To investigate the effect of Lewis y overexpression on the expression of proliferation-related factors in ovarian cancer cells.
mRNA levels of cyclins, CDKs, and CKIs were measured in cells before and after transfection with the α1,2-fucosyltransferase gene by real-time PCR, and protein levels of cyclins, CDKs and CKIs were determined in cells before and after gene transfection by Western blot.
Lewis y overexpression led to an increase in both mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclin A, cyclin D1 and cyclin E in ovarian cancer cells, decrease in both mRNA and protein expression levels of p16 and p21, and decrease of p27 at only the protein expression level without change in its mRNA level. There were no differences in proteins and the mRNA levels of CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 before and after gene transfection. Anti-Lewis y antibody, ERK and PI3K pathway inhibitors PD98059 and LY294002 reduced the difference in cyclin and CKI expression caused by Lewis y overexpression.
Lewis y regulates the expression of cell cycle-related factors through ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways to promote cell proliferation.
Lewis(y) antigen; cell cycle; cyclin; cyclin-dependent kinases; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors
Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides of DNA or RNA that bind to target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Typically, aptamers are generated by an iterative selection process, called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Recent advancements in SELEX technology have extended aptamer selection from comparatively simple mixtures of purified proteins to whole living cells, and now cell-based SELEX (or cell-SELEX) can isolate aptamers that bind to specific target cells. Combined with nanotechnology, microchips, microfluidic devices, RNAi and other advanced technologies, cell-SELEX represents an integrated platform providing ultrasensitive and highly specific tools for clinical medicine. In this review, we describe the recent progress made in the application of cell-SELEX for diagnosis, therapy and biomarker discovery.
aptamer; SELEX; molecular medicine
Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer.
Pokemon; anoikis; Bim; hepatoma
To measure Lewis y and integrin α5β1 expression in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and to correlate the levels of these molecules with ovarian carcinoma chemotherapy and prognosis.
The study population included 34 ovarian carcinoma patients with chemotherapeutic drug-resistance, six partially drug-sensitive cases, and 52 drug-sensitive cases (92 total). Immunochemistry was used to determine expression of Lewis y antigen and integrin α5β1 in ovarian carcinoma tissues, and correlation of these molecules with chemotherapy resistance was further investigated, Multi-factor logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate: age, surgical stage, grade, subtype of patient cases, metastasis of lymph nodes, residual tumor size, expression levels of Lewis y antigen and integrin α5β1 correlation with ovarian carcinoma chemotherapy resistance.
The expression rates of Lewis y antigen and integrins α5 and β1 were significantly greater in the drug-resistant group (91.17%, 85.29%, 88.24%) than the partially sensitive (50.00%, 33.33%, 50.00%) or sensitive groups (61.54%, 57.69%, 55.77%). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that surgical stage, residual tumor size, and expression of integrin α5 and Lewis y in ovarian carcinoma tissues were independent risk factors for chemotherapeutic drug resistance.
Overexpression of Lewis y and integrin α5 are strong risk factors for chemotherapeutic drug resistance in ovarian carcinoma patients.
integrins; Lewis y antigen; ovarian caricinoma; chemoresistance
This study aimed to measure and correlate the expression of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) and the Lewis(y) antigen in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissue samples.
Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence double-labeling techniques were applied to detect and measure the expression of Lewis(y) and IGF-1R.
In α1,2-fucosyltransferase (α1,2-FT)-transfected cells, IGF-1R expression was significantly upregulated compared with cells that do not overexpress α1,2-FT (P < 0.05). The amount of Lewis(y) expressed on IGF-1R increased 1.81-fold in α1,2-FT-overexpressing cells (P < 0.05), but the ratio of Lewis(y) expressed on IGF-1R to total IGF-1R was unaltered between two cells (P > 0.05). In malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, the positivity rates of Lewis(y) and IGF-1R detection were 88.3% and 93.33%, respectively, which is higher than the positivity rates in marginal (60.00% and 63.33%, all P < 0.05), benign (33.00% and 53.33%, all P < 0.01), and normal (0% and 40%, all P < 0.01) ovarian samples. No correlations were detected in positivity rates of Lewis(y) or IGF-1R expression with respect to clinicopathological parameters in ovarian cancers (all P > 0.05). Both IGF-1R and Lewis(y) were highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues, and their expression levels were positively correlated (P < 0.05).
Overexpression of Lewis(y) results in overexpression of IGF-1R. Both IGF-1R and Lewis(y) are associated with the occurrence and development of ovarian cancers.
epithelial ovarian tumor; Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1; Lewis(y) antigen; immunohistochemistry; immunofluorescence double labeling method
Tanshinone I (Tan-I) is a diterpene quinone extracted from the traditional herbal medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Recently, Tan-I has been reported to have anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effects of Tan-I on three kinds of monocytic leukemia cells (U937, THP-1 and SHI 1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and AnnexinV/PI staining. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and telomerase activity before and after apoptosis. The activity of caspase-3 was determined by Caspase colorimetric assay kit and Western blot analysis. Expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Survivin was assayed by Western blot and Real-time RT-PCR using the ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System. The results revealed that Tan-I could inhibit the growth of these three kinds of leukemia cells and cause apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After treatment by Tan-I for 48 h, Western blotting showed cleavage of the caspase-3 zymogen protein with the appearance of its 17-kD subunit, and a 89-kD cleavage product of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of caspase-3, was also found clearly. The expression of hTERT mRNA as well as activity of telomerase were decreased concurrently in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot revealed a significant down-regulation of Survivin. We therefore conclude that the induction of apoptosis by Tan-I in monocytic leukemia U937 THP-1 and SHI 1 cells is highly correlated with activation of caspase-3 and decreasing of hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity as well as down-regulation of Survivin expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the effects of Tan-I on monocytic leukemia cells.
Tanshinone I (Tan-I); telomerase; survivin; leukemia
In aerobic organisms, protection against oxidative damage involves the combined action of highly specialized antioxidant enzymes, such as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase. In this work, a cDNA clone which encodes a copper-zinc superoxide dismutase gene, named PS-CuZnSOD, has been identified from P. sibiricum Laxm. by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method (RACE). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals that the PS-CuZnSOD gene cDNA clone consists of 669 bp, containing 87 bp in the 5′ untranslated region; 459 bp in the open reading frame (ORF) encoding 152 amino acids; and 123 bp in 3′ untranslated region. The gene accession nucleotide sequence number in GenBank is GQ472846. Sequence analysis indicates that the protein, like most plant superoxide dismutases (SOD), includes two conserved ecCuZnSOD signatures that are from the amino acids 43 to 51, and from the amino acids 137 to 148, and it has a signal peptide extension in the front of the N-terminus (1–16 aa). Expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR reveals that the PS-CuZnSOD gene is expressed in leaves, stems and underground stems. PS-CuZnSOD gene expression can be induced by 3% NaHCO3. The different mRNA levels’ expression of PS-CuZnSOD show the gene’s different expression modes in leaves, stems and underground stems under the salinity-alkalinity stress.
P. sibiricum Laxm.; PS-CuZnSOD; RACE; real-time PCR; gene expression
The present study found that ricin toxicity did not only manifest itself as inhibition of protein synthesis, but also induced apoptosis of immune cells and played an extremely significant role in intestinal injury. In this report, we describe a novel method to estimate binding events occurring on intestinal brush border membranes (BBM) based on SPR technology in an attempt to mimic the real intestinal surface capable of interacting physically and/or actively with certain biological molecules. Combined with HPCE-ESI-MS indentification, we obtained 28 kinds of proteins in BBM that interacted with ricin.
ricin; BBM; SPR; HPCE-ESI-MS
A fungal immunomodulatory protein isolated from Flammulina velutipes (FIP-fve) has structural similarity to the variable region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain. In the present study, the recombinant bioactive FIP-fve protein with a His-tag in N-terminal of recombinant protein was expressed in transetta (DE3) at a high level under the optimized culturing conditions of 0.2 mM IPTG and 28 °C. The efficiency of the purification was improved with additional ultrasonication to the process of lysozyme lysis. The yield of the bioactive FIP-fve protein with 97.1% purity reached 29.1 mg/L with a large quantity for industrial applications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed a maximum increase in interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) for the mice serum group of 5 mg/kg body mass (p < 0.01) with three doses of His-FIP-fve. However, the production of IL-4 had no apparent difference compared to the control.
protein expression; large-scale production; ELISA
This study investigated the effect of Icariin (ICA) supplementation on diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model system. Fifty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into a control group and a streptozotocin-induced diabetes group. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups; one group received ICA 5 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks by oral gavage; the other group received saline gavage as a placebo. Retinal morphological changes, endothelial markers (RECA), collagen IV (Col-IV), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and neuropathic changes (Thy-1 and Brn3a expression) of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were investigated. The effects of ICA at various concentrations (0, 101, 102, 103 nmol/mL) on neurite growth were investigated also in retinal ganglion cells (RGC) cultured from both diabetic and normal animals. Numerous pathological changes (deceased expression of RECA, VEGF, Thy-1, and Brn3a as well as decreased Collagen IV and Müller cell content) were noted in the retinal vessels of diabetic rats; these changes were attenuated in diabetic animals that received ICA. ICA enhanced neurite growth in RGC from both normal rats and diabetic rats in a dose dependent fashion. ICA may be useful in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Further investigations are indicated.
icariin; streptozotocin; diabetes; retina; diabetic retinopathy
PISTILLATA (PI)-like genes are crucial regulators of flowering in angiosperms. A homologue of PI, designated as AcPI (Genbank accession number HQ717796), was isolated from pineapple cultivar Comte de Paris by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of AcPI is 907 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 594 bp, which encodes a protein of 197 amino acids. The molecular weight was 2.29 kDa and the isoelectric point was 9.28. The alignment showed that AcPI had a high identity with CsPIC2 (78.6%), AoPI (77.4%), OrcPI (75.7%) and HPI2 (72.4%). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses in different tissues showed that the expression pattern of AcPI was different from the B-class genes in eudicots. AcPI was expressed in all the tissues investigated. The expression level was very low in fruit stems, bracts, leaves and sepals, high in petals and carpels, and moderate in apical meristems, flesh and stamens. The qRT-PCR analyses in different stages indicated that the expression of AcPI reached the highest level at 40 days after flower inducement, when the multiple fruit and floral organs were forming. It proved the important role of AcPI in floral organs and fruit development. The 35S::AcPI transgenic Arabidopsis plants flowered earlier and had more inflorescences or branches than wild type plants.
pineapple; flower development; PI-like; cloning; expression; transformation
Twenty-four microsatellite DNA markers were isolated and characterized for golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) from a (GT)13—enriched genomic library. Loci were tested in 48 individuals from Jiaozhou bay of China. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 25 with an average of 10.3. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.896 and from 0.137 to 0.953, with averages of 0.519 and 0.633, respectively. Six loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni’s correction and no significant linkage disequilibrium between loci pairs was detected. These microsatellite markers would be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure to make conservation and management decisions for S. esculenta.
golden cuttlefish; Sepia esculenta; microsatellite; population structure
The current study was performed to investigate mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and the potential underlying mechanism. Lipid peroxidation of liver and brain mitochondria was induced by Fe2+–Vit C in vitro. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetry was used to measure the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Mouse liver mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) was induced by calcium overload in vitro and spectrophotometry was used to measure it. The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O2•−) and hydroxyl radical (•OH), which were produced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)—N-Methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)–Fe2+ system respectively, were measured by 4-nitrobluetetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction and Fenton reaction colorimetry respectively. The Na2S2O3 titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H2O2. APS could inhibit TBARS production, protect mitochondria from PT, and scavenge O2•−, •OH and H2O2 significantly in a concentration-dependent manner respectively. The back of the neck of mice was injected subcutaneously with D-galactose to induce aging at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for seven weeks. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT), surperoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. According to this research, APS protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting mitochondrial PT and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, APS has the effect of promoting health.
Astragalus polysaccharides; mitochondria; anti-aging; antioxidant; reactive oxygen species; mitochondrial permeability transition
Bufalin is a class of toxic steroids which could induce the differentiation and apoptosis of leukemia cells, and induce the apoptosis of gastric, colon and breast cancer cells. However, the anti-tumor effects of bufalin have not been demonstrated in lung cancer. In this study we used A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line as the experimental model to evaluate the potential of bufalin in lung cancer chemotherapy. A549 cells were treated with bufalin, then the proliferation was detected by MTT assay and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis and Giemsa staining. In addition, A549 cells were treated by Akt inhibitor LY294002 in combination with bufalin and the activation of Akt and Caspase-3 as well as the expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and livin were examined by Western blot analysis. The results showed that Bufalin inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells and induced the apoptosis of A549 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Mechanistically, we found that bufalin inhibited the activation of Akt. Moreover, bufalin synergized with Akt inhibitor to induce the apoptosis of A549 cells and this was associated with the upregulation of Bax expression, the downregulation of Bcl-2 and livin expression, and the activation of Caspase-3. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that bufalin induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway and suggest that bufalin is a potential regimen for combined chemotherapy to overcome the resistance of lung cancer cells to chemotherapeutics induced apoptosis.
lung cancer; Apoptosis; bufalin; PI3K/Akt; A549 cells
Chitinolytic β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidases, as a class of chitin hydrolysis enzyme in insects, are a potential species-specific target for developing environmentally-friendly pesticides. Until now, pesticides targeting chitinolytic β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase have not been developed. This study demonstrates a combination of different theoretical methods for investigating the key structural features of this enzyme responsible for pesticide inhibition, thus allowing for the discovery of novel small molecule inhibitors. Firstly, based on the currently reported crystal structure of this protein (OfHex1.pdb), we conducted a pre-screening of a drug-like compound database with 8 × 106 compounds by using the expanded pesticide-likeness criteria, followed by docking-based screening, obtaining 5 top-ranked compounds with favorable docking conformation into OfHex1. Secondly, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations are performed for the five complexes and demonstrate that one main hydrophobic pocket formed by residues Trp424, Trp448 and Trp524, which is significant for stabilization of the ligand–receptor complex, and key residues Asp477 and Trp490, are respectively responsible for forming hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking interactions with the ligands. Finally, the molecular mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) analysis indicates that van der Waals interactions are the main driving force for the inhibitor binding that agrees with the fact that the binding pocket of OfHex1 is mainly composed of hydrophobic residues. These results suggest that screening the ZINC database can maximize the identification of potential OfHex1 inhibitors and the computational protocol will be valuable for screening potential inhibitors of the binding mode, which is useful for the future rational design of novel, potent OfHex1-specific pesticides.
β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase; OfHex1; inhibitor; virtual screening; molecular dynamics; MM/PBSA
Peptide deformylases (PDF) behave as monomeric metal cation hydrolases for the removal of the N-formyl group (Fo). This is an essential step in the N-terminal Met excision (NME) that occurs in these proteins from eukaryotic mitochondria or chloroplasts. Although PDFs have been identified and their structure and function have been characterized in several herbaceous species, it remains as yet unexplored in poplar. Here, we report on the first identification of two genes (PtrPDF1A and PtrPDF1B) respectively encoding two putative PDF polypeptides in Populus trichocarpa by genome-wide investigation. One of them (XP_002300047.1) encoded by PtrPDF1B (XM_002300011.1) was truncated, and then revised into a complete sequence based on its ESTs support with high confidence. We document that the two PDF1s of Populus are evolutionarily divergent, likely as a result of independent duplicated events. Furthermore, in silico simulations demonstrated that PtrPDF1A and PtrPDF1B should act as similar PDF catalytic activities to their corresponding PDF orthologs in Arabidopsis. This result would be value of for further assessment of their biological activities in poplar, and further experiments are now required to confirm them.
peptide deformylase; N-terminal Met excision; in silico simulation; genome-wide investigation; phylogenetic analysis; gene duplication; ghromosome location; gene structure display
In this paper, hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube/titania (HA-CNT/TiO2) double layer coatings were successfully developed on titanium (Ti) substrates intended for biomedical applications. A TiO2 coating was firstly developed by anodization to improve bonding between HA and Ti, and then the layer of HA and CNTs was coated on the surface by the sol-gel process to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of Ti. The surfaces of double layer coatings were uniform and crack-free with a thickness of about 7 μm. The bonding strength of the HA-CNT/TiO2 coating was higher than that of the pure HA and HA-CNT coatings. Additionally, in vitro cell experiments showed that CNTs promoted the adhesion of preosteoblasts on the HA-CNT/TiO2 double layer coatings. These unique surfaces combined with the osteoconductive properties of HA exhibited the excellent mechanical properties of CNTs. Therefore, the developed HA-CNT/TiO2 coatings on Ti substrates might be a promising material for bone replacement.
hydroxyapatite; carbon nanotubes; titania; anodization; sol-gel process
CD146 has been regarded as a novel potential therapeutic target for multiple cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of CD146 in gastric cancer and evaluate its clinical-pathological and prognostic significance. The expression of CD146 and three epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins (E-cadherin, β-catenin and vimentin) was examined in 144 gastric cancers by immunohistochemistry. Fifty-nine cases (41.0%) were defined as positive for CD146 expression. We found that CD146 expression correlated positively with lymph node involvement and a poor prognosis, and retained an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Furthermore, positive expression of CD146 was strongly associated with loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and acquisition of the expression of the mesenchymal markers nuclear β-catenin and vimentin. These findings suggest that CD146 might promote EMT and progression in gastric cancer, and thus may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with gastric cancers.
CD146; gastric cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; prognosis; immunohistochemistry
Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84%) were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 17 to 34. The Jaccard’s similarity ranged from 0.08 to 0.89 and averaged ~0.30 for the investigated bromeliads. The Bayesian-based approach, together with the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based clustering and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), distinctly grouped the bromeliads from Neoregelia, Guzmania, and Vriesea into three separately clusters, well corresponding with their botanical classifications; whereas the bromeliads of Aechmea other than the recently selected hybrids were not well assigned to a cluster. Additionally, ISSR marker was proven efficient for the identification of hybrids and bud sports of cultivated bromeliads. The findings achieved herein will further our knowledge about the genetic variability within cultivated bromeliads and therefore facilitate breeding for new varieties of cultivated bromeliads in future as well.
cultivated bromeliads; genetic diversity; population structure; ISSR
An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C91–3—was expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3′-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and 5′-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (p < 0.05). There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (p < 0.05). At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.
Lentinula edodes; apoptosis; protein Latcripin-1; Pichia pastoris; expression
Twenty microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized for Solenocera crassicornis from a (GT)13-enriched genomic library. Their polymorphisms were investigated using 44 wild individuals from the South Yellow Sea. Our investigation revealed that all the markers were polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus varied from 6 to 19 with an average of 12.35. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.400 to 0.977 and from 0.609 to 0.940, with averages of 0.788 and 0.859, respectively. Four loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni’s correction. Cross-species amplification was also conducted in Solenocera melantho collected from the East China Sea. The result showed that 14 loci could be amplified from Solenocera melantho DNAs. These polymorphic markers would be useful for assessment of genetic variation and population structure of S. crassicornis and S. melantho.
Solenocera crassicornis; Solenocera melantho; microsatellite marker; cross-species amplification
Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA) and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees.
Betula platyphylla; autotetraploid; phenotype; transcriptome
This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25–1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72–0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05–1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07–1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89–0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.
ABO blood group; gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; Asian cohort; meta-analysis
Ricin toxin has been regarded as one of the most potent poisons in the plant kingdom, and there is no effective therapeutic countermeasure or licensed vaccine against it. Consequently, early detection of ricin intoxication is necessary. In this study, we took mice as test subjects, and used the technique of Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and ClinProt™ microparticle beads to set up an effective detection model with an accuracy of almost 100%. Eighty-two peaks in the mass range 1000–10,000 m/z were detected by ClinProTools software, and five different peaks with m/z of 4982.49, 1333.25, 1537.86, 4285.05 and 2738.88 had the greatest contribution to the accuracy and sensitivity of this model. They may therefore provide biomarkers for ricin intoxication.
ricin; MALDI-TOF-MS; detection model
Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa). In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complements, lectins, cytokines, transferrin and gene expression profiling using microarrays and next generation sequencing technologies. This review will benefit the understanding of innate immune system in catfish and further efforts in studying the innate immune-related genes in fish.
catfish; channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); innate immunity; antimicrobial peptide; complement; lectin; cytokine; RNA-seq; gene expression profiling