Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) reduces experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) associated with inhibitor κB (IκB) α induction, blockade of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression.
Methods: EAM was induced in Lewis rats by immunisation with porcine cardiac myosin. PPAR-γ activators 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and pioglitazone (PIO) were administered to rats with EAM.
Results: Enhanced PPAR-γ expression was prominently stained in the nuclear and perinuclear regions of infiltrating inflammatory cells. Administration of 15d-PGJ2 and PIO greatly reduced the severity of myocarditis and suppressed myocardial mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines in rats with EAM. In addition, treatment with PPAR-γ activators enhanced IκB concentrations in the cytoplasmic fractions and nuclear fractions from inflammatory myocardium. Concurrently, NF-κB was greatly activated in myocarditis; this activation was blocked in the 15d-PGJ2 treated and PIO treated groups.
Conclusions: PPAR-γ may have a role in the pathophysiology of EAM. Because an increase in IκB expression and inhibition of translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 to the nucleus in inflammatory cells correlated with the protective effects of PPAR-γ activators, these results suggest that PPAR-γ activators act sequentially through PPAR-γ activation, IκB induction, blockade of NF-κB activation, and inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression. These results suggest that PPAR-γ activators such as 15d-PGJ2 and PIO may have the potential to modulate human inflammatory heart diseases such as myocarditis.
myocarditis; immunity; PPAR-γ; NF-κB; cytokine; inflammation
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of phacoemulsification using torsional modality with different parameter settings for hard nucleus cataract extraction.
A prospective, randomised clinical study.
A clinical practice study conducted at the Cataract Service, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun-Yat-Sen University, and Guangzhou. One eye each from 198 consecutive patients with cataract density grade IV according to the Emery–Little system classification system, requiring phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, was included. Eyes were randomly assigned to the Linear Torsional combined with Ultrasound power group (Linear Tor+US group, n = 66), 100% Fixed Torsional group (Fixed Tor group, n = 65) and conventional Ultrasound burst group (US group, n = 67). All surgeries were performed by a single experienced surgeon and outcomes evaluated by another surgeon masked to treatment. Intraoperative parameters were Ultrasound Time (UST), Cumulative Dissipated Energy (CDE) and surgical complications. Patients were examined on post-op days 1, 7 and 30. Postoperative outcomes were final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), average central and incisional corneal thickness and central endothelial cell counts.
The mean UST was lower in the Fixed Tor group than in the US group and in the Lin US+Tor group (p⩽0.0001). The mean CDE was lower in the Lin Tor+US group and in the Fixed Tor group than in the US group (p⩽0.0001). Comparing with the two Tor group, the US group had a lower average BCVA on post-op 1, 7 (p⩽0.0001) and 30 (p>0.01), greater average central corneal and incisional thickness on days 1, 7 (p⩽0.0001) and 30 (p>0.01), and higher average corneal endothelial cell losses on day 7 and 30 days (p⩽0.0001).
Torsional combined with ultrasound power or high fixed torsional amplitude can yield more effective hard nucleus phacoemulsification than conventional ultrasound modality.
Background: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, mainly quantified by low bone mineral density (BMD). The majority of BMD variation is determined by genetic effects. A pilot whole genome linkage scan (WGS) was previously reported in 53 white pedigrees with 630 subjects. Several genomic regions were suggested to be linked to BMD variation.
Objective: To substantiate these previous findings and detect new genomic regions.
Methods: A WGS was conducted on an extended sample where the size was almost tripled (1816 subjects from 79 pedigrees). All the subjects were genotyped with 451 microsatellite markers spaced ∼8.1 cM apart across the human genome. Two point and multipoint linkage analyses were carried out using the variance component method.
Results: The strongest linkage signal was obtained on Xq27 with two point LOD scores of 4.30 for wrist BMD, and 2.57 for hip BMD, respectively. Another important region was 11q23, which achieved a maximum LOD score of 3.13 for spine BMD in multipoint analyses, confirming the results on this region in two earlier independent studies. Suggestive linkage evidence was also found on 7p14 and 20p12.
Conclusions: Together with the findings from other studies, the current study has further delineated the genetic basis of bone mass and highlights the importance of increasing sample size to confirm linkage findings and to identify new regions of linkage.
The purpose of our study was to review the changes in the serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings from patients with novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection.
HRCT findings of 70 patients with presumed or laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV infection were reviewed. The pattern (consolidation, ground glass, fibrosis and air trapping), distribution and extent of abnormality of the lesions on the HRCT were evaluated at different time points. To assess changes that occurred over time, the CT scans in 56 patients were examined in sequence.
The most common CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are ground-glass opacities with or without consolidation at the first week. The abnormalities peaked at the second week and resolved after that time, which resulted in substantial reduced residual disease at 4 weeks or later. The development of fibrosis was noted in the first week and peaked at the third week of illness (34.7%), then decreased slowly after that time. The mean time of air trapping being noted after the onset of symptoms was 55.5±20.6 days. Comparing the findings of initial CT, most results (96.4%) of follow-up chest CT findings showed improvement (p<0.01).
The abnormalities of ground-glass opacities and/or consolidation on initial CT scans tended to resolve to fibrosis, which then resolved completely or displayed substantially reduced residual disease. HRCT may show more changes in disease progression and play an important role in the evaluation of severe S-OIV.
The c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins are encoded by three genes (Jnk1–3), giving rise to 10 isoforms in the mammalian brain. The differential roles of JNK isoforms in neuronal cell death and development have been noticed in several pathological and physiological contexts. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of different JNK isoforms to fulfill their specific roles are poorly understood. Here, we report an isoform-specific regulation of JNK3 by palmitoylation, a posttranslational modification, and the involvement of JNK3 palmitoylation in axonal development and morphogenesis. Two cysteine residues at the COOH-terminus of JNK3 are required for dynamic palmitoylation, which regulates JNK3's distribution on the actin cytoskeleton. Expression of palmitoylation-deficient JNK3 increases axonal branching and the motility of axonal filopodia in cultured hippocampal neurons. The Wnt family member Wnt7a, a known modulator of axonal branching and remodelling, regulates the palmitoylation and distribution of JNK3. Palmitoylation-deficient JNK3 mimics the effect of Wnt7a application on axonal branching, whereas constitutively palmitoylated JNK3 results in reduced axonal branches and blocked Wnt7a induction. Our results demonstrate that protein palmitoylation is a novel mechanism for isoform-specific regulation of JNK3 and suggests a potential role of JNK3 palmitoylation in modulating axonal branching.
c-Jun N-terminal kinase/JNK; palmitoylation; axonal branching; isoform regulation; cytoskeleton; Wnt pathway
Wnt signaling pathways are a highly conserved pathway, which plays an important role from the embryonic development to bone formation. The effect of Wnt pathway on osteogenesis relies on their cellular environment and the expression of target genes. However, the molecular mechanism of that remains unclear. On the basis of the preliminary results, we observed the contrary effect of canonical Wnt signaling on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in the different culture environment. Furthermore, we found that the expression level of miR-17 was also varied with the change in the culture environment. Therefore, we hypothesized that miR-17 and canonical Wnt signaling may have potential interactions, particularly the inner regulation relationship in different microenvironments. In this paper, we observed that canonical Wnt signaling promoted osteogenesis of PDLSCs in the fully culture medium, while inhibited it in the osteogenic differentiation medium. Interestingly, alteration in the expression level of endogenous miR-17 could partially reverse the different effect of canonical Wnt signaling. Furthermore, the role of miR-17 was because of its target gene TCF3 (transcription factor 3), a key transcription factor of canonical Wnt pathway. Overexpression of TCF3 attenuated the effect of miR-17 on modulating canonical Wnt signaling. Finally, we elucidated that TCF3 enhanced osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In brief, the different level of miR-17 was the main cause of the different effect of canonical Wnt signaling, and TCF3 was the crucial node of miR-17–canonial Wnt signaling regulation loop. This understanding of microRNAs regulating signaling pathways in different microenvironments may pave the way for fine-tuning the process of osteogenesis in bone-related disorders.
transcription factor 3; miR-17; canonical Wnt signaling; osteogenesis; microenvironment
The etiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) in high prevalence regions of China remains unclear.
Endoscopic biopsies were conducted among 7381 inhabitants aged from 25 to 65 of Anyang, China.
In this study, 2.57, 0.20 and 0.16% of the participants had mild, moderate and severe squamous dysplasia, respectively; 0.19 and 0.08% showed squamous carcinoma in situ and invasive ESCC. Using deep well (depth >100 meters) as water source (odds ratio=0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.54–0.96) was negatively associated with ESCC and its precursors, whereas tobacco and alcohol use were not significantly associated with ESCC.
Water source and other factors in this region need further evaluation by longitudinal studies.
prevalence; risk factor; esophageal cancer; precursor lesion; China
20S-protopanaxadiol (aPPD) is a metabolite of ginseng saponins, which is reported to be pro-apoptotic in some cells but anti-apoptotic in neuronal cells by regulating Akt signaling. Owing to its cholesterol-like structure, we hypothesized that aPPD may regulate Akt signaling by interacting with lipid rafts. Here, we compared Akt signaling in glioblastoma U87MG and neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells treated with aPPD. aPPD did not change Akt activity in the total plasma membranes of each cell type, but drastically altered the activity of raft-associated Akt. Strikingly, Akt activity was decreased in the rafts of U87MG cells but increased in N2a cells by aPPD through regulating raft-associated dephosphorylation. The bidirectional regulation of raft-associated Akt signaling by aPPD enhanced the chemotoxicity of Paclitaxel or Vinblastine in U87MG cells but attenuated the excitotoxicity of N-methyl--aspartate in N2a cells. Our results demonstrated that the activity of raft-associated but not total membrane Akt determines its cellular functions. Lipid rafts differ in different types of cells, which allows for the possibility of cell-type-specific targeting for which aPPD might prove to be a useful agent.
20S-protopanaxadiol; Akt; apoptosis; lipid rafts
Molecular markers involved in DNA repair can help to predict survival in gastric cancer patients treated with 5-FU plus platinum chemotherapy. Excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA expression levels were assessed in advanced gastric cancer tumour samples using real-time quantitative PCR in 76 patients treated with a modified FOLFOX (biweekly oxaliplatin plus 5-FU and folinic acid) regimen. Median survival time in patients with low ERCC1 levels was significantly longer than in those with high levels (15.8 vs 6.2 months; P<0.0001). Patients with high TS levels had longer survival than those with low levels (12.2 vs 10.1 months; P=0.01). Forty-eight patients with low ERCC1 and high TS levels had a median survival of 16.1 months (P<0.0001). The hazard ratio for patients with high ERCC1 expression was 9.4 (P<0.0001). In patients with high mRNA levels of ERCC1, alternative chemotherapy regimens should be considered.
ERCC1; TS; advanced gastric cancer; FOLFOX
Background: The haplotype based association method offers a powerful approach to complex disease gene mapping. In this method, a few common haplotypes that account for the vast majority of chromosomes in the populations are usually examined for association with disease phenotypes. This brings us to a critical question of whether rare haplotypes play an important role in influencing disease susceptibility and thus should not be ignored in the design and execution of association studies.
Methods: To address this question we surveyed, in a large sample of 1873 white subjects, six candidate genes for osteoporosis (a common late onset bone disorder), which had 29 SNPs, an average marker density of 13 kb, and covered a total of 377 kb of the DNA sequence.
Results: Our empirical data demonstrated that two rare haplotypes of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH related peptide receptor type 1 and vitamin D receptor genes (PTHR1 and VDR) with frequencies of 1.1% and 2.9%, respectively, had significant effects on osteoporosis phenotypes (p = 4.2 x 10–6 and p = 1.6 x 10–4, respectively). Large phenotypic differences (4.0∼5.0%) were observed between carriers of these rare haplotypes and non-carriers. Carriers of the two rare haplotypes showed quantitatively continuous variation in the population and were derived from a wide spectrum rather than from one extreme tail of the population phenotype distribution.
Conclusions: These findings indicate that rare haplotypes/variants are important for disease susceptibility and cannot be ignored in genetics studies of complex diseases. The study has profound implications for association studies and applications of the HapMap project.
The sequence of the coding region of the rRNA operon of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii has been completed, including the genes for 5.8S and 26S rRNA. These genes show homology to the rRNA genes of yeast, and an apparent group I self-splicing intron is present in the 26S rRNA gene. Like a similar intron in the 16S rRNA gene, this intron is in a phylogenetically conserved region. Variation in the 26S rRNA sequence was noted between P. carinii organisms isolated from two different sources.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess long-term self-renewal capacity and multipotent differentiative capacity, to maintain the hematopoietic system. Long-term hematopoietic homeostasis requires effective control of genotoxic damage to maintain HSC function and prevent propagation of deleterious mutations. Here we investigate the role of the BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bid in the response of murine hematopoietic cells to long-term replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU). The PI3-like serine/threonine kinase, ATR, initiates the DNA damage response (DDR) to replicative stress. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, Bid, facilitates this response to replicative stress in hematopoietic cells, but the in vivo role of this DDR function of Bid has not been defined. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that long-term HU treatment expands wild-type myeloid progenitor cells (MPCs) and HSC-enriched Lin−Sca1+Kit+ (LSK) cells to maintain bone marrow function as measured by long-term competitive repopulating ability. Bid−/− MPCs demonstrate increased sensitivity to HU and are depleted. Bid−/− LSK cells demonstrate increased mobilization manifest by increased Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Bid−/− MPCs and LSK cells are relatively depleted, however, and bone marrow from Bid−/− mice demonstrates decreased long-term competitive repopulating ability in both primary and secondary transplants. We thus describe a survival function of Bid in hematopoiesis in the setting of chronic replicative stress.
Bid; DNA damage response; hematopoiesis; Bcl-2 family
Low-density lipoprotein-related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor and signaling molecule that is expressed in adipose and the hypothalamus. Evidence for a role of LRP1 in adiposity is accumulating from animal and in vitro models, but data from human studies are limited. The study objectives were to evaluate (i) relationships between LRP1 genotype and anthropometric traits, and (ii) whether these relationships were modified by dietary fatty acids.
DESIGN AND METHODS
We conducted race/ethnic-specific meta-analyses using data from 14 studies of US and European whites and 4 of African Americans to evaluate associations of dietary fatty acids and LRP1 genotypes with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hip circumference, as well as interactions between dietary fatty acids and LRP1 genotypes. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRP1 were evaluated in whites (N up to 42 000) and twelve SNPs in African Americans (N up to 5800).
After adjustment for age, sex and population substructure if relevant, for each one unit greater intake of percentage of energy from saturated fat (SFA), BMI was 0.104 kg m−2 greater, waist was 0.305 cm larger and hip was 0.168 cm larger (all P<0.0001). Other fatty acids were not associated with outcomes. The association of SFA with outcomes varied by genotype at rs2306692 (genotyped in four studies of whites), where the magnitude of the association of SFA intake with each outcome was greater per additional copy of the T allele: 0.107 kg m−2 greater for BMI (interaction P=0.0001), 0.267 cm for waist (interaction P=0.001) and 0.21 cm for hip (interaction P=0.001). No other significant interactions were observed.
Dietary SFA and LRP1 genotype may interactively influence anthropometric traits. Further exploration of this, and other diet x genotype interactions, may improve understanding of interindividual variability in the relationships of dietary factors with anthropometric traits.
low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1; SNPs; saturated fatty acids; gene–diet interactions
Long-distance migrants are, by definition, highly mobile but it is poorly understood if this leads to high rates of gene flow and an essentially panmictic global population structure. Genetic divergence in migratory species could be promoted, for example, by fidelity to distinct migratory pathways. In this study, we investigate the population genetic structure of tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), a long-distance migrant with a largely continuous breeding distribution across Eurasia. Distinct, longitudinally oriented flyways have been postulated based on geographically disjunct wintering areas and are supported by evidence from ringing data. We generated sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multi-locus microsatellite genotypes for several hundreds of samples from the European and Asian breeding and wintering grounds including some individuals infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. Significant differentiation between breeding sites was observed for both marker types, but FST values were approximately 10 times higher for maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA than for biparentally transmitted nuclear markers. The genetic differentiation between the postulated European and Asian flyways was similar to that observed within continents and, in general, genetic divergence was not associated with geographic distance. Neither marker type showed evidence of genetic substructure among aggregations on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest some breeding site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. Several scenarios may explain the observed lack of genetic divergence between Europe and Asia including non-equilibrium conditions following a recent range expansion or contemporary gene flow across the postulated migratory divides.
bird migration; population structure; flyway; microsatellites; mitochondrial DNA; avian flu
We previously reported that marchantin M (Mar) is an active agent to induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer (PCa), but the molecular mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Mar potently inhibited chymotrypsin-like and peptidyl-glutamyl peptide-hydrolyzing activities of 20S proteasome both in in vitro and intracellular systems and significantly induced the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins in PCa cells. The computational modeling analysis suggested that Mar non-covalently bound to active sites of proteasome β5 and β1 subunits, resulting in a non-competitive inhibition. Proteasome inhibition by Mar subsequently resulted in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as evidenced by elevated glucose-regulated protein 78 and CHOP, increased phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), splicing of X-box-binding protein-1 and dilation of the ER. However, Mar-mediated cell death was not completely impaired by a pan inhibitor of caspases. Further studies revealed that the Mar-induced cell death was greatly associated with the activation of autophagy, as indicated by the significant induction of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 beta (LC3B) expression and conversion. Electron microscopic and green fluorescent protein-tagged LC3B analyses further demonstrated the ability of autophagy induction by Mar. Time kinetic studies revealed that Mar induced a rapid and highly sustained processing of LC3B in treated cells and simultaneously decreased the expression of p62/SQSTM1. Pharmacological blockade or knockdown of LC3B and Atg5 attenuated Mar-mediated cell death. The autophagic response triggered by Mar required the activation of RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase/eIF2α and suppression of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin axis via preventing activation and expression of Akt. Our results identified a novel mechanism for the cytotoxic effect of Mar, which strengthens it as a potential agent in cancer chemotherapy.
marchantin M; proteasome; ER stress; autophagic cell death; prostate cancer
Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the ‘standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the ‘non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r2) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0–2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.
asparagus bean; association mapping; cowpea; domestication history; linkage disequilibrium; population structure
Little is known about quality-of-life (QOL) differences over time between incident ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and early-stage invasive breast cancer (EIBC) cases as compared with same-aged women without breast cancer (controls). We prospectively recruited and interviewed 1096 women (16.8% DCIS, 33.3% EIBC [25.7% Stage I, 7.6% Stage IIA], 49.9% controls; mean age 58; 23.7% non-white) a mean 6.7 weeks (T1), and 6.2 (T2), 12.3 (T3), and 24.4 months (T4) after surgery (patients) or screening mammogram (controls). We tested two hypotheses: (1) DCIS patients would report lower levels of QOL compared with controls but would report similar QOL compared with EIBC patients at baseline; and (2) DCIS patients’ QOL would improve during 2-year follow-up and approach levels similar to that of controls faster than EIBC patients. We tested Hypothesis 1 using separate general linear regression models for each of the eight subscales on the RAND 36-item Health Survey, controlling for variables associated with at least one subscale at T1. Both DCIS and EIBC patients reported lower QOL at T1 than controls on all subscales (each p < .05). We tested Hypothesis 2 using generalized estimating equations to examine change in each QOL subscale over time across the three diagnostic groups adjusting for covariates. By T3, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, energy/fatigue, and general health each differed significantly by diagnostic group at P < 0.05, due to larger differences between EIBC patients and controls; but DCIS patients no longer differed significantly from controls on any of the QOL subscales. At T4, EIBC patients still reported worse physical functioning (P = 0.0001) and general health (P = 0.0017) than controls, possibly due to lingering treatment effects. DCIS patients’ QOL was similar to that of controls two years after diagnosis, but some aspects of EIBC patients’ QOL remained lower.
Breast cancer; ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); early-stage invasive breast cancer; quality of life
Radiation-induced intestinal injuries (RIII) commonly occur in patients who suffer from pelvic or abdominal cancer. However, current management of these injuries is ineffective. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively used in regenerative medicine and have achieved a high level of efficacy. In the present study, we hypothesised that human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAd-MSCs) could be used as potential tools to heal RIII. We observed that adult Sprague–Dawley rats that received whole-abdominal irradiation benefitted from hAd-MSC injection. hAd-MSCs had RIII-healing effects, including anti-inflammation, neovascularisation and maintenance of epithelium homeostasis, as indicated by elevated serum IL-10, upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor in irradiated intestine, mobilisation of CD31-positive haematopoietic stem cells or haematopoietic progenitor cells, and the prolonged presence of Bmi1-positive cells within crypts. Consequently, after hAd-MSC treatment, irradiated rats survived longer than non-treated animals. These results suggest that hAd-MSCs have therapeutic potential for RIII management.
mesenchymal stem cells; human adipose tissue; radiation-induced intestinal injury; cell-based transplantation