We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000–40,000. Only 2%–3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Comparative genome sequencing of indica and japonica rice reveals that duplication of genes and genomic regions has played a major part in the evolution of grass genomes
Tanshinone I (Tan-I) is a diterpene quinone extracted from the traditional herbal medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Recently, Tan-I has been reported to have anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effects of Tan-I on three kinds of monocytic leukemia cells (U937, THP-1 and SHI 1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and AnnexinV/PI staining. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and telomerase activity before and after apoptosis. The activity of caspase-3 was determined by Caspase colorimetric assay kit and Western blot analysis. Expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Survivin was assayed by Western blot and Real-time RT-PCR using the ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System. The results revealed that Tan-I could inhibit the growth of these three kinds of leukemia cells and cause apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After treatment by Tan-I for 48 h, Western blotting showed cleavage of the caspase-3 zymogen protein with the appearance of its 17-kD subunit, and a 89-kD cleavage product of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of caspase-3, was also found clearly. The expression of hTERT mRNA as well as activity of telomerase were decreased concurrently in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot revealed a significant down-regulation of Survivin. We therefore conclude that the induction of apoptosis by Tan-I in monocytic leukemia U937 THP-1 and SHI 1 cells is highly correlated with activation of caspase-3 and decreasing of hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity as well as down-regulation of Survivin expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the effects of Tan-I on monocytic leukemia cells.
Tanshinone I (Tan-I); telomerase; survivin; leukemia
Most of colorectal adenocarcinomas are believed to arise from adenomas, which are premalignant lesions. Sequencing the whole exome of the adenoma will help identifying molecular biomarkers that can predict the occurrence of adenocarcinoma more precisely and help understanding the molecular pathways underlying the initial stage of colorectal tumorigenesis. We performed the exome capture sequencing of the normal mucosa, adenoma and adenocarcinoma tissues from the same patient and sequenced the identified mutations in additional 73 adenomas and 288 adenocarcinomas. Somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified in both the adenoma and adenocarcinoma by comparing with the normal control from the same patient. We identified 12 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenoma and 42 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenocarcinoma. Most of these mutations including OR6X1, SLC15A3, KRTHB4, RBFOX1, LAMA3, CDH20, BIRC6, NMBR, GLCCI1, EFR3A, and FTHL17 were newly reported in colorectal adenomas. Functional annotation of these mutated genes showed that multiple cellular pathways including Wnt, cell adhesion and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathways were altered genetically in the adenoma and that the genetic alterations in the same pathways persist in the adenocarcinoma. CDH20 and LAMA3 were mutated in the adenoma while NRXN3 and COL4A6 were mutated in the adenocarcinoma from the same patient, suggesting for the first time that genetic alterations in the cell adhesion pathway occur as early as in the adenoma. Thus, the comparison of genomic mutations between adenoma and adenocarcinoma provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing the early step of colorectal tumorigenesis.
The mechanisms involved in diabetic neuropathic pain are complex and involve peripheral and central pathophysiological phenomena. Proinflammatory tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and TNF-α receptor 1, which are markers of inflammation, contribute to neuropathic pain. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on diabetic pain in rats. We tested 24 rats with diabetes induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and 24 healthy control rats. Twelve rats in each group received 60 mg/kg oral curcumin daily for 28 days, and the other 12 received vehicle. On days 7, 14, 21, and 28, we tested mechanical allodynia with von Frey hairs and thermal hyperalgesia with radiant heat. Markers of inflammation in the spinal cord dorsal horn on day 28 were estimated with a commercial assay and Western blot analysis. Compared to control rats, diabetic rats exhibited increased mean plasma glucose concentration, decreased mean body weight, and significant pain hypersensitivity, as evidenced by decreased paw withdrawal threshold to von Frey hairs and decreased paw withdrawal latency to heat. Curcumin significantly attenuated the diabetes-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia and reduced the expression of both TNF-α and TNF-α receptor 1. Curcumin seems to relieve diabetic hyperalgesia, possibly through an inhibitory action on TNF-α and TNF-α receptor 1.
diabetic neuropathic pain; hyperalgesia; curcumin; tumour necrosis factor α; tumour necrosis factor α receptor 1.
We performed a systematic evaluation of how variations in sequencing depth and other parameters influence interpretation of Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments. Using Drosophila S2 cells, we generated ChIP-seq datasets for a site-specific transcription factor (Suppressor of Hairy-wing) and a histone modification (H3K36me3). We detected a chromatin state bias, open chromatin regions yielded higher coverage, which led to false positives if not corrected and had a greater effect on detection specificity than any base-composition bias. Paired-end sequencing revealed that single-end data underestimated ChIP library complexity at high coverage. The removal of reads originating at the same base reduced false-positives while having little effect on detection sensitivity. Even at a depth of ~1 read/bp coverage of mappable genome, ~1% of the narrow peaks detected on a tiling array were missed by ChIP-seq. Evaluation of widely-used ChIP-seq analysis tools suggests that adjustments or algorithm improvements are required to handle datasets with deep coverage.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded molecules have been detected in the tumor tissues of several cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), suggesting that EBV plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, the nature of EBV with respect to genome width in vivo and whether EBV undergoes clonal expansion in the tumor tissues are still poorly understood. In this study, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to sequence DNA extracted directly from the tumor tissue of a patient with NPC. Apart from the human sequences, a clinically isolated EBV genome 164.7 kb in size was successfully assembled and named GD2 (GenBank accession number HQ020558). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that GD2 was closely related to GD1, a previously assembled variant derived from a patient with NPC. GD2 contains the most prevalent EBV variants reported in Cantonese patients with NPC, suggesting that it might be the prevalent strain in this population. Furthermore, GD2 could be grouped into a single subtype according to common classification criteria and contains only 6 heterozygous point mutations, suggesting the monoclonal expansion of GD2 in NPC. This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of a clinical isolate of EBV directly extracted from NPC tissue. Our study reveals that NGS allows the characterization of genome-wide variations of EBV in clinical tumors and provides evidence of monoclonal expansion of EBV in vivo. The pipeline could also be applied to the study of other pathogen-related malignancies. With additional NGS studies of NPC, it might be possible to uncover the potential causative EBV variant involved in NPC.
The increasing volume of ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq data being generated creates a challenge for standard, integrative and reproducible bioinformatics data analysis platforms. We developed a web-based application called Cistrome, based on the Galaxy open source framework. In addition to the standard Galaxy functions, Cistrome has 29 ChIP-chip- and ChIP-seq-specific tools in three major categories, from preliminary peak calling and correlation analyses to downstream genome feature association, gene expression analyses, and motif discovery. Cistrome is available at http://cistrome.org/ap/.
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are responsible for myelination. Myelin is essential for saltatory nerve conduction in the vertebrate nervous system. However, the molecular mechanisms of maturation and myelination by oligodendrocytes remain elusive.
Methods and Findings
In the present study, we showed that maturation of oligodendrocytes was attenuated by sodium orthovanadate (a comprehensive inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases) and PTPi IV (a specific inhibitor of SHP-2). It is also found that SHP-2 was persistently expressed during maturation process of OPCs. Down-regulation of endogenous SHP-2 led to impairment of oligodendrocytes maturation and this effect was triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) dependent. Furthermore, over-expression of SHP-2 was shown to promote maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, it has been identified that SHP-2 was involved in activation of Akt and extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) induced by T3 in oligodendrocytes.
SHP-2 promotes oligodendrocytes maturation via Akt and ERK1/2 signaling in vitro.
AIM: To investigate the diverse characteristics of different pathological gradings of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) using tumor-related genes.
METHODS: GA tissues in different pathological gradings and normal tissues were subjected to tissue arrays. Expressions of 15 major tumor-related genes were detected by RNA in situ hybridization along with 3’ terminal digoxin-labeled anti-sense single stranded oligonucleotide and locked nucleic acid modifying probe within the tissue array. The data obtained were processed by support vector machines by four different feature selection methods to discover the respective critical gene/gene subsets contributing to the GA activities of different pathological gradings.
RESULTS: In comparison of poorly differentiated GA with normal tissues, tumor-related gene TP53 plays a key role, although other six tumor-related genes could also achieve the Area Under Curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic independently by more than 80%. Comparing the well differentiated GA with normal tissues, we found that 11 tumor-related genes could independently obtain the AUC by more than 80%, but only the gene subsets, TP53, RB and PTEN, play a key role. Only the gene subsets, Bcl10, UVRAG, APC, Beclin1, NM23, PTEN and RB could distinguish between the poorly differentiated and well differentiated GA. None of a single gene could obtain a valid distinction.
CONCLUSION: Different from the traditional point of view, the well differentiated cancer tissues have more alterations of important tumor-related genes than the poorly differentiated cancer tissues.
Pathological grading; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Tumor-related gene; Support vector machine; RNA in situ hybridization
When salt-tolerant Myxococcus cells are moved to a seawater environment, they change their growth, morphology, and developmental behavior. Outer membrane proteins and signal transduction pathways may play important roles in this shift. Chip hybridization targeting the genes predicted to encode 226 two-component signal transduction pathways and 74 outer membrane proteins of M. xanthus DK1622 revealed that the expression of 55 corresponding genes in the salt-tolerant strain M. fulvus HW-1 was significantly modified (most were downregulated) by the presence of seawater. Sequencing revealed that these seawater-regulated genes are highly homologous in both strains, suggesting that they have similar roles in the lifestyle of Myxococcus. Seven of the genes that had been reported in M. xanthus DK1622 are involved in different cellular processes, such as fruiting body development, sporulation, or motility. The outer membrane (Om) gene Om031 had the most significant change in expression (downregulated) in response to seawater, while the two-component system (Tc) gene Tc105 had the greatest increase in expression. Their homologues MXAN3106 and MXAN4042 were knocked out in DK1622 to analyze their functions in response to changes in salinity. In addition to having increased salt tolerance, sporulation of the MXAN3106 mutant was enhanced compared to that of DK1622, whereas mutating gene MXAN4042 produced contrary results. The results indicated that the genes that are involved in the cellular processes that are significantly changed in response to salinity may also be involved the salt tolerance of Myxococcus cells. Regulating the expression levels of these multifunctional genes may allow cells to quickly and efficiently respond to changing conditions in coastal environments.
MACS performs model-based analysis of ChIP-Seq data generated by short read sequencers.
We present Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq data, MACS, which analyzes data generated by short read sequencers such as Solexa's Genome Analyzer. MACS empirically models the shift size of ChIP-Seq tags, and uses it to improve the spatial resolution of predicted binding sites. MACS also uses a dynamic Poisson distribution to effectively capture local biases in the genome, allowing for more robust predictions. MACS compares favorably to existing ChIP-Seq peak-finding algorithms, and is freely available.
We developed a fast, integrative pipeline to identify cis natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) at genome scale. The pipeline mapped mRNAs and ESTs in UniGene to genome sequences in GoldenPath to find overlapping transcripts and combining information from coding sequence, poly(A) signal, poly(A) tail and splicing sites to deduce transcription orientation. We identified cis-NATs in 10 eukaryotic species, including 7830 candidate sense–antisense (SA) genes in 3915 SA pairs in human. The abundance of SA genes is remarkably low in worm and does not seem to be caused by the prevalence of operons. Hundreds of SA pairs are conserved across different species, even maintaining the same overlapping patterns. The convergent SA class is prevalent in fly, worm and sea squirt, but not in human or mouse as reported previously. The percentage of SA genes among imprinted genes in human and mouse is 24–47%, a range between the two previous reports. There is significant shortage of SA genes on Chromosome X in human and mouse but not in fly or worm, supporting X-inactivation in mammals as a possible cause. SA genes are over-represented in the catalytic activities and basic metabolism functions. All candidate cis-NATs can be downloaded from .
It is estimated that one billion people around the world are vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to various inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which vitamin D reduces inflammation remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of physiologic levels of vitamin D on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory response in human blood monocytes, and explored potential mechanisms of vitamin D action. We observed that two forms of the vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 25(OH)D3, dose dependently inhibited LPS-induced p38 phosphorylation at physiologic concentrations, IL-6 and TNF-α production by human monocytes. Upon vitamin D treatment, the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) was significantly upregulated in human monocytes and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM). Increased binding of the vitamin D receptor and increased histone H4 acetylation at the identified vitamin D response element of the murine and human MKP-1 promoters were demonstrated. Moreover, in BMM from MKP1−/− mice, the inhibition of LPS-induced p38 phosphorylation by vitamin D was completely abolished. Vitamin D inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-α production by BMM from MKP-1−/− mice was significantly reduced as compared to wild type mice. In conclusion, this study identified the upregulation of MKP-1 by vitamin D as a novel pathway by which vitamin D inhibits LPS-induced p38 activation and cytokine production in monocytes/macrophages.
There are a number of gas ionization sensors using carbon nanotubes as cathode or anode. Unfortunately, their applications are greatly limited by their multi-valued sensitivity, one output value corresponding to several measured concentration values. Here we describe a triple-electrode structure featuring two electric fields with opposite directions, which enable us to overcome the multi-valued sensitivity problem at 1 atm in a wide range of gas concentrations. We used a carbon nanotube array as the first electrode, and the two electric fields between the upper and the lower interelectrode gaps were designed to extract positive ions generated in the upper gap, hence significantly reduced positive ion bombardment on the nanotube electrode, which allowed us to maintain a high electric field near the nanotube tips, leading to a single-valued sensitivity and a long nanotube life. We have demonstrated detection of various gases and simultaneously monitoring temperature, and a potential for applications.
Salmonella typhimurium double leu-arg auxotrophs have been shown to be highly effective as antitumor agents in nude mouse models of human metastatic cancer. In order to proceed to clinical development of the S. typhimurium double auxotroph, termed A1-R, it is necessary to evaluate antitumor efficacy in immunocompetent mice. In the present study, we have observed the efficacy of A1-R on the Lewis lung (LLC) carcinoma in vitro as well as in C57BL/6 (C57) immunocompetent mice. In vitro, A1-R treatment of LLC began to induce cell death within one hour. Various doses and schedules of A1-R were administered to C57 mice implanted with LLC, including bolus single intravenous injection; medium dose with weekly intravenous administration and metronomic treatment with small intravenous doses twice a week. Bolus treatment was toxic to the immunocompetent host in contrast to nude mice. Lower-dose weekly doses and metronomic doses were well-tolerated by the immunocompetent host. Weekly intravenous injection with 2 × 107 bacteria and twice a week intravenous injection with 107 bacteria significantly inhibited metastasis formation, while bolus injection was toxic. Intrathoracic administration was performed with 108 A1-R bacteria injected into Lewis lung-bearing C57 mice weekly for three weeks. Lung metastasis was significantly inhibited by intrathoracic bacterial administration without toxicity. The results in this report, demonstrating the anti-metastatic efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R in immunocompetent mice, indicate the clinical potential of bacterial therapy of cancer.
Salmonella typhimurium; amino acid auxotroph; selective tumor targeting; lung; metastasis; RFP; GFP; fluorescence imaging; confocal microscopy
Pleomorphic lipoma is a relatively uncommon entity, and is considered as a variant of spindle cell lipoma. Histologically, spindle cell lipoma/pleomorphic lipoma consists of varying quantity of mature fat, bland spindle cells and ropey collagen. In addition, pleomorphic lipoma is characterized by multinucleate giant cells, which possess the “floret-like” nuclei and marked pleomorphism. So, in contrast to spindle cell lipoma, pleomorphic lipoma is more easily misdiagnosed as a malignant tumor. Herein, we report a peculiar case of pleomorphic lipoma occurring in axilla with entirely devoid of mature fat in a 71-year-old male. The histopathological findings demonstrated the tumor was made up of bland spindle cells admixed with scattered “floret-like” cells and irregular ropey collagen in an extensive myxoid stroma. Immunostaining showed that the tumor was positive for the Vimentin, Bcl-2 and CD34, and was negative for S-100, desmin, CD68, and α–SMA. Although no fat component was found in the whole section, the tumor was still diagnosed as a pelomprphic lipoma. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of pelomprphic lipoma which entirely lacked lipomatous component. Because of the existence of atypical multinucleate giant cells and lack of mature fat, this tumor may be easily misdiagnosed nonlipomatous lesions, such as myxoid fibrosarcoma, giant cell fibroblastoma.
So, it is necessary to pay careful attention to the histological spectrum of pleomorphic lipoma, including the tumor with devoid of fat, and it should be kept in mind that pelomprphic lipoma still can be diagnosed even if lacking lipomatous component.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
During the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (pH1N1) outbreak, school students were at an increased risk of infection by the pH1N1 virus. However, the estimation of the attack rate showed significant variability.
Two school outbreaks were investigated in this study. A questionnaire was designed to collect information by interview. Throat samples were collected from all the subjects in this study 6 times and sero samples 3 times to confirm the infection and to determine viral shedding. Data analysis was performed using the software STATA 9.0.
The attack rate of the pH1N1 outbreak was 58.3% for the primary school, and 52.9% for the middle school. The asymptomatic infection rates of the two schools were 35.8% and 37.6% respectively. Peak virus shedding occurred on the day of ARI symptoms onset, followed by a steady decrease over subsequent days (p = 0.026). No difference was found either in viral shedding or HI titer between the symptomatic and the asymptomatic infectious groups.
School children were found to be at a high risk of infection by the novel virus. This may be because of a heightened risk of transmission owing to increased mixing at boarding school, or a lack of immunity owing to socio-economic status. We conclude that asymptomatically infectious cases may play an important role in transmission of the pH1N1 virus.
Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the parotid gland is rare, and may pose a great diagnostic challenge. We report a case of primary epithelioid angiosarcoma in a 64-year-old male without history of radiation. The histopathological findings demonstrated a high grade epithelioid neoplasm. Immunostaining showed that the tumor was positive for the pan-cytokeratin, p63, cytokeratin18, Vimentin and vascular markers CD31, and was negative for CD34, cytokeratin5/6, cytokeratin7, cytokeratin20, CD68, CD30, S-100, HMB45, desmin, α–SMA and CD45. The tumor was diagnosed as an epithelioid angiosarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of angiosarcoma which showed common positivity for cytokeratin and p63. In addition to cytokeratin, p63 is considered a useful marker for carcinoma. The co-expression of cytokeratin and p63 in epithelioid angiosarcoma represents a diagnostic pitfall. Thus, using a panel of antibodies is essential for distinguishing this tumor from poorly differentiated carcinoma.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/6548916707504750
Angiosarcoma; Cytokeratin; p63
Motivation: With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, the genome-wide profiling of nucleosome positioning has become increasingly affordable. Many future studies will investigate the dynamic behaviour of nucleosome positioning in cells that have different states or that are exposed to different conditions. However, a robust method to effectively identify the regions of differential nucleosome positioning (RDNPs) has not been previously available.
Results: We describe a novel computational approach, DiNuP, that compares nucleosome profiles generated by high-throughput sequencing under various conditions. DiNuP provides a statistical P-value for each identified RDNP based on the difference of read distributions. DiNuP also empirically estimates the false discovery rate as a cutoff when two samples have different sequencing depths and differentiate reliable RDNPs from the background noise. Evaluation of DiNuP showed it to be both sensitive and specific for the detection of changes in nucleosome location, occupancy and fuzziness. RDNPs that were identified using publicly available datasets revealed that nucleosome positioning dynamics are closely related to the epigenetic regulation of transcription.
Availability and implementation: DiNuP is implemented in Python and is freely available at http://www.tongji.edu.cn/~zhanglab/DiNuP.
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
MACS (Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq) is a command line tool designed by X. Shirley Liu and colleagues to analyze data generated by ChIP-Seq experiments in eukaryote, especially in mammal. Given the ChIP-Seq data with or without control samples, MACS can be used to identify transcription factor binding sites and histone modification enriched regions. This unit describes two basic protocols that provide detailed information of how to use MACS to identify either the binding sites of a transcription factor, or the enriched regions of a histone modification with broad peaks. Furthermore, the basic ideas of MACS algorithm and its appropriate usage are discussed.
MACS; ChIP-Seq; peak-calling; cistrome; epigenome
Waldesntrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a low-grade B cell lymphoma characterized by widespread involvement of the bone marrow with lymphoplasmacytic cells. In about 20% of patients, the malignant clone also involves the lymph nodes and induces hepatosplenomegaly. The mechanisms by which the tumor cells home to the bone marrow and preferentially reside in the marrow niches are not fully elucidated. In this review, we examine the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in the regulation of cell growth, survival and cell dissemination in WM. We also summarize specific regulators of niche-dependent tumor proliferation in WM. These include chemokines, adhesion molecules, Src/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, NF-kB activation, and miRNA regulation in WM. Targeting these pathways in clinical trials could lead to significant responses in this rare disease.
Waldenstrom; cell trafficking; homing; niche; bone marrow; adhesion
Accumulating evidence supports that tumor growth and cancer relapse are driven by cancer stem cells. Our previous work has demonstrated the existence of CD90+ liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, the characteristics of these cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we employed a more sensitive RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the gene expression profiling of CD90+ cells sorted from tumor (CD90+CSCs) with parallel non-tumorous liver tissues (CD90+NTSCs) and elucidate the roles of putative target genes in hepatocarcinogenesis.
CD90+ cells were sorted respectively from tumor and adjacent non-tumorous human liver tissues using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The amplified RNAs of CD90+ cells from 3 HCC patients were subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. A differential gene expression profile was established between CD90+CSCs and CD90+NTSCs, and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) on the same set of amplified RNAs, and further confirmed in an independent cohort of 12 HCC patients. Five hundred genes were differentially expressed (119 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes) between CD90+CSCs and CD90+NTSCs. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the over-expressed genes in CD90+CSCs were associated with inflammation, drug resistance and lipid metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes, glypican-3 (GPC3), a member of glypican family, was markedly elevated in CD90+CSCs compared to CD90+NTSCs. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GPC3 was highly expressed in forty-two human liver tumor tissues but absent in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Flow cytometry indicated that GPC3 was highly expressed in liver CD90+CSCs and mature cancer cells in liver cancer cell lines and human liver tumor tissues. Furthermore, GPC3 expression was positively correlated with the number of CD90+CSCs in liver tumor tissues.
The identified genes, such as GPC3 that are distinctly expressed in liver CD90+CSCs, may be promising gene candidates for HCC therapy without inducing damages to normal liver stem cells.
Various aspects of genome organization have been explored based on data from distinct technologies, including histone modification ChIP-Seq, 3C, and its derivatives. Recently developed Hi-C techniques enable the genome wide mapping of DNA interactomes, thereby providing the opportunity to study genome organization in detail, but these methods also pose challenges in methodology development.
We developed Genome Segmentation from Intra Chromosomal Associations, or GeSICA, to explore genome organization and applied the method to Hi-C data in human GM06990 and K562 cells. GeSICA calculates a simple logged ratio to efficiently segment the human genome into regions with two distinct states that correspond to rich and poor functional element states. Inside the rich regions, Markov Clustering was subsequently applied to segregate the regions into more detailed clusters. The binding sites of the insulator, cohesion, and transcription complexes are enriched in the boundaries between neighboring clusters, indicating that inferred clusters may have fine organizational features.
Our study presents a novel analysis method, known as GeSICA, which gives insight into genome organization based on Hi-C data. GeSICA is open source and freely available at: http://web.tongji.edu.cn/~zhanglab/GeSICA/
Histone modifications play important roles in regulating eukaryotic gene expression and have been used to model expression levels. Here, we present a regression model to systematically infer mRNA stability by comparing transcriptome profiles with ChIP-seq of H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3. The results from multiple human and mouse cell lines show that the inferred unstable mRNAs have significantly longer 3′Untranslated Regions (UTRs) and more microRNA binding sites within 3′UTR than the inferred stable mRNAs. Regression residuals derived from RNA-seq, but not from GRO-seq, are highly correlated with the half-lives measured by pulse-labeling experiments, supporting the rationale of our inference. Whereas, the functions enriched in the inferred stable and unstable mRNAs are consistent with those from pulse-labeling experiments, we found the unstable mRNAs have higher cell-type specificity under functional constraint. We conclude that the systematical use of histone modifications can differentiate non-expressed mRNAs from unstable mRNAs, and distinguish stable mRNAs from highly expressed ones. In summary, we represent the first computational model of mRNA stability inference that compares transcriptome and epigenome profiles, and provides an alternative strategy for directing experimental measurements.
The M3 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M3-mAChR) plays a protective role in myocardial ischemia and microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in many cardiac pathophysiological processes, including ischemia-induced cardiac injury. However, the role of miRNAs in M3-mAChR mediated cardioprotection remains unexplored. The present study was designed to identify miRNAs that are involved in cardioprotective effects of M3-mAChR against myocardial ischemia and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We established rat model of myocardial ischemia and performed miRNA microarray analysis to identify miRNAs involved in the cardioprotection of M3-mAChR. In H9c2 cells, the viability, intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), miR-376b-5p expression level, brain derived neurophic factor (BDNF) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) levels were measured. Our results demonstrated that M3-mAChR protected myocardial ischemia injury. Microarray analysis and qRT-PCR revealed that miR-376b-5p was significantly up-regulated in ischemic heart tissue and the M3-mAChRs agonist choline reversed its up-regulation. In vitro, miR-376b-5p promoted H2O2-induced H9c2 cell injuries measured by cells viability, [Ca2+]i and ROS. Western blot and luciferase assay identified BDNF as a direct target of miR-376b-5p. M3-mAChR activated NF-κB and thereby inhibited miR-376b-5p expression. Our data show that a novel M3-mAChR/NF-κB/miR-376b-5p/BDNF axis plays an important role in modulating cardioprotection. MiR-376b-5p promotes myocardial ischemia injury possibly by inhibiting BDNF expression and M3-mAChR provides cardioprotection at least partially mediated by the downregulation of miR-376b-5p through NF-κB. These findings provide new insight into the potential mechanism by which M3-mAChR provides cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia injury.