(S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid epoxidase (HppE) is an O2-dependent, nonheme Fe(II)-containing oxidase that converts (S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid ((S)-HPP) to the regio-and enantiomerically specific epoxide, fosfomycin. Use of (R)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid ((R)-HPP) yields the 2-keto-adduct rather than the epoxide. Here we report the chemical synthesis of a range of HPP analogs designed to probe the basis for this specificity. In past studies, NO has been used as an O2 surrogate to provide an EPR probe of the Fe(II) environment. These studies suggest that O2 binds to the iron, and substrates bind in a single orientation that strongly perturbs the iron environment. Recently, the X-ray crystal structure showed direct binding of the substrate to the iron, but both monodentate (via the phosphonate) and chelated (via the hydroxyl and phosphonate) orientations were observed. In the current study, hyperfine broadening of the homogeneous S = 3/2 EPR spectrum of the HppE-NO-HPP complex was observed when either the hydroxyl or the phosphonate group of HPP was enriched with 17O (I = 5/2). These results indicate that both functional groups of HPP bind to Fe(II) ion at the same time as NO, suggesting that the chelated substrate binding mode dominates in solution. (R)- and (S)-analog compounds that maintained the core structure of HPP but added bulky terminal groups were turned over to give products analogous to those from (R)- and (S)-HPP, respectively. In contrast, substrate analogs lacking either the phosphonate or hydroxyl group were not turned over. Elongation of the carbon chain between the hydroxyl and phosphonate allowed binding to the iron in a variety of orientations to give keto and diol products at positions determined by the hydroxyl substituent, but no stable epoxide was formed. These studies show the importance of the Fe(II)-substrate chelate structure to active antibiotic formation. This fixed orientation may align the substrate next to the iron-bound activated oxygen species thought to mediate hydrogen atom abstraction from the nearest substrate carbon.
The present study was aimed to explore the correlation between the
protein structure and catalytic efficiency of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)
mutants against (−)-cocaine by modeling the rate-determining transition
state (TS1), i.e. the transition state for the first step of
chemical reaction process, of (−)-cocaine hydrolysis catalyzed by
various mutants of human BChE in comparison with the wild-type. Molecular
modeling of the TS1 structures revealed that mutations on certain non-active
site residues can indirectly affect the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme
against (−)-cocaine through enhancing or weakening the overall hydrogen
bonding between the carbonyl oxygen of (−)-cocaine benzoyl ester and the
oxyanion hole of the enzyme. Computational insights and predictions were
supported by the catalytic activity data obtained from wet experimental tests on
the mutants of human BChE, including five new mutants reported for the first
time. The BChE mutants with at least ~1000-fold improved catalytic efficiency
against (−)-cocaine compared to the wild-type BChE are all associated
with the TS1 structures having stronger overall hydrogen bonding between the
carbonyl oxygen of (−)-cocaine benzoyl ester and the oxyanion hole of
the enzyme. The combined computational and experimental data demonstrate a
reasonable correlation relationship between the hydrogen bonding distances in
the TS1 structure and the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme against
MauG is a diheme enzyme that oxidizes two protein-bound tryptophan residues to generate a catalytic tryptophan tryptophylquinone cofactor within methylamine dehydrogenase. Upon the two-electron oxidation of bis-ferric MauG, the two c-type hemes exist as a spin-uncoupled bis-Fe(IV) species with only one binding oxygen, which is chemically equivalent to a single ferryl heme plus a π porphyrin cation radical (Li, X. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 8597–8600). The EPR spectrum of the nitrosyl complex of fully reduced MauG shows a single six-coordinate Fe(II)-NO species, which is characteristic of a histidine-ligated Fe(II)-NO moiety in the heme environment. Exposure of partially reduced MauG to NO reveals a redox equilibrium with facile electron transfer between hemes, but with only one binding nitric oxide. Thus, the second heme is able to stabilize all three redox states of iron (Fe(II), Fe(III) and Fe(IV)) in a six-coordinate protein-bound heme without binding exogenous ligands. This is unprecedented behavior for a protein-bound heme for which each of these redox states is relevant to the overall catalytic mechanism. The results also illustrate the electronic communication between the two iron centers which function as a diheme unit rather than independent heme cofactors.
The final step in the biosynthesis of fosfomycin in Streptomyces wedmorensis is catalyzed by (S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid (HPP) epoxidase (Sw-HppE). A homologous enzyme from Pseudomonas syringae has recently been isolated whose encoding gene (orf3) shares relatively low sequence homology to the corresponding Sw-HppE gene. This purified P. syringae protein was determined to catalyze the epoxidation of (S)-HPP to fosfomycin and the oxidation of (R)-HPP to 2-oxopropylphosphonic acid under the same conditions as Sw-HppE. Therefore, this protein is indeed a true HPP epoxidase and is termed Ps-HppE. Like Sw-HppE, Ps-HppE was determined to be post-translationally modified by the hydroxylation of a putative active site tyrosine (Tyr95). Analysis of the Fe(II)-center by EPR spectroscopy using NO as a spin probe and molecular oxygen surrogate reveals that Ps-HppE’s metal center is similar, but not identical, to that of Sw-HppE. The identity of the rate determining step for the (S)-HPP and (R)-HPP reactions was determined by measuring primary deuterium kinetic effects, and the outcome of these results were correlated with density functional theory calculations. Interestingly, the reaction using the non-physiological substrate (R)-HPP was 1.9 times faster than that with (S)-HPP for both Ps-HppE and Sw-HppE. This is likely due to the difference in bond dissociation energy of the abstracted hydrogen atom for each respective reaction. Thus, despite low amino acid sequence identity, Ps-HppE is a close mimic of Sw-HppE, representing a second example of a non-heme iron-dependent enzyme capable of catalyzing dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol to form a new C-O bond.
A novel truncated form (residues 1–214, with a randomized C-terminal tail) of the ligand-binding extracellular domain (ECD) of the human α1 glycine receptor (GlyR), with amino acids from the corresponding sequence of an acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) substituted for two relatively hydrophobic membrane-proximal loops, was overexpressed using a baculovirus expression system. The mutant GlyR ECD, named GlyBP, was present in both soluble and membrane-associated fractions after cell lysis, though only the latter appeared to be in a native-like conformation capable of binding strychnine, a GlyR specific antagonist. The membrane-associated GlyBP was solubilized and detergent/lipid/protein micelles were affinity purified. After detergent removal, GlyBP may be isolated in either aqueous or vesicular form. Binding assays and spectroscopic studies using circular dichroism and FRET are consistent with both forms adopting equivalent native-like conformations. Thus GlyBP may be isolated as a soluble or membrane-associated assembly that serves as a structural and functional homolog of the ECD of GlyR.
The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyzes the reductive methylation of 2′-deoxyuridine 5′-monophosphate (dUMP) to 2′-deoxythymidine 5′-monophosphate. Using kinetic and x-ray crystallography experiments, we have examined the role of the highly conserved Tyr-261 in the catalytic mechanism of TS. While Tyr-261 is distant from the site of methyl transfer, mutants at this position show a marked decrease in enzymatic activity. Given that Tyr-261 forms a hydrogen bond with the dUMP 3′-O, we hypothesized that this interaction would be important for substrate binding, orientation, and specificity. Our results, surprisingly, show that Tyr-261 contributes little to these features of the mechanism of TS. However, the residue is part of the structural core of closed ternary complexes of TS, and conservation of the size and shape of the Tyr side chain is essential for maintaining wild-type values of kcat/Km. Moderate increases in Kms for both substrate and the cofactor upon mutation of Tyr-261 arise mainly from destabilization of the active conformation of a loop containing a dUMP-binding arginine. Besides binding dUMP, this loop has a key role in stabilizing the closed conformation of the enzyme and in shielding the active site from bulk solvent during catalysis. Changes to atomic vibrations in crystals of a ternary complex of E. coli Tyr261Trp are associated with a greater than 2000-fold drop in kcat/Km. These results underline the important contribution of dynamics to catalysis in TS.
CDP-6-deoxy-L-threo-D-glycero-4-hexulose-3-dehydrase (E1), which catalyzes C-3 deoxygenation of CDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose in the biosynthesis of 3,6-dideoxyhexoses, shares a modest sequence identity with other B6-dependent enzymes, albeit with two important distinctions. It is a rare example of a B6-dependent enzyme that harbors a [2Fe-2S] cluster, and a highly conserved lysine that serves as an anchor for PLP in most B6-dependent enzymes is replaced by histidine at position 220 in E1. Since alteration of His220 to a lysine residue may produce a putative progenitor of E1, the H220K mutant was constructed and tested for the ability to process the predicted substrate, CDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose, using PLP as the coenzyme. Our data showed that H220K-E1 has no dehydrase activity, but can act as a PLP-dependent transaminase. However, the reaction is not catalytic since PLP cannot be regenerated during turnover. Reported herein are the results of this investigation and the implications for the role of His220 in the catalytic function and mechanism of E1.
Deoxysugars are critical structural elements for the bioactivity of many natural products. Ongoing work toward elucidating a variety of deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways has paved the way for manipulation of these pathways to generate structurally diverse glycosylated natural products. In the course of this work, the biosynthesis of D-mycaminose in the tylosin pathway of Streptomyces fradiae was investigated. Attempts to reconstitute the entire mycaminose biosynthetic machinery in a heterologous host led to the discovery of a previously overlooked gene, tyl1a, encoding an enzyme thought to convert TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to TDP-3-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose, a 3,4-ketoisomerization reaction in the pathway. Tyl1a has now been overexpressed, purified, assayed, and its activity verified by product analysis. Incubation of Tyl1a and the C-3 aminotransferase TylB, the next enzyme in the pathway, produced TDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-D-glucose, confirming that these two enzymes act sequentially. Steady state kinetic parameters of the Tyl1a-catalyzed reaction were determined, and the ability of Tyl1a and TylB to process a C-2 deoxygenated substrate and a CDP-linked substrate was also demonstrated. Enzymes catalyzing 3,4-ketoisomerization of hexoses represent a new class of enzymes involved in unusual sugar biosynthesis. The fact that Tyl1a shows relaxed substrate specificity holds potential for future deoxysugar biosynthetic engineering endeavors.
The recently identified type II isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP):dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) isomerase (IDI-2) is a flavoenzyme that requires FMN and NAD(P)H for activity. IDI-2 is an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids in several pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis, and thus is considered as a potential new drug target to battle bacterial infections. One notable feature of the IDI-2 reaction is that there is no net change in redox state between the substrate (IPP) and product (DMAPP), indicating that the FMN cofactor must start and finish each catalytic cycle in the same redox state. Here, we report the characterization and initial mechanistic studies of the S. aureus IDI-2. The steady-state kinetic analyses under aerobic and anaerobic conditions show that FMN must be reduced to be catalytically active and the overall IDI-2 reaction is O2 sensitive. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that NADPH is needed only in catalytic amounts to activate the enzyme for multiple turnovers of IPP to DMAPP. The hydride transfer from NAD(P)H to reduce FMN is determined to be pro-S stereospecific. Photoreduction and oxidation-reduction potential studies reveal that the S. aureus IDI-2 can stabilize significant amounts of the neutral FMN semiquinone. In addition, reconstitution of apo-IDI-2 with 5-deazaFMN resulted in a dead enzyme, whereas reconstitution with 1-deazaFMN led to the full recovery of enzyme activity. Taken together, these studies of S. aureus IDI-2 support a catalytic mechanism in which the reduced flavin coenzyme mediates a single electron transfer to and from the IPP substrate during catalysis.
(S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid epoxidase (HppE) catalyzes the epoxide ring closure of (S)-HPP to form fosfomycin, a clinically useful antibiotic. Early investigation showed that its activity can be reconstituted with Fe(II), FMN, NADH, and O2, and identified HppE as a new type of mononuclear non-heme iron-dependent oxygenase involving high valent iron-oxo species in the catalysis. However, a recent study showed that the Zn(II)-reconstituted HppE is active, and HppE exhibits modest affinity for FMN. Thus, a new mechanism is proposed in which the active site bound Fe2+ or Zn2+ serves as a Lewis acid to activate the 2-OH group of (S)-HPP, and the epoxide ring is formed by the attack of the 2-OH group at C-1 coupled with the transfer of the C-1 hydrogen as a hydride ion to the bound FMN. To distinguish between these mechanistic discrepancies, we re-examined the bioautography assay, the basis for the alternative mechanism, and showed that Zn(II) cannot replace Fe(II) in the HppE reaction, and NADH is indispensable. Moreover, we demonstrated that the proposed role for FMN as a hydride acceptor is inconsistent with the finding that FMN cannot bind to HppE in the presence of substrate. In addition, using a newly developed HPLC assay we showed that several non-flavin electron mediators could replace FMN in the HppE-catalyzed epoxidation. Taken together, these results argue against the newly proposed “nucleophilic displacement-hydride transfer” mechanism, but are fully consistent with the previously proposed iron-redox mechanism for HppE catalysis, which is unique within the mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme superfamily.
Human xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is an essential protein for nucleotide excision repair (NER). We have previously reported that XPA forms a homodimer in the absence of DNA. However, what oligomeric forms of XPA are involved in DNA damage recognition and how the interaction occurs in terms of biochemical understanding remain unclear. Using the homogeneous XPA protein purified from baculovirus-infected sf21 insect cells and the methods of gel mobility shift assays, gel filtration chromatography, and UV-cross-linking, we demonstrated that both monomeric and dimeric XPA bound to the DNA adduct of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (AAF), while showing little affinity for nondamaged DNA. The binding occurred in a sequential and protein concentration-dependent manner. At relatively low-protein concentrations, XPA formed a complex with DNA adduct as a monomer, while at the higher concentrations, an XPA dimer was involved in the specific binding. Results from fluorescence spectroscopic and competitive binding analyses indicated that the specific binding of XPA to the adduct was significantly facilitated and stabilized by the presence of the second XPA in a positive cooperative manner. This cooperative binding exhibited a Hill coefficient of 1.9 and the step binding constants of K1 = 1.4 × 106 M-1 and K2) = 1.8 × 107 M-1. When interaction of XPA and RPA with DNA was studied, even though binding of RPA-XPA complex to adducted DNA was observed, the presence of RPA had little effect on the overall binding efficiency. Our results suggest that the dominant form for XPA to efficiently bind to DNA damage is the XPA dimer. We hypothesized that the concentration-dependent formation of different types of XPA-damaged DNA complex may play a role in cellular regulation of XPA activity.
Farnesylation is an important post-translational modification essential for proper localization and function of many proteins. Transfer of the farnesyl group from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to proteins is catalyzed by protein farnesyltransferase (FTase). We employed a library of FPP analogues with a range of aryl groups substituting for individual isoprene moieties to examine some of the structural and electronic properties of analogue transfer to peptide catalyzed by FTase. Analysis of steady-state kinetics for modification of peptide substrates revealed that the multiple turnover activity depends on the analogue structure. Analogues where the first isoprene is replaced by a benzyl group and an analogue where each isoprene is replaced by an aryl group are good substrates. In sharp contrast with the steady-state reaction, the single turnover rate constant for dansyl-GCVLS alkylation was found to be the same for all analogues, despite the increased chemical reactivity of the benzyl analogues and the increased steric bulk of other analogues. However, the single turnover rate constant for alkylation does depend on the Ca1a2X peptide sequence. These results suggest that the isoprenoid transition state conformation is preferred over the inactive E•FPP• Ca1a2X ternary complex conformation. Furthermore, these data suggest that the farnesyl binding site in the exit groove may be significantly more selective for the farnesyl diphosphate substrate than the active site binding pocket and therefore might be a useful site for design of novel inhibitors.
FPP; substrate analogue; FTase; protein prenylation; enzymology
A new method has been developed to determine α-helical and β-sheet secondary structural components of aqueous and membrane-bound proteins using pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The threepulse electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) technique was used to detect weakly coupled 2H-labeled nuclei on side chains in the proximity of a strategically placed nitroxide spin-label up to 8 Å away. Changes in the ESEEM spectra for different samples correlate directly to periodic structural differences between α-helical and β-sheet motifs. These distinct trends were demonstrated with α-helical (M2δ subunit of the acetylcholine receptor) and β-sheet (Ubiquitin) peptides in biologically relevant sample environments.
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is one of two principal coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into target cells. CXCR4 is known to form homodimers. We previously demonstrated that the amino (N)-terminus of viral macrophage protein (vMIP)-II is the major determinant for CXCR4 recognition, and that V1 peptide derived from the N-terminus of vMIP-II (1-21 residues) showed significant CXCR4 binding. Interestingly, an all-D-amino acid analog of V1 peptide, DV1 peptide, displayed even higher binding affinity and strong antiviral activity in inhibiting the replication of CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. In the present study, we synthetically linked two DV1 peptides with the formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteine residues present in the peptide sequence to generate a dimeric molecule potentially capable of interacting with two CXCR4 receptors. DV1 dimer showed enhanced binding affinity and antiviral activity compared with DV1 monomer. Ligand binding site mapping experiments showed that DV1 dimer overlaps with HIV-1 gp120 on CXCR4 binding sites, including several transmembrane (TM) residues located close to the extracellular side and the N-terminus of CXCR4. This finding was supported by the molecular modeling of CXCR4 dimer–DV1 dimer interaction based on the crystal structure of CXCR4, which showed that DV1 dimer is capable of interacting with the CXCR4 dimeric structure by allowing the N-terminus of each DV1 monomer to reach into the binding pocket of CXCR4 monomer. The development of this bivalent ligand provides a tool to further probe the functions of CXCR4 dimerization and to study CXCR4 heterodimerization with other receptors.
Protein evolution is a critical component of organismal evolution and a valuable method for the generation of useful molecules in the laboratory. Few studies, however, have experimentally characterized how fundamental parameters influence protein evolution outcomes over long evolutionary trajectories or multiple replicates. In this work, we applied phage-assisted continuous evolution (PACE) as an experimental platform to study evolving protein populations over hundreds of rounds of evolution. We varied evolutionary conditions as T7 RNA polymerase evolved to recognize the T3 promoter DNA sequence and characterized how specific combinations of both mutation rate and selection stringency reproducibly result in different evolutionary outcomes. We observed significant and dramatic increases in the activity of the evolved RNA polymerase variants on the desired target promoter after 96 hours of selection, confirming positive selection occurred under all conditions. We used high-throughput sequencing to quantitatively define convergent genetic solutions, including mutational “signatures” and non-signature mutations that map to specific regions of protein sequence. These findings illuminate key determinants of evolutionary outcomes, inform the design of future protein evolution experiments, and demonstrate the value of PACE as a method to study protein evolution.
The Holliday junction is a central intermediate in genetic recombination. It contains four strands of DNA that are paired into four double helical arms flanking a branch point. In naturally-occurring Holliday junctions, the sequence flanking the branch point contains twofold (homologous) symmetry. As a consequence of this symmetry, the junction can undergo a conformational isomerization known as branch migration, which relocates the site of branching. In the absence of proteins and in the presence of Mg2+, the four arms are known to stack in pairs, forming two helical domains whose orientations are antiparallel. Nevertheless, the mechanistic models proposed for branch migration are all predicated on a parallel alignment of helical domains. Here, we have used antiparallel DNA double crossover molecules to demonstrate that branch migration can occur in antiparallel Holliday junctions. We have constructed a DNA double crossover molecule with three crossover points. Two adjacent branch points in this molecule are flanked by symmetric sequences. The symmetric crossover points are held immobile by the third crossover point, which is flanked by asymmetric sequences. Restriction of the helices that connect the immobile junction to the symmetric junctions releases this constraint. The restricted molecule undergoes branch migration, even though it is constrained to an antiparallel conformation.
Branch migration; DNA double crossover molecules; Branched junction conformational isomerizations; Hydroxyl radical autofootprinting; DNA topology
First identified on the surface of lymphoids as a type II transmembrane protein, CD38 has now been established to have dual functions not only as a receptor but also as a multi-functional enzyme, catalyzing the synthesis of and hydrolysis of a general calcium messenger molecule, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). The receptorial functions of CD38 include the induction of cell adhesion, differentiation, apoptosis, and cytokine production upon antibody ligation. Here we determined the crystal structure of calcium loaded human CD38 at 1.45 Å resolution which reveals that CD38 undergoes dramatic structural changes to an inhibited conformation in the presence of calcium. The structural changes are highly localized and occur in only two regions. The first region is part of the active site and consists of residues 121–141. In the presence of calcium, W125 moves 5 Å into the active site and forms hydrophobic interactions with W189. The movement closes the active site pocket and reduces entry of substrates, resulting in inhibition of the enzymatic activity. The structural role of calcium in inducing these conformational changes is readily visualized in the crystal structure. The other region that undergoes calcium induced changes is at the receptor region, where a highly ordered helix is unraveled to a random coil. The results suggest a novel conformational coupling mechanism, whereby protein interaction targeted at the receptor region can effectively regulate the enzymatic activity of CD38.
Human CD38; calcium loaded structure; active site closure; inhibitory conformation
The previously reported crystal structures of α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) show a five-coordinate Zn(II)(His)3(Asp)(OH2) active site. The water ligand is H-bonded to a conserved His228 residue adjacent to the metal center in ACMSD from Pseudomonas fluorescences (PfACMSD). Site directed mutagenesis of His228 to tyrosine and glycine in the present study results in complete or significant loss of activity. Metal analysis shows that H228Y and H228G contain iron rather than zinc, indicating that this residue plays a role in metal selectivity of the protein. As-isolated H228Y displays a blue color, which is not seen in wild-type ACMSD. Quinone staining and resonance Raman analyses indicate that the blue color originates from Fe(III)-tyrosinate ligand-to-metal-charge- transfer (LMCT). Co(II)-substituted H228Y ACMSD is brown in color and exhibits an EPR spectrum showing a high-spin Co(II) center with a well-resolved 59Co (I = 7/2) eight-line hyperfine splitting pattern. The X-ray crystal structures of the as-isolated Fe-H228Y (2.8 Å), Co- (2.4 Å) and Znsubstituted H228Y (2.0 Å resolution) support the spectroscopic assignment of metal ligation of the Tyr228 residue. The crystal structure of Zn-H228G (2.6 Å) was also solved. These four structures show that the water ligand present in WT Zn-ACMSD is either missing (Fe-H228Y, Co-H228Y, and Zn- H228G) or disrupted (Zn-H228Y) in response to His228 mutation. Together, these results highlight the importance of His228 for PfACMSD’s metal specificity as well as maintaining a water molecule as ligand of the metal center. His228 is thus proposed to play a role in activating the metal-bound water ligand for subsequent nucleophilic attack on the substrate.
Using an evolved pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNAPyl pair, a Se-alkylselenocysteine was genetically incorporated into histone H3 with a high protein expression yield. Quantitative oxidative elimination of Se-alkylselenocysteine followed by Michael addition reactions with various thiol nucleophiles generated biologically active mimics of H3 with posttranslational modifications including lysine methylation, lysine acetylation, and serine phosphorylation.
Deletion of Phe508 from CFTR results in a temperature-sensitive folding defect that impairs protein maturation and chloride channel function. Both of these adverse effects, however, can be mitigated to varying extents by second-site, suppressor mutations. To better understand the impact of second-site mutations on channel function, we compared the thermal sensitivity of CFTR channels in Xenopus oocytes. CFTR-mediated conductance of oocytes expressing wt or ΔF508 CFTR was stable at 22°C and increased at 28°C; a temperature permissive for ΔF508 CFTR expression in mammalian cells. At 37°C, however, CFTR-mediated conductance was further enhanced, whereas that due to ΔF508 CFTR channels decreased rapidly towards background, a phenomenon referred to here as “thermal inactivation.” Thermal inactivation of ΔF508 was mitigated by each of five suppressor mutations, I539T, R553M, G550E, R555K and R1070W; but each exerted unique effects on the severity of, and recovery from, thermal inactivation. Another mutation, K1250A, known to increase open probability (Po) of ΔF508 CFTR channels, exacerbated thermal inactivation. Application of potentiators known to increase Po of ΔF508 CFTR channels at room temperature failed to protect channels from inactivation at 37°C and one, PG-01, actually exacerbated thermal inactivation. Unstimulated ΔF508CFTR channels or those inhibited by CFTRinh-172, were partially protected from thermal inactivation, suggesting a possible inverse relationship between thermal stability and gating transitions. Thermal stability of channel function and temperature-sensitive maturation of the mutant protein appear to reflect related, but distinct facets of the ΔF508 CFTR conformational defect, both of which must be addressed by effective therapeutic modalities.
ΔF508 CFTR; temperature; thermostability; 2nd site mutations; potentiators; inhibitors
Protein misfolding due to missense mutations is a common pathogenic mechanism in cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency. In our previous studies, we have successfully expressed, purified and characterized nine CBS mutant enzymes containing the following patient mutations: P49L, P78R, A114V, R125Q, E176K, R266K, P422L, I435T and S466L. These purified mutants exhibited full heme saturation, normal tetrameric assembly and high catalytic activity. In this work, we used several spectroscopic and proteolytic techniques to provide a more thorough insight into the conformation of these mutant enzymes. Far-UV circular dichroism, fluorescence and second derivative-UV spectroscopy revealed that the spatial arrangement of these CBS mutants is similar to the wild-type although the microenvironment of the chromophores may be slightly altered. Using proteolysis with thermolysin under native conditions, we found that the majority of the studied mutants is more susceptible towards cleavage suggesting their increased local flexibility or propensity to local unfolding. Interestingly, the presence of the CBS allosteric activator, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), increased the cleavage rate of wild-type and the AdoMet-responsive mutants, while the proteolytic rate of the AdoMet-unresponsive mutants was not significantly changed. Pulse proteolysis analysis suggested that the protein structure of the R125Q and E176K mutants is significantly less stable than that of wild-type and the other mutants. Taken together, the proteolytic data show that the conformation of pathogenic mutants is altered despite retained catalytic activity and normal tetrameric assembly. This study demonstrates that the proteolytic techniques are a useful tool for the assessment of the biochemical penalty of missense mutations in CBS.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes substrate-specific outer membrane (OM) proteins for the uptake of small, water-soluble nutrients employed in the growth and function of the cell. In this paper, we present for the first time a comprehensive single-channel examination of seven members of the OM carboxylate channel K (OccK) subfamily. Recent biochemical, functional and structural characterization of the OccK proteins revealed their common features, such as a closely related, monomeric, 18-stranded β-barrel conformation with a kidney-shaped transmembrane pore and the presence of a basic ladder within the channel lumen. Here, we report that the OccK proteins exhibited fairly distinct unitary conductance values, in a much broader range than earlier expectations, which includes low (~40–100 pS) and medium (~100–380 pS) conductance. These proteins showed diverse single-channel dynamics of current gating transitions, revealing one (OccK3)-, two (OccK4, OccK5 and OccK6)- and three (OccK1, OccK2 and OccK7)-open sub-state kinetics with functionally distinct conformations. Interestingly, we discovered that anion selectivity is a conserved trait among the members of the OccK subfamily, confirming the presence of a net pool of positively charged residues within their central constriction. Moreover, these results are in accord with an increased specificity and selectivity of these protein channels for negatively charged, carboxylate-containing substrates. Our findings might ignite future functional examinations and full-atomistic computational studies for unraveling a mechanistic understanding of the passage of small molecules across the lumen of substrate-specific, β-barrel OM proteins.
Single-channel electrical recordings; Single-molecule biophysics; Channel gating; The kinetic rate theory; The OccK subfamily
MauG is a diheme enzyme possessing a five-coordinate high-spin heme with an axial His ligand and a six-coordinate low-spin heme with His-Tyr axial ligation. A Ca2+ ion is linked to the two hemes via hydrogen-bond networks, and the enzyme activity depends on its presence. Removal of Ca2+ alters the EPR signals of each ferric heme such that the intensity of the high-spin heme was decreased and the low-spin heme was significantly broadened. Addition of Ca2+ back to the sample restored the original EPR signals and enzyme activity. The molecular basis for this Ca2+-dependent behavior was studied by magnetic spectroscopy. The results show that in the Ca2+-depleted MauG the high-spin heme was converted to low-spin and the original low-spin heme exhibited a change in relative orientations of its two axial ligands. The properties of these two hemes are each different than in native MauG and are now similar to each other. The EPR spectrum of Ca2+-free MauG appears to describe one set of low-spin ferric heme signals with a large gmax and g-anisotropy and a greatly altered electromagnetic relaxation property. Both EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopic results show that the two hemes are present as unusual highly axial low-spin (HALS)-like hemes in Ca2+-depleted MauG, with a smaller orientation angle between the two axial ligand planes. These findings provide insight into the correlation of the enzyme activity with the orientation of axial heme ligands, and describe a role for the calcium ion in maintaining this structural orientation that is required for activity.
The diheme enzyme MauG catalyzes a six-electron oxidation required for posttranslational modification of a precursor of methylamine dehydrogenase (preMADH) to complete the biosynthesis of its protein-derived tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor. Crystallographic studies had shown that Pro107, which resides in the distal pocket of the high-spin heme of MauG, changes conformation upon binding of CO or NO to the heme iron. In this study, Pro107 was converted to Cys, Val and Ser by site-directed mutagenesis. The structures of each of these MauG mutant proteins in complex with preMADH were determined, as were their physical and catalytic properties. P107C MauG was inactive and the crystal structure revealed that Cys107 had been oxidatively modified to a sulfinic acid. Mass spectrometry revealed that this modification was present prior to crystallization. P107V MauG exhibited spectroscopic and catalytic properties that were similar to wild-type MauG, but P107V MauG was more susceptible to oxidative damage. The P107S mutation caused a structural change which resulted in the five-coordinate high-spin heme being converted to a six-coordinate heme with a distal axial ligand provided by Glu113. EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopy revealed this heme remained high-spin but with much increased rhombicity as compared to the axial signal of wild-type MauG. P107S MauG was resistant to reduction by dithionite and reaction with H2O2, and unable to catalyze TTQ biosynthesis. These results show that the presence of Pro107 is critical in maintaining the proper structure of the distal heme pocket of the high-spin heme of MauG, enabling exogenous ligands to bind and directing the reactivity of the heme-activated oxygen during catalysis, thus minimizing the oxidation of other residues of MauG.
Spinosyns A and D (spinosad), like many other complex polyketides, are tailored near the end of their biosyntheses through the addition of sugars. SpnG, which catalyzes their 9-OH rhamnosylation, is also capable of adding other monosaccharides to the spinosyn aglycone (AGL) from TDP-sugars; however, the substitution of UDP-d-glucose for TDP-d-glucose as the donor substrate is known to result in a >60,000-fold reduction in kcat. Here, we report the structure of SpnG at 1.65 Å-resolution, SpnG bound to TDP at 1.86 Å-resolution, and SpnG bound to AGL at 1.70 Å-resolution. The SpnG-TDP complex reveals how SpnG employs N202 to discriminate between TDP- and UDP-sugars. A conformational change of several residues in the active site is promoted through the binding of TDP. The SpnG-AGL complex shows that the binding of AGL is mediated through hydrophobic interactions and that H13, the potential catalytic base, is within 3 Å of the nucleophilic AGL 9-OH. A model for the Michaelis complex was constructed to reveal the features that enable SpnG to transfer diverse sugars; it also revealed that the rhamnosyl moiety is in a skew-boat conformation during the transfer reaction.
Glycosyltransferase; spinosyn; tailoring enzyme; enzyme catalysis; enzyme mechanism