Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivate and is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses in adults and children. Although there are a few reports in the literature regarding the pharmacokinetic characteristics of risperidone, insufficient data on its pharmacokinetic properties in a Chinese population are available.
To meet the requirements for marketing a new generic product, this study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two 2 mg tablet formulations of risperidone: a newly developed generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference) in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers.
A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2 × 2 crossover study was conducted in fasted healthy male Chinese volunteers. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 1 tablet (2 mg each) of the test formulation (Risperidone tablet; Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd., Hyderabad, India) or the reference formulation (Risperdal® tablet; Xian-Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd., Xi-an, China), followed by a 2-week washout period and subsequent administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 10-hour overnight fast. Plasma samples were collected over 96 hours. Plasma concentrations of the parent drug, risperidone, and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, were analyzed by a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. The formulations would be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the natural log-transformed values were within the predetermined 80–125% equivalence range for the maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC), in accordance with guidelines issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. Assessment of tolerability was based on recording of adverse events (AEs), monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiograms, and laboratory tests at baseline and at completion of the study.
A total of 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers (mean age 22.9 years [standard deviation (SD) 2.7, range 19.2–27.1]; weight 63.2 kg [SD 7.0, range 52.0–78.0]; and height 171.3 cm [SD 6.1, range 162.0–187.0]) were enrolled, and all completed the study. For the parent drug, risperidone, the 90% CIs of the relative values (test vs. reference) of the Cmax, AUC from time zero to time t (AUCt), and AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) were 97.0–124.0%, 92.7–115.1%, and 92.8–114.2%, respectively. For the active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, the values were 104.4–117.7%, 101.0–113.7%, and 100.4–113.4%, respectively. The two formulations met the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence. A total of 73 AEs were observed in 24 subjects during the study. The most common AE was sedation (48 events), followed by nasal reactions (14 events), postural hypotension (3 events), hypertriglyceridemia (2 events), dizziness (4 events), nausea (1 event), and anorexia (1 event). Their severity was as follows: 16 were mild, 57 were moderate, and none were severe. The majority of the AEs were considered to be related (48 events) or probably related (23 events) to the study medication. No clinically significant abnormalities on physical examination, vital sign measurements, or electrocardiographic recordings were reported. No serious AEs were reported.
The data from this study in healthy adult male Chinese subjects suggest that the test formulation met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence to the reference formulation, on the basis of the rate and extent of absorption. Both formulations were well tolerated.