Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) can lead to irreversible central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, the pathogenesis of the developmental brain disorders caused by CH has not been completely elucidated. ARPC5 and CRMP2 are closely associated with neurite outgrowth in brain development. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether CRMP2B and ARPC5 expression is altered in the developing cerebral cortex of rats with CH. Control rats and rats with hypothyroidism were sacrificed at birth and at 15 days postpartum. We performed qRT-PCR to detect differences in the crmp2B and arpc5 mRNA expression in the right half of the frontal cortex of these rats. Western blotting was then used to detect differences in CRMP2B and ARPC5 protein expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the left half of the frontal cortex to detect abnormal localization of CRMP2B and ARPC5. Results showed increased expression of the nuclear short isoform of CRMP2B and decreased expression of full-length CRMP2B and ARPC5 in cortical neurons of rats with hypothyroidism. These findings demonstrate that reduced levels of thyroid hormones can inhibit the expression of full-length CRMP2B and ARPC5 and promote nuclear transformation of the short isoform of CRMP2B. CRMP2B and ARPC5 may participate in CNS injury mediated by hypothyroidism by inducing neurite outgrowth inhibition and cytoskeletal protein disorganization.
CRMP2B; ARPC5; congenital hypothyroidism; frontal cortex; rat.
DOC-1R (deleted in oral cancer-1 related) is a novel putative tumor suppressor. This study investigated DOC-1R antitumor activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell phenotypes were assessed using flow cytometry, BrdU incorporation and CDK2 kinase assays in DOC-1R overexpressing HeLa cells. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect underlying molecular changes in these cells. The interaction between DOC-1R and CDK2 proteins was assayed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation-Western blot assays. The data showed that DOC-1R overexpression inhibited G1/S phase transition, DNA replication and suppressed CDK2 activity. Molecularly, DOC-1R inhibited CDK2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and there were decreased levels of G1-phase cyclins (cyclin D1 and E) and elevated levels of p21, p27, and p53 proteins. Meanwhile, DOC-1R associated with CDK2 and inhibited CDK2 activation by obstructing its association with cyclin E and A. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of DOC-1R may be mediated by negatively regulating G1 phase progression and G1/S transition through inhibiting CDK2 expression and activation.
DOC-1R; CDK2; G1/S transition; cyclin E; cyclin A; CKI.
Evodiamine has therapeutic potential against cancers. This study was designed to investigate whether combination therapy with gemcitabine and evodiamine enhanced antitumor efficacy in pancreatic cancer. In vitro application of the combination therapy triggered significantly higher frequency of pancreatic cancer cells apoptosis, inhibited the activities of PI3K, Akt, PKA, mTOR and PTEN, and decreased the activation of NF-κB and expression of NF-κB-regulated products. In vivo application of the combination therapy induced significant enhancement of tumor cell apoptosis, reductions in tumor volume, and inhibited activation of mTOR and PTEN. In conclusion, evodiamine can augment the therapeutic effect of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer through direct or indirect negative regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
evodiamine; gemcitabine; pancreatic cancer SW1990 cells; apoptosis; PTEN; mTOR
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates antigenic peptides from the cytosol into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticular and plays a critical role in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule-mediated antigenic presentation pathway. In this study, the porcine TAP1 gene was mapped to the pig chromosome 7 (SSC7) and was closely linked to the marker SSC2B02 (retention fraction=43%, LOD=15.18). Subcellular localization of TAP1 by transient transfection of PK15 cells indicated that the TAP1 protein might be located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pig kidney epithelial cells (PK-15). Gene expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that TAP1 was selectively expressed in some immune and immune-related tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that this gene was up-regulated after treatments that mimic viral and bacterial infection (polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively). In addition, elevated TAP1 expression was detected after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in porcine white blood cells (WBCs). One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 3 of TAP1 was detected in a Landrace pig population by Bsp143I restriction enzyme digestion. Different genotypes of this SNP had significant associations (P<0.05) with the red blood cell distribution width (RDW) of 1-day-old (1 d) pigs (P=0.0168), the PRRSV antibody level (PRRSV Ab) (P=0.0445) and the absolute lymphocyte count (LYM#) (P=0.024) of 17 d pigs. Our results showed that the TAP1 gene might have important roles in swine immune responses, and these results provide useful information for further functional studies.
Pig; TAP1; Localization; Expression; PRRSV; Association analyses
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play crucial regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for silencing. To identify miRNAs in Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergy crop, cDNA clones from two small RNA libraries of leaves and seeds were sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatic tools. Fifty-two putative miRNAs were found from the two libraries, among them six were identical to known miRNAs and 46 were novel. Differential expression patterns of 15 miRNAs in root, stem, leave, fruit and seed were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Ten miRNAs were highly expressed in fruit or seed, implying that they may be involved in seed development or fatty acids synthesis in seed. Moreover, 28 targets of the isolated miRNAs were predicted from a jatropha cDNA library database. The miRNA target genes were predicted to encode a broad range of proteins. Sixteen targets had clear BLASTX hits to the Uniprot database and were associated with genes belonging to the three major gene ontology categories of biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Four targets were identified for JcumiR004. By silencing JcumiR004 primary miRNA, expressions of the four target genes were up-regulated and oil composition were modulated significantly, indicating diverse functions of JcumiR004.
Jatropha; Biofuel; miRNA; fatty acid synthesis.
Cdc42-interacting protein-4 (CIP4) is an F-BAR (Fer/CIP4 and Bin, amphiphysin, Rvs) family member that regulates membrane deformation and endocytosis, playing a key role in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and invasion of cancer cells. These processes are analogous to those observed during the initial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells. The role of CIP4 in renal tubular EMT and renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was investigated over the course of the current study, demonstrating that the expression of CIP4 increased in the tubular epithelia of 5/6-nephrectomized rats and TGF-β1 treated HK-2 cells. Endogenous CIP4 evidenced punctate localization throughout the cytosol, with elevated levels observed in the perinuclear region of HK-2 cells. Subsequent to TGF-β1 treatment, CIP4 expression increased, forming clusters at the cell periphery that gradually redistributed into the cytoplasm. Simultaneously, EMT induction in cells was confirmed by the prevalence of morphological changes, loss of E-cadherin, increase in α-SMA expression, and secretion of fibronectin. Overexpression of CIP4 promoted characteristics similar to those commonly observed in EMT, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules capable of CIP4 knockdown were used to demonstrate reversed EMT. Cumulatively, results of the current study suggest that CIP4 promotes TGF-β1-induced EMT in tubular epithelial cells. Through this mechanism, CIP4 is capable of inducing ECM deposition and exacerbating progressive fibrosis in chronic renal failure.
Cdc42-interacting protein-4; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; renal proximal tubular epithelial cells; β-catenin; TGF-β1-induced
Insect β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidases with broad substrate-spectrum (IBS-Hex) are the homologues of human β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase A/B (HsHex A/ B). These enzymes are distributed in most insect species and vary in physiological roles. In this study, the gene encoding an IBS-Hex, OfHEX2, was cloned from the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis. Recombinant OfHex2 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity. By structure-based sequence alignment, three sequence segments with high diversity among IBS-Hexs were firstly concluded. Furthermore, the residue pair N423-R424/ D452-L453 important for the specificity of human β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase subunits α/β toward charged/ non-charged substrates was not conserved in OfHex2 and other IBS-Hexs. Unlike HsHex A, OfHex2 could not degrade charged substrates such as 4-methylumbelliferyl-6-sulfo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide, ganglioside GM2 and peptidoglycan. OfHex2 showed a broad substrate-spectrum by hydrolyzing β1-2 linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamines from both α3 and α6 branches of biantennary N-glycan and β1-4 linked GlcNAc from chitooligosaccharides as well as β1-3 linked or β1-4 linked N-acetyl-D-galactosamine from oligosaccharides of glycolipids. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of OfHEX2 was up-regulated in the intermolt stages (both larva and pupa), and mainly occurred in the carcass rather than in the midgut during the feeding stage of fifth (final) instar larva. This study reported a novel IBS-Hex with specific biochemical properties, suggesting biodiversity of this class of enzymes.
β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase; insect; glycoside hydrolase; N-glycan; Ostrinia furnacalis.
Sperm nuclear transfer or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a powerful assisted reproductive technology (ART) for treating human male infertility. Controversial reports of increased birth defects have raised concerns about the ART's safety. The cause for birth defects, however, has remained elusive for analysis in human because of the sample size, male infertility genetics, physiological heterogeneity and associated procedures such as embryo manipulations. Animal models are required to evaluate factors leading to the increased birth defects. Here we report the establishment of medakafish model for ICSI and transgenic production. This small laboratory fish has high fecundity and easy embryology. We show that ICSI produced a 5% high percentage of fertile animals that exhibited both paternal and maternal contribution as evidenced by the pigmentation marker. Furthermore, when sperm were pre-incubated with a plasmid ubiquitously expressing RFP and subjected to ICSI, 50% of sperm nuclear transplants showed germline transmission. We conclude that medaka is an excellent model for ICSI to evaluate birth defects and that sperm nuclear transfer can mediate stable gene transfer at high efficiency. Although more demanding for experimentation, sperm-mediated transgenesis should be particularly applicable for aquaculture species with a lengthy generation time and/or a large adult body size.
medaka; nuclear transfer; sperm; gene transfer; transgenesis
In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ♂). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-α-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.
gynogenesis; sex reversal; all-female diploid; all-female triploid; Stem cell; fish breeding.
Endothelial cell migration is essential for tumor angiogenesis, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been shown to play an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of IL-8 induced endothelial cell migration. Our results indicated that IL-8 induced a rapid rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in EA.Hy926 cells, generating extensions resembling membrane ruffling and stress fibers. These processes required parallel upregulation of the small GTPases Rac1 and RhoA. Moreover, we demonstrated that IL-8 activated PI3K following the same kinetics observed from IL-8 induction of cytoskeletal rearrangement, suggesting the participation of PI3K in these processes. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PI3K-Rac1/RhoA signaling pathway plays a vital role in IL-8 induced endothelial cell migration, and provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms by which IL-8 contributes to tumor angiogenesis and metastasis.
Rac1; Interleukin-8; PI3-kinase; cell migration; tumor angiogenesis
The 16, 470 bp nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of an assassin bug from the reduviid subfamily Harpactorinae, Agriosphodrus dohrni, has been revealed. The entire genome encodes for two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and a control region. The nucleotide composition is biased toward adenine and thymine (A+T = 72.2%). Comparative analysis with two other reduviid species Triatoma dimidiata and Valentia hoffmanni, exhibited highly conserved genome architectures including genome contents, gene order, nucleotide composition, codon usage, amino acid composition, as well as genome asymmetry. All protein-coding genes use standard mitochondrial initiation codons (methionine and isoleucine), except that nad1 starts with GTG. All tRNAs have the classic clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNASer(AGN) forms a simple loop. Secondary structure comparisons of the two mitochondrial ribosomal subunits among sequenced assassin bugs show that the sequence and structure of rrnL is more conservative than that of rrnS. The presence of structural elements in the control region is also discussed, with emphasis on their implications in the regulation of replication and/or transcription of the reduviid mitogenome. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that within Reduviidae, Harpactorinae is a sister group to the Salyavatinae + Triatominae clade.
Mitogenome; Agriosphodrus dohrni; Reduviidae; genome architecture; phylogenetic relationship
MicroRNAs(miRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in tumorigenesis. Increasing evidences have indicated microRNA-7(miR-7) to be a potential tumor suppressor in several human cancers. However, only a limited number of target genes have been identified so far and its biological function in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remains to be further elucidated. In the present study, we observed a reduction of miR-7 level in NSCLC cell lines. Overexpression of miR-7 not only suppressed NSCLC A549 cells proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell migration in vitro, but also reduced tumorigenicity in vivo. Bioinformatics predictions revealed a potential binding site of miR-7 on 3'UTR of BCL-2 and it was further confirmed by luciferase assay. Moreover, subsequent experiments showed that BCL-2 was downregulated by miR-7 at both transcriptional and translational levels. These results suggest that miR-7 regulates the expression of BCL-2 through direct 3'UTR interactions. Therefore, we postulate BCL-2 to be a novel target possibly involved in miR-7-mediated growth suppression and apoptosis of A549 cells. These findings may provide a basic rationale for the use of miR-7 in the treatment of NSCLC.
miR-7; BCL-2; non-small cell lung cancer; A549 cells; apoptosis.
Five BC1 lines and 16 house fly mass-cross homozygous lines were generated from crosses of the pyrethroid resistant ALHF (wild-type) and susceptible aabys (bearing recessive morphological markers on each of five autosomes) strains. Each of the resulting homozygous lines had different combinations of autosomes from the resistant ALHF strain. Levels of resistance to permethrin were measured for each line to determine the autosomal linkage, interaction and, possibly, regulation in pyrethroid resistance of house flies. Results indicated that factors on autosome 4 are not involved in the development of resistance in house flies, while factors on autosomes 1, 2, 3 and 5 play important roles in pyrethroid resistance. The sodium channel gene has been mapped on autosome 3 and multiple cytochrome P450 genes overexpressed in resistant ALHF house flies have been genetically mapped on autosome 5, suggesting that P450 mediated detoxification and sodium channel-mediated target site insensitivity located on autosomes 3 and 5, respectively, are major factors related to resistance development in house flies. However, neither the factors on autosome 3 or 5 alone, nor the factors from both autosomes 3 and 5 combined could confer high levels of resistance to pyrethroid. In addition, strong synergistic effects on resistance was obtained when autosomes 1 and 2 interact with autosome 3 and/or 5, suggesting that the trans factors on autosomes 1 and 2 may interact with factors on autosomes 3 and 5, therefore, playing regulatory roles in the development of sodium channel insensitivity- and P450 detoxification-mediated resistance.
House fly lines; pyrethroid resistance; autosomes; Genetic crossing; Cytochrome P450s; Sodium Channels
In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×106 pfu/ml and 1.62×109 pfu/ml respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. A total of 282 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 328 to 1,142bps were then analyzed the BLASTX score revealed that 53.9% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.6% as nominal and 7.4% as weak match. 28.0% of them were found to be related to enzyme/catalytic protein, 20.9% ESTs to metabolism, 13.1% ESTs to transport, 12.1% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.9% ESTs to structure protein, 3.9% ESTs to immunity protein/defense metabolism, 3.2% ESTs to cell cycle, and 8.9 ESTs classified as novel genes. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genomic research of Siberian tigers.
Siberian tiger; Panthera tigris altaica; Fibroblast cell line; SMART cDNA library; Expressed sequence tags.
Purpose: Gastric cancer (GC) remains a leading cause of death worldwide, and an elevated expression of osteopontin (OPN) may correlate with its poor survival. Alternative splicing of OPN can result in three isoforms, OPN-a, OPN-b and OPN-c. The aim of our current study is to examine the expression pattern and biological functions of OPN splice variants in GC.
Methods: Firstly, we evaluated the expression of OPN splice variants in 7 gastric cell lines, 101 pairs of GC tissues and their adjacent non-tumor tissues by Quantative real-time PCR (QT-PCR). Gain-of-function experiments were subsequently performed to determine their diverse roles in malignant behaviors of GC. Besides, their differential effects on the regulation of crucial downstream molecules were further explored in the anti-apoptotic and pro-metastatic process.
Results: We found that OPN-b is the dominant kind of OPN isoform in GC cell lines. Although the expression levels of three variants were all elevated in GC tissues, increased OPN-b or OPN-c expression could correlate with clinicopathological features. Functional analyses further showed that OPN-b most strongly promoted GC cell survival possibly by regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins and CD44v expressions. Moreover, OPN-c most effectively stimulated GC metastatic activity by increasing secretion of MMP-2, uPa, and IL-8.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that OPN splice variants differentially exert clinicopathological features and biological functions in GC. Therefore, focusing on specific OPN isoform could be a novel direction for developing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in GC.
OPN splice variants; gastric cancer; clinicopathological feature; biological function; apoptosis; metastasis.
Background/Aims:Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, the well-recognized pro-inflammatory molecules, has been detected in renal tissues including tubules. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of advanced glycation end-products modified low density lipoprotein (AGE-LDL) in inflammatory cytokines production in human proximal tubular epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism. Methods: The Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2/4) was detected by flow cytometry and western blot. The interaction of TLR2/4 with AGE-LDL was examined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The involvement of MyD88 and the downstream molecules in inflammatory cytokines production was examined by siRNA and pharmacologic inhibitors, respectively. Results: AGE-LDL interacted with TLR2 and TLR4. TLR4 siRNA showed stronger inhibition on AGE-LDL-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production than that of TLR2 siRNA. Silencing MyD88, but not TRIF, inhibited AGE-LDL-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. AGE-LDL stimulation led to phosphorylation of JNK, p38, Akt and the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Pharmacologic inhibitor of Akt suppressed AGE-LDL-induced activation of NF-κB, but the inhibitor of JNK, p38 or ERK1/2 had no effect. Blocking MyD88, p38, JNK, Akt or NF-κB attenuated AGE-LDL-triggered IL-6 production. Conclusion: AGE-LDL induced IL-6 and IL-8 production via TLR2/4-MyD88-dependent pathway in tubular epithelial cells. These data suggest that activation of TLRs signaling in tubular epithelial cells by AGE-LDL might be a novel mechanism for the tubulointerstitial inflammation.
AGE-LDL; Toll like receptor; MyD88; NF-κB; IL-6.
A novel triple cell neurovascular unit (NVU) model co-culturing with neurons, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocytes was established in this study for investigating the cerebral diseases and screening the candidates of therapeutic drug. We have first performed the cell identification and morphological characterization, analyzed the specific protein expression and determined the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function of the co-culture model under normal condition. Then, we further determined the BBB function, inflammation, cell injury and the variation of neuroprotective factor in this model after anoxia-reoxygenation. The results suggest that this model exhibited a better BBB function and significantly increased expression of P-glycoprotein (Pg-P) and ZO-1 compared with BMECs only or co-culture with astrocytes or neurons. After anoxia-reoxygenation, the pathological changes of this model were basically resemblance to the pathological changes of brain cells and BBB in vivo. And nimodipine, an antagonist of calcium, could reverse those changes as well. According to our observations, we deduce that this triple cell co-culture model exhibits the basic structure, function and cell-cell interaction of NVU, which may offer a more proper in vitro system of NVU for the further investigation of cerebral diseases and drug screening.
neurovascular unit; triple cell co-culture model; anoxia-reoxygenation; brain microvascular endothelial cells; astrocytes; neurons.
Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. This family contains a cluster of duplicated loci. Most mammals have IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5; however, bird, marsupial, frog and fish have only IFIT5. Regardless of species, IFIT5 is always adjacent to SLC16A12. IFIT family genes are predominantly induced by type I and type III interferons and are regulated by the pattern recognition and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IFIT family proteins are involved in many processes in response to viral infection. However, some viruses can escape the antiviral functions of the IFIT family by suppressing IFIT family genes expression or methylation of 5' cap of viral molecules. In addition, the variants of IFIT family genes could significantly influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. We believe that our current review provides a comprehensive picture for the community to understand the structure and function of IFIT family genes in response to pathogens in human, as well as in animals.
IFIT family; evolution; antiviral activities; regulation and signaling; therapy of infectious diseases.
The human X-ray repair complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1) is an important candidate gene influencing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility. The objective of this study was to detect the association between c.1161G>A and c.1779C>G variants of XRCC1 gene and HCC risk. This study was conducted in Chinese population consisting of 623 HCC cases and 639 controls. These two genetic variants could be genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The association of XRCC1 gene variants with the risk of HCC was investigated under different genetic models. Our findings suggested that the genotypes/alleles from c.1161G>A and c.1779C>G genetic variants were statistically associated with HCC risk. As for the c.1161G>A, the AA genotype was statistically associated with the increased risk of HCC compared to GG wild genotype (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.63-3.40, P < 0.001). As for the c.1779C>G, the risk of HCC was significantly higher for GG genotype compared to CC wild genotype (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.51-3.12, P < 0.001). Furthermore, significant differences in the risk of HCC were also detected in other genetic models for these two variants. The allele-A of c.1161G>A and allele-G of c.1779C>G variants may contribute to the susceptibility of HCC (A versus G: OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.26-1.75, P < 0.001 and G versus C: OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.28-1.78, P < 0.001). Our data indicated that these two variants of XRCC1 gene were statistically associated with HCC risk in Chinese population.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; XRCC1 gene; genetic variants; molecular markers; susceptibility; risk factors.
The p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) recently has been reported to be a new player in DNA damage signaling and response, but the crucial mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, the potential mechanism of PIG3 participation in the DNA damage response induced by ionizing radiation (IR) was investigated in multiple cell lines with depleted expression of PIG3 transiently or stably by the small interference RNA and lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression strategies. PIG3 knockdown led to an abnormal DNA damage response, including decreased IR-induced phosphorylation of H2AX, Chk1, Chk2 and Kap-1 as well as a prolonged G2-M arrest and aberrant mitotic progression. Notably, PIG3 knockdown resulted in a striking depression of cellular DNA-PKcs protein level, and was accompanied by a downregulation of ATM. Re-expression of PIG3 effectively rescued the depression of DNA-PKcs in PIG3-depleted cells. This negative regulation of DNA-PKcs by depleting PIG3 seemed to take place at the translational level but not at the levels of transcription or protein degradation. However, a compensatory feedback of increased mRNA expression of DNA-PKcs was formed in PIG3-depleted cells after a few passages or cell cycles of subculture, which led the recovery of the DNA-PKcs protein level and the consequent recovered efficiency of the DNA damage response. These results provide a new insight into the mechanism of PIG3's functioning in DNA damage signaling and the regulation network of cellular DNA-PKcs expression homeostasis.
DNA damage response; cell cycle progression; checkpoint; PIG3; DNA-PKcs; ATM.
Functional differences in the different types of adipose tissue and the impact of their dysfunction on metabolism are associated with the regional distribution of adipose depots. Here we show a genome-wide comparison between the transcriptomes of one source of subcutaneous and two sources of visceral adipose tissue in the pig using an RNA-seq approach. We obtained ~32.3 million unique mapped reads which covered ~80.2% of the current annotated transcripts across these three sources of adipose tissue. We identified various genes differentially expressed between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, which are potentially associated with the inflammatory features of visceral adipose tissue. These results are of benefit for understanding the phenotypic, metabolic and functional differences between different types of adipose tissue that are deposited in different body sites.
subcutaneous adipose tissue; visceral adipose tissue; RNA-seq; inflammatory; fatty acid metabolism; pig.
Aim: To construct short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and miR30-based shRNAs against heparanase (HPSE) to compare their safety and their effects on HPSE down-modulation in vitro and in vivo to develop a more ideal therapeutic RNA interference (RNAi) vector targeting HPSE.
Methods: First, we constructed shRNAs and miR30-based shRNAs against HPSE (HPSE-shRNAs and HPSE-miRNAs) and packed them into lentiviral vectors. Next, we observed the effects of the shRNAs on knockdown for HPSE expression, adhesion, migration and invasion abilities in human malignant melanoma A375 cells in vitro. Furthermore, we compared the effects of the shRNAs on melanoma growth, metastasis and safety in xenograft models.
Results: Our data showed that these artificial miRNAs targeting HPSE could be effective RNAi agents mediated by Pol II promoters in vitro and in vivo, although these miRNAs were not more potent than the HPSE-shRNAs. It was noted that obvious lung injuries, rarely revealed previously, as well as hepatotoxicity could be caused by lentivirus-mediated shRNAs (LV shRNAs) rather than lentivirus-mediated miRNAs (LV miRNAs) in vivo. Furthermore, enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TGF-β1 and endogenous mmu-miR-21a-5p were detected in lung tissues of shRNAs groups, whereas the expression of mmu-let-7a-5p, mmu-let-7b-5p and mmu-let-7c-5p were down-regulated.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that artificial miRNAs display an improved safety profile of lowered lung injury or hepatotoxicity relative to shRNAs in vivo. The mechanism of lung injuries caused by shRNAs may be correlated with changes of endogenous miRNAs in the lung. Our data here increase the flexibility of a miRNA-based RNAi system for functional genomic and gene therapy applications.
RNA interference; microRNA(miRNA); heparanase; metastasis; safety
The terminal loop region of primary miRNA transcripts is an important determinant controlling miRNA function in human, animals and plants. However, the effects of polymorphisms in loop region of miRNA precusors on phenotypic variation have not been reported, especially on agronomic traits in rice. From rice japonica variety Koshihikari and indica Guichao2, we isolated a precursor of putative miRNA osa-MIR2923a. We detected a GG/AA polymorphism in the loop structure from japonica and indica rice varieties, which was corresponding to japonica/indica rice differentiation. By using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, we measured the polymorphisms in a RIL (recombinant inbred lines) population derived from japonica variety Koshihikari and indica Guichao2. We found that the GG/AA polymorphism in the osa-MIR2923a loop was correlated to grain length and length-width ratio. We further found the significant association between seed length and GG/AA polymorphism in a population consisting of 72 rice landraces. Three targets were predicted, whose expressions showed significant differences between the two varieties. Our results suggested that the putative miRNA precursor and the three target genes could play functional roles for indica/japonica seed differentiation.
rice; miRNA; polymorphism; seed length.
Epidemiological studies have shown that cigarette smoke (CS), a very common environmental factor, plays an important role in skin aging. Although some in vivo studies have suggested that CS affects skin aging, the detailed effects of CS on skin cells in vitro remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the growth, proliferation, and senescene of skin fibroblasts and the possible mechanism underlying these effects. Primary cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to a range of concentrations of CSE. Cell viability and cell proliferation after CSE exposure were analyzed with the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. Growth curves of fibroblasts exposed to different concentrations of CSE were developed and prolonged CSE-exposed cells were observed. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in fibroblasts were assessed by inverted light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dying cells were stained with senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were determined by a colorimetric method. We found that proliferative capacity and growth were inhibited by CSE exposure in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Fibroblasts exposed to even low concentrations of CSE for a long period of time (5 passages) showed significantly increased SA β-gal activity and typical features of aging cells. Meanwhile, CSE inhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and augmented ROS levels. Our observations suggest that CSE exposure impairs fibroblast growth and proliferation and leads to features similar to those seen in senescent cells. Oxidative stress injury and inhibition of antioxidant defense activity may be involved in CSE-induced fibroblast senescence.
skin fibroblasts; senescence; growth; cigarette smoke extract; senescence-associated β-galactosidase.
Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) has been considered to have therapeutic potential in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injuries. However, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of GRg1 on peripheral nerve regeneration is currently unclear. The possible effect of GRg1 on Schwann cells (SCs), which were subjected to oxidative injury after nerve injury, might contribute to the beneficial effect of GRg1 on nerve regeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of GRg1 on SCs exposed to oxidative injury. The oxidative injury to SCs was induced by hydrogen peroxide. The effect of GRg1 (50 μM) on SCs exposed to oxidative injury was measured by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in SCs. The cell number and cell viability of SCs were evaluated through fluorescence observation and MTT assay. The apoptosis of SCs induced by oxidative injury was evaluated by an apoptosis assay. The expression and secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and an ELISA method. We found that GRg1 significantly up-regulated the level of SOD, GSH and CAT, and decreased the level of MDA in SCs treated with hydrogen peroxide. In addition, GRg1 has been shown to be able to inhibit the proapoptotic effect of hydrogen peroxide, as well as inhibit the detrimental effect of hydrogen peroxide on cell number and cell viability. Furthermore, GRg1 also increased the mRNA levels, protein levels and secretion of NGF and BDNF in SCs after incubation of hydrogen peroxide. Further study showed that preincubation with H89 (a PKA inhibitor) significantly inhibited the effects induced by hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the PKA pathway might be involved in the antioxidant effect and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) promoting effect of GRg1. In addition, a short-term in vivo study was performed to confirm and validate the antioxidant effect and nerve regeneration-promoting effect of GRg1 in a sciatic crush injury model in rats. We found that GRg1 significantly increased SOD, CAT and GSH, decreased MDA, as well as promoted nerve regeneration after crush injury. In conclusion, the present study showed that GRg1 is capable of helping SCs recover from the oxidative insult induced by hydrogen peroxide, which might account, at least in part, for the beneficial effect of GRg1 on nerve regeneration.
Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1); Schwann cell; hydrogen peroxide; oxidative injury.