Resistance developed by leukemic cells, unsatisfactory efficacy on patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) at accelerated and blastic phases, and potential cardiotoxity, have been limitations for imatinib mesylate (IM) in treating CML. Whether low dose IM in combination with agents of distinct but related mechanisms could be one of the strategies to overcome these concerns warrants careful investigation.
Methods and Findings
We tested the therapeutic efficacies as well as adverse effects of low dose IM in combination with proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib (BOR) or proteasome inhibitor I (PSI), in two CML murine models, and investigated possible mechanisms of action on CML cells. Our results demonstrated that low dose IM in combination with BOR exerted satisfactory efficacy in prolongation of life span and inhibition of tumor growth in mice, and did not cause cardiotoxicity or body weight loss. Consistently, BOR and PSI enhanced IM-induced inhibition of long-term clonogenic activity and short-term cell growth of CML stem/progenitor cells, and potentiated IM-caused inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis of BCR-ABL+ cells. IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited Bcl-2, increased cytoplasmic cytochrome C, and activated caspases. While exerting suppressive effects on BCR-ABL, E2F1, and β-catenin, IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited proteasomal degradation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to a re-activation of this important negative regulator of BCR-ABL. In addition, both combination therapties inhibited Bruton's tyrosine kinase via suppression of NFκB.
These data suggest that combined use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and proteasome inhibitor might be helpful for optimizing CML treatment.
Years of education are inversely related to the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the relationship between the clinical features of MDD and educational status is poorly understood. We investigated this in 1970 Chinese women with recurrent MDD identified in a clinical setting.
Clinical and demographic features were obtained from 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depression between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between educational level and clinical features of MDD.
Subjects with more years of education are more likely to have MDD, with an odds ratio of 1.14 for those with more than ten years. Low educational status is not associated with an increase in the number of episodes, nor with increased rates of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders. Education impacts differentially on the symptoms of depression: lower educational attainment is associated with more biological symptoms and increased suicidal ideation and plans to commit suicide.
Findings may not generalize to males or to other patient populations. Since the threshold for treatment seeking differs as a function of education there may an ascertainment bias in the sample.
The relationship between symptoms of MDD and educational status in Chinese women is unexpectedly complex. Our findings are inconsistent with the simple hypothesis from European and US reports that low levels of educational attainment increase the risk and severity of MDD.
Major depressive disorder; Education; Socio-economic status; Symptom
The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.
Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and warming+nitrogen (N) addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) techniques.
Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML) indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses.
Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid adaptation by the affected plant populations to the changed environments.
Xenon is one of noble gases and has been recognized as an anesthetic for more than 50 years. Xenon possesses many of the characteristics of an ideal anesthetic, but it is not widely applied in clinical practice mainly because of its high cost. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that xenon as an anesthetic can exert neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in different models. Moreover, xenon has been applied in the preconditioning, and the neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects of xenon preconditioning have been investigated in a lot of studies in which some mechanisms related to these protections are proposed. In this review, we summarized these mechanisms and the biological effects of xenon preconditioning.
Xenon; Preconditioning; Neuroprotection; Cardioprotection; Mechanism
IDH1 and IDH2 mutations occur frequently in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia, leading to simultaneous loss and gain of activities in the production of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), respectively. Here we demonstrate that 2-HG is a competitive inhibitor of multiple α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the TET family of 5-methlycytosine (5mC) hydroxylases. 2-HG occupies the same space as α-KG does in the active site of histone demethylases. Ectopic expression of tumor-derived IDH1 and IDH2 mutants inhibits histone demethylation and 5mC hydroxylation. In glioma, IDH1 mutations are associated with increased histone methylation and decreased 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC). Hence, tumor-derived IDH1 and IDH2 mutations reduce α-KG and accumulate an α-KG antagonist, 2-HG, leading to genome-wide histone and DNA methylation alterations.
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor with diverse regulatory functions in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. But little is known about the regulation of KLF4 on the expression of HSP90 (HSP84 and HSP86). In the current study, overexpression of KLF4 was firstly identified to promote the basal expression of HSP90 (HSP84 and HSP86) but not the inducible expression in the C2C12 cells and RAW264.7 cells. Conversely, KLF4 inhibition by antisense oligonucleotides markedly decreased the constitutive expression of HSP90 (HSP84 and HSP86). Here, we also presented data that overexpression of KLF4 resulted in enhanced promoter activities of HSP84. Consistently, KLF4 bind to the KLF4 binding sites in the promoter regions of HSP84 directly. Together, these findings support a role for KLF4 as a novel regulator of the constitutive expression of HSP90.
KLF4; HSP90; HSP84; HSP86; Gene regulation
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in various organisms from bacteria to mammals. It has been demonstrated that KLF4 regulates the expression of a wide range of genes. Analysis of KLF4 target genes reveals its diverse regulatory functions in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, embryogenesis, and inflammation. However, the regulation of the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP72) and heat shock cognate 70 (HSP73) by KLF4 is not defined. In our previous study, a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray assay showed that KLF4 overexpression led to dramatic upregulation of HSP73 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in murine C2C12 myoblast cells, suggesting that HSP73 is a potential target gene regulated by KLF4. The effect of KLF4 on the expression of HSP72 and HSP73 was further examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot in KLF4-overexpressing or KLF4-deficient cells. The results showed the upregulation of the HSP73 constitutive expression by KLF4 overexpression in both C2C12 cells and murine RAW264.7 macrophages; in response to heat stress, however, few changes were observed in the levels of HSP73 by KLF4 overexpression. In addition, knockdown of endogenous KLF4 expression by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased both HSP73 mRNA and protein levels under normal conditions. Conversely, KLF4 had no effect on the expression of HSP72. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role for KLF4 as a novel regulator of the constitutive expression of HSP73.
KLF4; HSP73; HSP72; Gene expression
The title compound, crystallized as a methanol solvate, C18H20O2·CH3OH, is an intermediate in the synthesis of the antilipidemic agent clinofibrate. Molecules are packed together with the methanol solvent molecule via two O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The third O—H⋯O hydrogen bond is between neighboring 4,4′-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol molecules. The dihedral angle between two benzene rings planes is 81.69 (6).
HIV-1 pandemic posed an unprecedent challenge to the global health and it is believed that an effective vaccine will be the final solution against HIV-1. HIV-1 envelope is the primary immunogen in developing neutralization antibody based HIV vaccine. To define the suitable Env derived immunogen, we systemically compared the immunogenicity of gp140 and gp145 in a DNA vaccination alone and a prime-boost modalities. 2 DNA vaccines and 2 recombinant Tiantan vaccinia vaccines (rTTV) were constructed for vaccination of female Balb/c mice. Elispot assay was used to read out the T cell immunity and ELISA assay was used to quantify antibody immunity. PLL (poly-L-Leucine)-ELISA assay was used in linear antibody epitope mapping. Mice primed with gp145 tended to elicit more Env-specific T cells responses than those primed with gp140, significant difference was observed in DNA immunization alone. The ultimate T cell responses in prime-boost regimen tends to be determined mainly by the priming efficacy. Linear antibody epitope mapping displayed that sera raised by gp145 priming were vigorously reactive to more peptides than that by gp140. Our data demonstrated HIV-1 Thailand B-derived gp145 may raise higher T-cell responses and broader linear peptide-specific antibody responses than gp140 does. However, it remains to be determined that how these observations are relevant to neutralization antibody activities.
HIV-1; Vaccine; Envelope; Immunogen design
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger–containing transcription factor with diverse regulatory functions in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and embryogenesis. However, little is known about the response of KLF4 to heat stress. In this study, Western blot and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction were performed to determine the changes in KLF4 expression in response to heat stress. The results showed that heat stress up-regulated KLF4 messenger RNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner in vivo and in 4 cell lines. Moreover, a study with heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) gene knockout mice indicated that the induction of KLF4 in response to heat stress was mediated by Hsf1. This process occurred rapidly, indicating that KLF4 is an immediate early response gene of heat stress. Next, the roles of KLF4 under heat stress conditions were analyzed for cells overexpressing or deficient in KLF4. The results showed overexpression of KLF4 increased the death rate of C2C12 cells, whereas KLF4 deficiency decreased the injury of C2C12 cells from heat stress conditions, suggesting that KLF4 might play an important role in cell injury induced by heat stress. KLF4 might be an immediate early response gene and could play an important role in cell injury induced by heat stress.
Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are one of the most important nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a variety of fields. Therefore, their effects on human health and the environment have been addressed in a number of studies. In this work, the effects of amorphous SNPs were investigated with regard to multinucleation in L-02 human hepatic cells. Our results show that L-02 cells had an abnormally high incidence of multinucleation upon exposure to silica, that increased in a dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining showed that multinucleated cells were arrested in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Increased multinucleation in L-02 cells was associated with increased generation of cellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage on flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, which might have led to failure of cytokinesis in these cells. Further, SNPs inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in exposed cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that multinucleation in L-02 human hepatic cells might be a failure to undergo cytokinesis or cell fusion in response to SNPs, and the increase in cellular reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the apoptosis seen in both mononuclear cells and multinucleated cells.
silica nanoparticles; human hepatic cell L-02; multinucleation; cell cycle; cell dysfunction; apoptosis
Hybridization between genetically diverged organisms is known as an important avenue that drives plant genome evolution. The possible outcomes of hybridization would be the occurrences of genetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids. It remained under-investigated however whether pollination by alien pollens of a closely related but sexually "incompatible" species could evoke genomic changes and to what extent it may result in phenotypic novelties in the derived progenies.
In this study, we have re-sequenced the genomes of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Matsumae and one of its derived introgressant RZ35 that was obtained from an introgressive hybridization between Matsumae and Zizanialatifolia Griseb. in general, 131 millions 90 base pair (bp) paired-end reads were generated which covered 13.2 and 21.9 folds of the Matsumae and RZ35 genomes, respectively. Relative to Matsumae, a total of 41,724 homozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 17,839 homozygous insertions/deletions (indels) were identified in RZ35, of which 3,797 SNPs were nonsynonymous mutations. Furthermore, rampant mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) was found in the RZ35 genome. The results of pathogen inoculation revealed that RZ35 exhibited enhanced resistance to blast relative to Matsumae. Notably, one nonsynonymous mutation was found in the known blast resistance gene Pid3/Pi25 and real-time quantitative (q) RT-PCR analysis revealed constitutive up-regulation of its expression, suggesting both altered function and expression of Pid3/Pi25 may be responsible for the enhanced resistance to rice blast by RZ35.
Our results demonstrate that introgressive hybridization by Zizania has provoked genomewide, extensive genomic changes in the rice genome, and some of which have resulted in important phenotypic novelties. These findings suggest that introgressive hybridization by alien pollens of even a sexually incompatible species may represent a potent means to generate novel genetic diversities, and which may have played relevant roles in plant evolution and can be manipulated for crop improvements.
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus oxaliplatin and capecitabine (DOX) in the first line treatment of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods. A total of 37 patients were enrolled into this study, and they received DOX regimen (docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 intravenous infusion on day 1, and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 orally twice daily on d1–14); treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. Results. All 37 patients were assessable for evaluation. The numbers of patients with complete response (CR), partial responses (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) were 1, 10, 23, and 3, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) was 29.7%, with the disease control rate (DCR) of 91.9%. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) and overall survival (mOS) were 197 days and 364 days, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were hematological toxicities. The most common grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicities were fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, and hand-foot syndrome. Conclusion. The DOX regimen demonstrated a promising efficacy as the first line regimen in treating advanced gastric cancer patients with good performance status, the toxicities were tolerated and controllable. Large-scale clinical observation is necessary to get further evidence.
Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been an important pathogen causing bloodstream infections. Our study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and genetic diversity of clinical S. aureus isolates from patients with bloodstream infection in four hospitals of Shanghai from 2009 to 2011.
A collection of S. aureus isolates causing bloodstream infection from four hospitals in the central part of Shanghai was carried out. Antimicrobial susceptibility testings of collected isolates were performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and spa-type, multi-locus sequence typing, agr type and toxin gene profiling were performed to explore the molecular diversity. Moreover, MRSA strains were also characterized by Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing.
The drugs such as linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin were efficacious for treating S. aureus including MRSA bloodstream infection. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains displayed distinct diversity in molecular characterization and toxin genes, and three virulent MSSA strains encoding at least five toxins were detected. Five community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains were found, but the majority (88.7%) of MRSA strains belonged to two epidemic clones (ST239-MRSA- III and ST5-MRSA- II) with different toxin gene profiles among patients with bloodstream infection.
Healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains were still the main pathogen causing bloodstream infections in spite of the emergence of CA-MRSA strains in hospital setting.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in normal pregnancy and severe preeclampsia placenta and to explore the underlying mechanism of the relationship between the altered ENaC expression and onset of preeclampsia. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to check epithelial sodium channel subunits expression in mRNA and protein level in first term and full term placental tissue. ENaCα specific RNAi were used to knockdown ENaC expression and cell invasion and migration assay were used to check whether reduced expression of ENaC can compromise trophoblast cell function. The result showed that ENaCα was highly expressed in first term placental trophoblast cells; while EnaCβ was highly expressed in full term placenta. Knockdown ENaCα expression by using small interfering RNA reduced the invasive and migration abilities of HTR-8/SVneo cell. Real time-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of ENaCβ were also significantly lower in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. It is concluded that the ENaC played an important role in trophoblast cell invasion and migration. Reduced expression and activity of epithelial sodium channel in trophoblast cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
Many challenges exist in improving early osseointegration, one of the most critical factors in the long-term clinical success of dental implants. Recently, ultraviolet (UV) light-mediated photofunctionalization of titanium as a new potential surface treatment has aroused great interest. This study examines the bioactivity of titanium surfaces treated with UV light of different wavelengths and the underlying associated mechanism. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) titanium samples were pretreated with UVA light (peak wavelength of 360 nm) or UVC light (peak wavelength of 250 nm) for up to 24 h. UVC treatment promoted the attachment, spread, proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells on the titanium surface, as well as the capacity for apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). These biological influences were not observed after UVA treatment, apart from a weaker effect on apatite formation. The enhanced bioactivity was substantially correlated with the amount of Ti-OH groups, which play an important role in improving the hydrophilicity, along with the removal of hydrocarbons on the titanium surface. Our results showed that both UVA and UVC irradiation altered the chemical properties of the titanium surface without sacrificing its excellent physical characteristics, suggesting that this technology has extensive potential applications and merits further investigation.
Formaldehyde can induce misfolding and aggregation of Tau protein and β amyloid protein, which are characteristic pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). An increase in endogenous formaldehyde concentration in the brain is closely related to dementia in aging people. Therefore, the discovery of effective drugs to counteract the adverse impact of formaldehyde on neuronal cells is beneficial for the development of appropriate treatments for age-associated cognitive decline.
In this study, we assessed the neuroprotective properties of TongLuoJiuNao (TLJN), a traditional Chinese medicine preparation, against formaldehyde stress in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cell line). The effect of TLJN and its main ingredients (geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1) on cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular antioxidant activity and the expression of apoptotic-related genes in the presence of formaldehyde were monitored.
Cell counting studies showed that in the presence of TLJN, the viability of formaldehyde-treated SH-SY5Y cells significantly recovered. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that the morphology of formaldehyde-injured cells was rescued by TLJN and geniposide, an effective ingredient of TLJN. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of geniposide on formaldehyde-induced apoptosis was dose-dependent. The activity of intracellular antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased, as did mRNA and protein levels of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 after the addition of geniposide. In contrast, the expression of the apoptotic-related gene - P53, apoptotic executer - caspase 3 and apoptotic initiator - caspase 9 were downregulated after geniposide treatment.
Our results indicate that geniposide can protect SH-SY5Y cells against formaldehyde stress through modulating the expression of Bcl-2, P53, caspase 3 and caspase 9, and by increasing the activity of intracellular superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase.
Formaldehyde impairment; Geniposide; Neuroprotection
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are involved in conjugation of electrophilic compounds to glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase T 1 (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase M 1 (GSTM1) polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to define the effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes on prostate cancer risk in Asians. We searched the PubMed and Wanfang Medical databases to identify published case–control studies investigating the associations of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes with risk of prostate cancer in Asians. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran’s Q statistic and odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) from individual studies were pooled using fixed or random effects models according to the heterogeneity. There were 18 studies (2,046 cases, 2,876 controls) on GSTM1 polymorphism, 15 studies (1,677 cases, 2,431 controls) on GSTT1 polymorphism, and 6 studies (675 cases, 853 controls) on GSTM1/GSTT1 interaction analysis. Overall, GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Asians (random effects OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.48–2.18, P < 0.001), and GSTT1 null genotype was also significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Asians (random effects OR 1.40, 95 % CI 1.10–1.80, P < 0.001). In addition, the GSTM1/GSTT dual null genotype was associated with higher risk of prostate cancer in Asians (random effects OR 2.14, 95 % CI 1.59–2.89, P = 0.007). In conclusion, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Asians, and GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are risk factors for the development of prostate cancer.
GSTT1; GSTM1; Polymorphisms; Prostate cancer
Rationale and Objective
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays an important role in tumorigenesis and is increased in many human tumors. DBC1 is a negative regulator of SIRT1 via promotion of p53-mediated apoptosis. It is necessary to investigate the expression of SIRT1 and DBC1 in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC and HSCC) and its correlation with available clinical parameters.
The mRNA levels of SIRT1 and DBC1 were measured in 54 paired LSCC or HSCC tumors and corresponding adjacent noncancerous mucosae using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein levels of SIRT1 and DBC1 were also evaluated in 120 cases of patients with LSCC or HSCC using immunohistochemical staining. The correlation between SIRT1 and DBC1 expression and clinical parameters was analyzed with Pearson chi-square test.
qRT-PCR assay showed that, compared with the paired adjacent noncancerous mucosae, SIRT1 mRNA was significantly decreased in tumors. The immunohistochemical results indicated that the SIRT1 protein was also downregulated in tumors compared with noncancerous mucosae. Moreover, decreased SIRT1 was significantly correlated with the tumor clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Additionally, DBC1 mRNA was significantly increased in tumors compared with noncancerous mucosae. The immunohistochemical results indicated that the DBC1 protein was downregulated in tumors, which is inconsistent with the results obtained by qRT-PCR. Finally, decreased DBC1 protein was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and p53 expression.
SIRT1 and DBC1 might be involved in the pathophysiology of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and are associated with lymph node metastasis and p53 positive staining in LSCCs and HSCCs.
In mammals, IFIT (Interferon [IFN]-induced proteins with Tetratricopeptide Repeat [TPR] motifs) family genes are involved in many cellular and viral processes, which are tightly related to mammalian IFN response. However, little is known about non-mammalian IFIT genes. In the present study, IFIT genes are identified in the genome databases from the jawed vertebrates including the cartilaginous elephant shark but not from non-vertebrates such as lancelet, sea squirt and acorn worm, suggesting that IFIT gene family originates from a vertebrate ancestor about 450 million years ago. IFIT family genes show conserved gene structure and gene arrangements. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this gene family has expanded through lineage-specific and species-specific gene duplication. Interestingly, IFN gene family seem to share a common ancestor and a similar evolutionary mechanism; the function link of IFIT genes to IFN response is present early since the origin of both gene families, as evidenced by the finding that zebrafish IFIT genes are upregulated by fish IFNs, poly(I:C) and two transcription factors IRF3/IRF7, likely via the IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) within the promoters of vertebrate IFIT family genes. These coevolution features creates functional association of both family genes to fulfill a common biological process, which is likely selected by viral infection during evolution of vertebrates. Our results are helpful for understanding of evolution of vertebrate IFN system.
To develop an effective HIV vaccine strategy that can induce cross-reactive neutralizing antibody.
Codon-optimized gp140 and gp145 env genes derived from HIV-1cn54, a CRF07 B′/C recombinant strain, were constructed as DNA and recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTV) vaccines. The effect of heterologous immunization with gp140 and gp145 was tested in mice and guinea pigs. T cell responses were detected using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. A panel of primary isolates of clade B′ and B′/C HIV-1 and TZM-bl cells was used to determine the neutralizing activity of immunized sera.
The neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by the heterologous immunogen immunization neutralized all HIV-1 B′ and B′/C primary isolates in the guinea pig model. Gp145 and gp140 heterologous prime-boost induced the best neutralizing antibody response with a broad neutralizing spectrum and the highest titer of 1:270 at 6 weeks after the last inoculation. However, the T cell response to HIV-1 peptides was significantly weaker than the gp145+gp145 homologous prime-boost.
This heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy could be used to design immunogen-generating broad neutralizing antibodies against genetic variance pathogens.
HIV; vaccine; neutralizing antibody; heterologous prime-boost immunization
To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.
HPV; men; China; viruses; genital infection; human papillomavirus
In the title molecule, C17H16N2O2S, the tetrahydropyridine ring exhibits a half-chair conformation. The mean planes of the ester chain and benzene ring are twisted by 5.5 (1) and 81.32 (5)°, respectively, from the plane of thiophene ring. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O interactions link molecules related by translation along  into chains.
Gig2 (grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-induced gene 2) is first identified as a novel fish interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG). Overexpression of a zebrafish Gig2 gene can protect cultured fish cells from virus infection. In the present study, we identify a novel gene family that is comprised of genes homologous to the previously characterized Gig2. EST/GSS search and in silico cloning identify 190 Gig2 homologous genes in 51 vertebrate species ranged from lampreys to amphibians. Further large-scale search of vertebrate and invertebrate genome databases indicate that Gig2 gene family is specific to non-amniotes including lampreys, sharks/rays, ray-finned fishes and amphibians. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis reveal lineage-specific expansion of Gig2 gene family and also provide valuable evidence for the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) hypothesis. Although Gig2 family proteins exhibit no significant sequence similarity to any known proteins, a typical Gig2 protein appears to consist of two conserved parts: an N-terminus that bears very low homology to the catalytic domains of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), and a novel C-terminal domain that is unique to this gene family. Expression profiling of zebrafish Gig2 family genes shows that some duplicate pairs have diverged in function via acquisition of novel spatial and/or temporal expression under stresses. The specificity of this gene family to non-amniotes might contribute to a large extent to distinct physiology in non-amniote vertebrates.