant H5N2 avian influenza virus which possessed the polybasic motif PLREKRRK-R/GL at the hemagglutinin cleavage site. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all eight genes were of the Eurasian lineage, five of which were highly homologous to the endemic clade 2.3.4 H5N1 viruses and their H5N5 reassortant descendants. These data suggested that novel multisubtypic NA reassortants bearing the H5N1 backbone could be generated through genetic reassortment in H5N1 circulating regions, which will help in understanding the evolution and segment reassortment mechanism of H5 subtype avian influenza viruses.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02315-12
PMCID: PMC3486508  PMID: 23087121
17.  The First Full-Length Endogenous Hepadnaviruses: Identification and Analysis 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(17):9510-9513.
In silico screening of metazoan genome data identified multiple endogenous hepadnaviral elements in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) genome, most notably two elements comprising about 1.3× and 1.0× the full-length genome. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses show that endogenous budgerigar hepatitis B viruses (eBHBV) share an ancestor with extant avihepadnaviruses and infiltrated the budgerigar genome millions of years ago. Identification of full-length genomes with preserved key features like ε signals could enable resurrection of ancient BHBV.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01164-12
PMCID: PMC3416111  PMID: 22718817
18.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 from Commercial Fetal Bovine Serum 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(18):10233.
We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01581-12
PMCID: PMC3446569  PMID: 22923795
19.  Rotavirus VP8*: Phylogeny, Host Range, and Interaction with Histo-Blood Group Antigens 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(18):9899-9910.
The distal portion of rotavirus (RV) VP4 spike protein (VP8*) is implicated in binding to cellular receptors, thereby facilitating viral attachment and entry. While VP8* of some animal RVs engage sialic acid, human RVs often attach to and enter cells in a sialic acid-independent manner. A recent study demonstrated that the major human RVs (P[4], P[6], and P[8]) recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). In this study, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of RVs and showed further variations of RV interaction with HBGAs. On the basis of the VP8* sequences, RVs are grouped into five P genogroups (P[I] to P[V]), of which P[I], P[IV], and P[V] mainly infect animals, P[II] infects humans, and P[III] infects both animals and humans. The sialic acid-dependent RVs (P[1], P[2], P[3], and P[7]) form a subcluster within P[I], while all three major P genotypes of human RVs (P[4], P[6], and P[8]) are clustered in P[II]. We then characterized three human RVs (P[9], P[14], and P[25]) in P[III] and observed a new pattern of binding to the type A antigen which is distinct from that of the P[II] RVs. The binding was demonstrated by hemagglutination and saliva binding assay using recombinant VP8* and native RVs. Homology modeling and mutagenesis study showed that the locations of the carbohydrate binding interfaces are shared with the sialic acid-dependent RVs, although different amino acids are involved. The P[III] VP8* proteins also bind the A antigens of the porcine and bovine mucins, suggesting the A antigen as a possible factor for cross-species transmission of RVs. Our study suggests that HBGAs play an important role in RV infection and evolution.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00979-12
PMCID: PMC3446626  PMID: 22761376
20.  A Nuclear Export Signal in the Matrix Protein of Influenza A Virus Is Required for Efficient Virus Replication 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(9):4883-4891.
The influenza A virus matrix 1 protein (M1) shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus during the viral life cycle and plays an important role in the replication, assembly, and budding of viruses. Here, a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) was identified specifically for the nuclear export of the M1 protein. The predicted NES, designated the Flu-A-M1 NES, is highly conserved among all sequences from the influenza A virus subtype, but no similar NES motifs are found in the M1 sequences of influenza B or C viruses. The biological function of the Flu-A-M1 NES was demonstrated by its ability to translocate an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-NES fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in transfected cells, compared to the even nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of EGFP. The translocation of EGFP-NES from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was not inhibited by leptomycin B. NES mutations in M1 caused a nuclear retention of the protein and an increased nuclear accumulation of NEP during transfection. Indeed, as shown by rescued recombinant viruses, the mutation of the NES impaired the nuclear export of M1 and significantly reduced the virus titer compared to titers of wild-type viruses. The NES-defective M1 protein was retained in the nucleus during infection, accompanied by a lowered efficiency of the nuclear export of viral RNPs (vRNPs). In conclusion, M1 nuclear export was specifically dependent on the Flu-A-M1 NES and critical for influenza A virus replication.
doi:10.1128/JVI.06586-11
PMCID: PMC3347328  PMID: 22345442
21.  Identification and Characterization of Three Novel Nuclear Export Signals in the Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(9):4970-4980.
The nuclear export of the influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) is crucial for virus replication. As a major component of the vRNP, nucleoprotein (NP) alone can also be shuttled out of the nucleus by interacting with chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) and is therefore hypothesized to promote the nuclear export of the vRNP. In the present study, three novel nuclear export signals (NESs) of the NP—NES1, NES2, and NES3—were identified as being responsible for mediating its nuclear export. The nuclear export of NES3 was CRM1 dependent, whereas that of NES1 or NES2 was CRM1 independent. Inactivation of these NESs led to an overall nuclear accumulation of NP. Mutation of all three NP-NESs significantly impaired viral replication. Based on structures of influenza virus NP oligomers, these three hydrophobic NESs are found present on the surface of oligomeric NPs. Functional studies indicated that oligomerization is also required for nuclear export of NP. Together, these results suggest that the nuclear export of NP is important for virus replication and relies on its NESs and oligomerization.
doi:10.1128/JVI.06159-11
PMCID: PMC3347336  PMID: 22345439
22.  Interleukin-27 Inhibits Vaccine-Enhanced Pulmonary Disease following Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection by Regulating Cellular Memory Responses 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(8):4505-4517.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children. In the 1960s, infants vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV developed a more severe disease characterized by excessive inflammatory immunopathology in lungs upon natural RSV infection. The fear of causing the vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) is an important obstacle for development of safe and effective RSV vaccines. The recombinant vaccine candidate G1F/M2 immunization also led to VED. It has been proved that cellular memory induced by RSV vaccines contributed to VED. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-23 regulate Th1, Th17, and/or Th2 cellular immune responses. In this study, mice coimmunized with pcDNA3–IL-27 and G1F/M2 were fully protected and, importantly, did not develop vaccine-enhanced inflammatory responses and immunopathology in lungs after RSV challenge, which was correlated with moderate Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses activated by RSV. In contrast, G1F/M2- or pcDNA3–IL-23+G1F/M2-immunized mice, in which robust Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were induced, developed enhanced pulmonary inflammation and severe immunopathology. Mice coimmunized with G1F/M2 and the two cytokine plasmids exhibited mild inflammatory responses as well as remarkable Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses. These results suggested that Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses and, in particular, excessive Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were closely associated with VED; IL-27 may inhibit VED following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses.
doi:10.1128/JVI.07091-11
PMCID: PMC3318664  PMID: 22301139
23.  Complete Genomic Sequence of Duck Flavivirus from China 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(6):3398-3399.
We report here the complete genomic sequence of the Chinese duck flavivirus TA strain. This work is the first to document the complete genomic sequence of this previously unknown duck flavivirus strain. The sequence will help further relevant epidemiological studies and extend our general knowledge of flaviviruses.
doi:10.1128/JVI.07086-11
PMCID: PMC3302339  PMID: 22354941
24.  Activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK Pathway Facilitates Hepatitis C Virus Replication via Attenuation of the Interferon-JAK-STAT Pathway 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(3):1544-1554.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, often leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Constitutive activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway is responsible for approximately 30% of cancers. Here we attempted to address the correlation between activation of this pathway and HCV replication. We showed that knockdown of Raf1 inhibits HCV replication, while activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway by V12, a constitutively active form of Ras, stimulates HCV replication. We further demonstrated that this effect is regulated through attenuation of the interferon (IFN)-JAK-STAT pathway. Activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway downregulates the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), attenuates the phosphorylation of STAT1/2, and inhibits the expression of interferon (alpha, beta, and omega) receptors 1 and 2 (IFNAR1/2). Furthermore, we observed that HCV infection activates the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway. Thus, we propose that during HCV infection, the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway is activated, which in turn attenuates the IFN-JAK-STAT pathway, resulting in stimulation of HCV replication.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00688-11
PMCID: PMC3264379  PMID: 22114332
25.  Cooperative Roles of Fish Protein Kinase Containing Z-DNA Binding Domains and Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase in Interferon-Mediated Antiviral Response▿† 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(23):12769-12780.
The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) inhibits protein synthesis by phosphorylating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). In fish species, in addition to PKR, there exists a PKR-like protein kinase containing Z-DNA binding domains (PKZ). However, the antiviral role of fish PKZ and the functional relationship between fish PKZ and PKR remain unknown. Here we confirmed the coexpression of fish PKZ and PKR proteins in Carassius auratus blastula embryonic (CAB) cells and identified them as two typical interferon (IFN)-inducible eIF2α kinases, both of which displayed an ability to inhibit virus replication. Strikingly, fish IFN or all kinds of IFN stimuli activated PKZ and PKR to phosphorylated eIF2α. Overexpression of both fish kinases together conferred much more significant inhibition of virus replication than overexpression of either protein, whereas morpholino knockdown of both made fish cells more vulnerable to virus infection than knockdown of either. The antiviral ability of fish PKZ was weaker than fish PKR, which correlated with its lower ability to phosphorylate eIF2α than PKR. Moreover, the independent association of fish PKZ or PKR reveals that each of them formed homodimers and that fish PKZ phosphorylated eIF2α independently on fish PKR and vice versa. These results suggest that fish PKZ and PKR play a nonredundant but cooperative role in IFN antiviral response.
doi:10.1128/JVI.05849-11
PMCID: PMC3209354  PMID: 21937641

Results 1-25 (642)