A recombinant cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite A. lumbricoides has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution.
The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit.
cysteine protease inhibitors; nematode parasites; Ascaris lumbricoides
G. zeae extracellular lipase has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution.
Fusarium head blight, one of the most destructive crop diseases, is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum (known in its sexual stage as Gibberella zeae). F. graminearum secretes various extracellular enzymes that have been hypothesized to be involved in host infection. One of the extracellular enzymes secreted by this organism is the G. zeae extracellular lipase (GZEL), which is encoded by the FGL1 gene. In order to solve the crystal structure of GZEL and to gain a better understanding of the biological functions of the protein and of possible inhibitory mechanisms of lipase inhibitors, recombinant GZEL was crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. A data set was collected to 2.8 Å resolution from a single flash-cooled crystal (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.4, b = 91.0, c = 195.8 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The presence of four molecules was assumed per asymmetric unit, which gave a Matthews coefficient of 2.6 Å3 Da−1.
extracellular lipases; Fusarium graminearum; Gibberella zeae; fusarium head blight
Here, the recombinant ARE-binding region of HuR (residues 18–186) was crystallized in space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.2, b = 133.1, c = 31.4 Å.
Human antigen R (HuR), a ubiquitously expressed member of the Hu protein family, is an important post-transcriptional regulator which has three RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains. The two tandem N-terminal RRM domains can selectively bind to the AU-rich element (ARE), while the third one interacts with the poly(A) tail and other proteins. Here, the recombinant ARE-binding region of HuR (residues 18–186) was crystallized in space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.2, b = 133.1, c = 31.4 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 Å. Mutagenesis analysis and SPR assays revealed its poly(U)-binding properties.
human antigen R; RNA-recognition motif domains; poly(U) binding; post-transcriptional regulation
The crystal structure of SMU.595, a putative dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) from S. mutans, is reported at 2.4 Å resolution.
Streptococcus mutans is one of the pathogenic species involved in dental caries, especially in the initiation and development stages. Here, the crystal structure of SMU.595, a putative dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) from S. mutans, is reported at 2.4 Å resolution. DHOD is a flavin mononucleotide-containing enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of l-dihydroorotate to orotate, which is the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. The reductive lysine-methylation procedure was applied in order to improve the diffraction qualities of the crystals. Analysis of the S. mutans DHOD crystal structure shows that this enzyme is a class 1A DHOD and also suggests potential sites that could be exploited for the design of highly specific inhibitors using the structure-based chemotherapeutic design technique.
dihydroorotate dehydrogenases; Streptococcus mutans; pyrimidine biosynthesis
Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (PurN) from Streptococcus mutans was expressed in E. coli, purified and studied crystallographically.
Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (PurN) from Streptococcus mutans was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. An effective purification protocol was established. The purified protein, which had a purity of >95%, was identified by SDS–PAGE and MALDI–TOF MS. The protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method in hanging-drop mode with PEG 3350 as the primary precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary X-ray analysis indicated that the crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.25, b = 63.29, c = 131.81 Å.
Streptococcus mutans; PurN; phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferases
The recombinant glycosyltransferase ElaGT from the elaiophylin-producing marine Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 01934 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution.
ElaGT is a glycosyltransferase from a marine Streptomyces species that is involved in the biosynthesis of elaiophylin. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of ElaGT are reported. The rod-shaped crystals belonged to space group P2122, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.7, b = 131.7, c = 224.6 Å, α = 90, β = 90, γ = 90°. Data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. A preliminary molecular-replacement solution implied the presence of two ElaGT molecules in the asymmetric unit.
ElaGT; glycosyltransferases; Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 01934
The crystal structure of OPRTase from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is reported at 2.4 Å resolution.
Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase) catalyzes the OMP-forming step in de novo pyrimidine-nucleotide biosynthesis. Here, the crystal structure of OPRTase from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is reported at 2.4 Å resolution. S. mutans OPRTase forms a symmetric dimer and each monomer binds two sulfates at the active sites. The structural symmetry of the sulfate-binding sites and the missing loops in this structure are consistent with a symmetric catalysis mechanism.
orotate phosphoribosyltransferase; Streptococcus mutans
The crystal structure of B. amyloliquefaciens α-amylase (BAA) at 1.4 Å resolution revealed ambiguities in the thermal adaptation of homologous proteins in this family.
The crystal structure of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens α-amylase (BAA) at 1.4 Å resolution revealed ambiguities in the thermal adaptation of homologous proteins in this family. The final model of BAA is composed of two molecules in a back-to-back orientation, which is likely to be a consequence of crystal packing. Despite a high degree of identity, comparison of the structure of BAA with those of other liquefying-type α-amylases indicated moderate discrepancies at the secondary-structural level. Moreover, a domain-displacement survey using anisotropic B-factor and domain-motion analyses implied a significant contribution of domain B to the total flexibility of BAA, while visual inspection of the structure superimposed with that of B. licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) indicated higher flexibility of the latter in the central domain A. Therefore, it is suggested that domain B may play an important role in liquefying α-amylases, as its rigidity offers a substantial improvement in thermostability in BLA compared with BAA.
α-amylases; thermostability; flexibility; alignment
An antibody–antigen complex consisting of a single-chain variable fragment of the potential therapeutic antibody chA21 and an N-terminal fragment (residues 1–192) of the human ErbB2 extracellular domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.45 Å resolution.
ErbB2 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase, the overexpression of which causes abnormality and disorder in cell signalling and leads to cell transformation. Previously, an anti-ErbB2 single-chain chimeric antibody chA21 that specifically inhibits the growth of ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was developed. Here, an antibody–antigen complex consisting of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of chA21 and an N-terminal fragment (residues 1–192, named EP I) of the ErbB2 extracellular domain was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.45 Å resolution from a single flash-cooled crystal; the crystal belonged to space group P212121.
chA21; ErbB2; antibodies; antigens
In order to further illustrate the catalytic mechanism of arginine decarboxylase by determining the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme the speA gene was amplified from B. subtilis genomic DNA and cloned. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by nickel-chelation chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. High-quality crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 298 K.
The speA gene in Bacillus subtilis encodes arginine decarboxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of arginine to agmatine. Arginine decarboxylase is an important enzyme in polyamine metabolism in B. subtilis. In order to further illustrate the catalytic mechanism of arginine decarboxylase by determining the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, the speA gene was amplified from B. subtilis genomic DNA and cloned into the expression vector pET-28a(+). SpeA was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by nickel-chelation chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. High-quality crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. The best crystal diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.4, b = 63.3 c = 103.3 Å, β = 113.9°.
SpeA; Bacillus subtilis; arginine decarboxylases
This article reports the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the vibriobactin synthetase VibE from V. cholerae.
Vibriobactin synthetases (VibABCDEFH) catalyze the biosynthesis of vibriobactin in the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. VibE, a vibriobactin-specific 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase, plays a critical role in the transfer of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate to the aryl carrier protein domain of holo VibB. Here, the cloning, protein expression and purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of VibE from V. cholerae are reported. The VibE crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.471, b = 45.927, c = 77.014 Å, β = 95.895°. There is one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding Matthews coefficient of 1.63 Å3 Da−1 and solvent content of 24.41%.
vibriobactin synthetases; vibriobactin biosynthesis; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase; VibE; Vibrio cholerae
Fluorescence recovery protein from Synechocystis PCC 6803 plays a key role in the orange carotenoid protein-related photoprotective mechanism in cyanobacteria. The full-length form and a truncated form were overexpressed, purified and crystallized, and diffraction was observed to 2.75 Å resolution.
Fluorescence recovery protein (FRP), which is encoded by the slr1964 gene in Synechocystis PCC 6803, plays a key role in the orange carotenoid protein-related photoprotective mechanism in cyanobacteria. As the crystal structure of FRP may provide information about the biological functions and mechanism of action of the protein, recombinant full-length FRP and a truncated form were overexpressed, purified and crystallized at 291 K using ethylene imine polymer as the precipitant. An FRP data set was collected to a resolution of 2.75 Å at low temperature (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.9, c = 160.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Assuming that the asymmetric unit contains three molecules, the Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.1 Å3 Da−1.
fluorescence recovery protein; Synechocystis PCC 6803
This paper reports the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the first C2 domain of synaptotagmin 5.
Synaptotagmin acts as the Ca2+ sensor for neural and endocrine exocytosis. Synaptotagmin 5 has been demonstrated to play a key role in the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton ATPase and in Ca2+-dependent insulin exocytosis. The C2 domains modulate the interaction of synaptotagmin with the phospholipid bilayer of the presynaptic terminus and effector proteins such as the SNARE complex. This study reports the cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C2A domain of human synaptotagmin 5 with an N-terminal His6 tag. The crystals diffracted to 1.90 Å resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P65, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 93.97, c = 28.05 Å. A preliminary model of the protein structure has been built and refinement of the model is ongoing.
C2 domain; synaptotagmin 5; Ca2+ sensors
A correction is made to the article by Yu et al. (2013). Acta Cryst. F69, 812–814.
The article by Yu et al. (2013, Acta Cryst. F69, 812–814) is corrected.
AmnE; Pseudomonas sp. AP-3; corrigendum
The structure of a complex of an endoglucanase with cellotriose was determined with a hexagonal unit cell and showed how the substrate interacts with the enzyme.
The endoglucanase EglA from Piromyces rhizinflata found in cattle stomach belongs to the GH5 family of glycoside hydrolases. The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of EglA shows the (β/α)8-barrel fold typical of GH5 enzymes. Adjacent to the active site of EglA, a loop containing a disulfide bond not found in other similar structures may participate in substrate binding. Because the active site was blocked by the N-terminal His tag of a neighbouring protein molecule in the crystal, enzyme–substrate complexes could not be obtained by soaking but were prepared by cocrystallization. The E154A mutant structure with a cellotriose bound to the −3, −2 and −1 subsites shows an extensive hydrogen-bonding network between the enzyme and the substrate, along with a stacking interaction between Trp44 and the −3 sugar. A possible dimer was observed in the crystal structure, but retention of activity in the E242A mutant suggested that the enzyme probably does not function as a dimer in solution. On the other hand, the first 100 amino acids encoded by the original cDNA fragment are very similar to those in the last third of the (β/α)8-barrel fold, indicating that EglA comprises at least two catalytic domains acting in tandem.
carbohydrate utilization; catalytic domain; cellulase; molecular interactions
β-Galactosidase from the psychrotrophic and halotolerant Planococcus sp. L4 (BgaP) was crystallized and a complete data set was collected. There are six protein subunits in the asymmetric unit.
β-Galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of a galactosyl moiety from the nonreducing termini of oligosaccharides or from glycosides. A novel GH family 42 cold-active β-galactosidase identified from the psychrotrophic and halotolerant Planococcus sp. L4 (BgaP) was crystallized and a complete data set was collected from a single frozen crystal on an in-house X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 104.29, b = 118.12, c = 121.12 Å, α = 62.66, β = 69.48, γ = 70.74°. A likely Matthews coefficient of 2.58 Å3 Da−1 and solvent content of 52.32% suggested the presence of six protein subunits in the asymmetric unit.
cold-active β-galactosidases; Planococcus sp. L4; BgaP
Yeast tRNA-thiouridine modification protein 1 was overpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group I41 and diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å.
Yeast tRNA-thiouridine modification protein 1 (Tum1p), a crucial component of the Urm1 system, is believed to play important roles in protein urmylation and tRNA-thiouridine modification. Previous studies have demonstrated that the conserved residue Cys259 in the C-terminal rhodanese-like domain of Tum1p is essential for these sulfur-transfer activities. Here, recombinant Tum1p protein has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). After purification, crystals of Tum1p were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. The preliminary X-ray data showed that the tetragonal Tum1p crystal belonged to space group I41, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 120.94, c = 48.35 Å. The asymmetric unit of the crystal was assumed to contain one protein molecule, giving a Matthews coefficient of 2.41 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 49.0%.
Tum1p; Urm1 system; rhodanese
In this study, the catalytic subunit of E. coli AHAS II was cocrystallized with its cofactors Mg2+, FAD and ThDP using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and the crystals diffracted to 2.80 Å resolution.
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the first common enzyme in the branched-chain amino-acid biosynthesis pathway and is the target of several classes of commercial herbicides. In this study, the Escherichia coli
ilvG gene that encodes the catalytic subunit of AHAS II was cloned into the pET28a vector and expressed in soluble form at high levels in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) cells. The protein was purified using Ni2+-chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. The catalytic subunit of E. coli AHAS II was cocrystallized with its cofactors Mg2+, FAD and ThDP using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and the crystals diffracted to 2.80 Å resolution.
acetohydroxyacid synthase; Escherichia coli; AHAS II; branched-chain amino-acid synthesis
The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a ferric binding protein encoded by T. thermophilus HB8 in apo and iron-bound holo states are presented. Four different crystal forms were obtained.
A ferric binding protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtFbpA) was expressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Four different crystal forms were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Two crystal forms with TtFbpA in the apo state belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 42.1, b = 139.3, c = 326.5 Å and a = 42.1, b = 139.3, c = 218.9 Å). The third form with TtFbpA also in the apo state belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 (unit-cell parameters a = 66.5, b = 61.7, c = 73.9 Å, β = 111.7°). The fourth form, with TtFbpA in the iron-bound holo state as confirmed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometry assay, belonged to the trigonal space group P3121 or P3221 (unit-cell parameters a = 63.6, b = 63.6, c = 266.7 Å, α = β = 90.0, γ = 120.0°).
ferric binding protein; Thermus thermophilus HB8; apo state; iron-bound holo state
The crystallization of recombinant lidA, a translocated substrate of the Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, is reported. Crystals were obtained and diffracted to 2.75 Å in space group P212121.
LidA, a translocated substrate of the Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, is associated with maintenance of bacterial integrity and interferes with the early secretory pathway. However, the precise mechanism of LidA in these processes remains elusive. To further investigate the structure and function of LidA, the full-length protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. LidA was crystallized using sitting-drop vapour diffusion and diffracted to a resolution of 2.75 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5, b = 64.5, c = 167.3 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit.
LidA; Legionella pneumophila; Dot/Icm type IV secretion system
The equine infectious anaemia virus gp45 ectodomain was cloned, expressed and crystallized. Preliminary crystallographic analysis showed that the protein belonged to space group P63 and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit.
Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) belongs to the lentivirus genus. The first successful lentiviral vaccine was developed for EIAV. Thus, EIAV may serve as a valuable model for HIV vaccine research. EIAV glycoprotein 45 (gp45) plays a similar role to gp41 in HIV by mediating virus–host membrane fusion. The gp45 ectodomain was constructed according to the structure of HIV gp41, with removal of the disulfide-bond loop region. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized following purification. However, most of the crystals grew as aggregates and could not be used for data collection. By extensively screening hundreds of crystals, a 2.7 Å resolution data set was collected from a single crystal. The crystal belonged to space group P63, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 46.84, c = 101.61 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Molecular replacement was performed using the coordinates of various lengths of HIV gp41 as search models. A long bent helix was identified and a well defined electron-density map around the long helix was obtained. This primary model provided the starting point for further refinement.
equine infectious anaemia virus; gp45 ectodomain; lentiviruses
A recombinant cyclic imide hydrolase from P. putida YZ-26 has been crystallized by the hanging-drop method. This will be helpful in understanding the role of CIH in pyrimidine metabolism and organic acid bioconversion.
A recombinant form of cyclic imide hydrolase from Pseudomonas putida YZ-26 has been crystallized by the hanging-drop method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.91, b = 176.04, c = 176.06 Å. Assuming the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit gives a V
M value of 3.10 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 60.31%.
cyclic imide hydrolase; Pseudomonas putida YZ-26
SMU.1108c, a putative uncharacterized protein from S. mutans, was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.2 Å.
Streptococcus mutans SMU.1108c (KEGG database) encodes a functionally uncharacterized protein consisting of 270 amino-acid residues. This protein is predicted to have a haloacid dehalogenase hydrolase-like domain and is a homologue of haloacid dehalogenase phosphatases that catalyze phosphoryl-transfer reactions. In this work, SMU.1108c was cloned into the pET28a vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The protein was purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.1, b = 80.2, c = 47.9 Å, β = 99.5°.
SMU.1108c; Streptococcus mutans; haloacid dehalogenase superfamily
A focused strategy has been directed towards the structural characterization of selected proteins from the bacterial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The objective is to exploit the resulting structural data, in combination with ligand-binding studies, and to assess the potential of these proteins for early-stage antimicrobial drug discovery.
Bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to treat owing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A major concern is Gram-negative bacteria, for which the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs has been particularly scarce. In an effort to accelerate early steps in drug discovery, the EU-funded AEROPATH project aims to identify novel targets in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by applying a multidisciplinary approach encompassing target validation, structural characterization, assay development and hit identification from small-molecule libraries. Here, the strategies used for target selection are described and progress in protein production and structure analysis is reported. Of the 102 selected targets, 84 could be produced in soluble form and the de novo structures of 39 proteins have been determined. The crystal structures of eight of these targets, ranging from hypothetical unknown proteins to metabolic enzymes from different functional classes (PA1645, PA1648, PA2169, PA3770, PA4098, PA4485, PA4992 and PA5259), are reported here. The structural information is expected to provide a firm basis for the improvement of hit compounds identified from fragment-based and high-throughput screening campaigns.
protein structure; Gram-negative bacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; infectious diseases; structure-based inhibitor design
The novel esterase Rv0045c from M. tuberculosis was expressed and purified to homogeneity. The crystals of native and SeMet-labelled Rv0045c protein that were obtained diffracted to resolutions of 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively.
The Rv0045c protein is predicted to be an esterase that is involved in lipid metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The Rv0045c protein crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.7 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source and belonged to space group P31 or P32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.465, c = 48.064 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Purified SeMet-labelled Rv0045c protein was also crystallized and formed crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.0 Å using an in-house X-ray radiation source.
RV0045c; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; esterases; lipid metabolism