The objective of this study was to confirm the biological role of p38γ in human gliomas. The expression profiles of p38γ and hTERT in human glioma samples were detected by Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. RNA interference was performed in U251 cells by p38γ silencing. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed by CCK-8 and flow cytometric analysis, and then RNA and protein expression levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Telomerase activity assays and Caspase-3,-9 activation assays were also conducted. The results showed p38γ had a positive correlation with the glioma's malignancy grade and that the treatment of U251 cells with p38γ-siRNA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Correspondingly, hTERT expression and telomerase activity were down regulated and Caspase-3 and -9 activities were elevated. In conclusion, p38γ may serve as an oncogenic factor promoting the growth and progression of gliomas and may become a useful therapeutic target.
Reconstitution of tumor development in immunodeficient mice from disaggregated primary human tumor cells is always challenging. The main goal of the present study is to establish a reliable assay system that would allow us to reproducibly reconstitute human prostate tumor regeneration in mice using patient tumor-derived single cells. Using many of the 114 untreated primary human prostate cancer (HPCa) samples we have worked on, here we show that: 1) the subcutaneum represents the most sensitive site that allows the grafting of the implanted HPCa pieces; 2) primary HPCa cells by themselves fail to regenerate tumors in immunodeficient hosts; 3) when coinjected in Matrigel with rUGM (rat urogenital sinus mesenchyme), CAF (carcinoma-associated fibroblasts), or Hs5 (immortalized bone marrow derived stromal) cells, primary HPCa cells fail to initiate serially transplantable tumors in NOD/SCID mice; and 4) however, HPCa cells coinjected with the Hs5 cells into more immunodeficient NOD/SCID-IL2Rγ−/− (NSG) mice readily regenerate serially transplantable tumors. The HPCa/Hs5 reconstituted ‘prostate’ tumors present an overall epithelial morphology, are of the human origin, and contain cells positive for AR, CK8, and racemase. Cytogenetic analysis provides further evidence for the presence of karyotypically abnormal HPCa cells in the HPCa/Hs5 tumors. Of importance, HPCa/Hs5 xenograft tumors contain EpCAM+ cells that are both clonogenic and tumorigenic. Surprisingly, all HPCa/Hs5 reconstituted tumors are undifferentiated, even for HPCa cells derived from Gleason 7 tumors. Our results indicate that primary HPCa cells coinjected with the immortalized Hs5 stromal cells generate undifferentiated tumors in NSG mice and we provide evidence that undifferentiated HPCa cells might be the cells that possessed tumorigenic potential and regenerated HPCa/Hs5 xenograft tumors.
Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population.
A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped with inflammatory panel strips containing 51 selected inflammatory gene polymorphisms from 35 candidate genes. We tested the genotype-stroke association with logistic regression model.
We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CCL11 were associated with ischemic stroke. After adjusting for multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) with a 0.20 cut-off point, CCL11 rs4795895 remained statistically significant. We further stratified the study population by their hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, CCR2 rs1799864, CCR5 rs1799987 and CCL11 rs4795895 were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke. In the non-hypertensive group, CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 and CCL11 rs4795895 were associated with ischemic stroke. After correction for multiple testing, CCR2 rs1799864 and CCR5 rs1799987 remained significant in the hypertensive group, and CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 remained significant in the non-hypertensive group.
Our results indicate that inflammatory genetic variants are associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population, particularly in non-hypertensive individuals.
Association study; Hypertension; Inflammatory gene; Ischemic stroke
Cancer cell molecular mimicry of stem cells (SC) imbues neoplastic cells with enhanced proliferative and renewal capacities. In support, numerous mediators of SC self-renewal have been evinced to exhibit oncogenic potential. We have recently reported that shRNA-mediated knockdown of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal gene NANOG significantly reduced the clonogenic and tumorigenic capabilities of various cancer cells. In this study, we sought to test the potential pro-tumorigenic functions of NANOG, particularly, in prostate cancer (PCa). Using quantitative RT-PCR, we first confirmed that PCa cells expressed NANOG mRNA primarily from the NANOGP8 locus on chromosome 15q14. We then constructed a lentiviral promoter reporter in which the -3.8 kb NANOGP8 genomic fragment was used to drive the expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP). We observed that NANOGP8-GFP+ PCa cells exhibited cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics such as enhanced clonal growth and tumor regenerative capacity. To further investigate the functions and mechanisms of NANOG in tumorigenesis, we established tetracycline-inducible NANOG overexpressing cancer cell lines, including both prostate (Du145 and LNCaP) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. NANOG induction promoted drug-resistance in MCF-7 cells, tumor regeneration in Du145 cells, and, most importantly, castration-resistant tumor development in LNCaP cells. These pro-tumorigenic effects of NANOG were associated with key molecular changes, including an upregulation of molecules such as CXCR4, IGFBP5, CD133 and ALDH1. The present gain-of-function studies, coupled with our recent loss-of-function work, establish the integral role for NANOG in neoplastic processes and shed light on its mechanisms of action.
Nanog; prostate cancer; cancer stem cells; castration resistance; self-renewal
This study investigated the associations of plasma leptin levels with insulin resistance (IR) and prediabetes in relatively lean, rural Chinese men and women.
Design and methods
This study included 574 subjects aged 21–45 years from a community-based twin cohort. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by sandwich immunoassays using flowemetric xMAP technology. Prediabetes was defined based on fasting plasma glucose and 75g oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate gender-specific associations of leptin with IR measures and prediabetes, adjusting for intra-twin correlation, measures of adiposity, and other pertinent covariates.
The body mass index(BMI) is 22.3±2.7 kg/m2 in men and 22.5±2.7 kg/m2 in women. Leptin levels were positively associated with IR. Individuals with higher tertiles of leptin also had increased risk of prediabetes with OR of 2.6 (95%CI: 1.4–5.1) and 4.3 (95%CI: 2.1–8.7) in men; OR of 1.1 (95%CI: 0.6–2.1) and 3.1 (95%CI 1.5–6.2) in women for 2nd and 3rd tertile, respectively. These associations were attenuated after further adjusting for adiposity measurements only in men. The Leptin-prediabetes associations disappeared after adjusting for the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in both genders.
In this sample of relatively lean rural Chinese adults, plasma leptin levels were associated with IR and prediabetes in a dose-response fashion, which were not totally explained by adiposity. Our data underscored that prediabetes is not all about obesity, and leptin may be an additional biomarker for screening individuals at high risk for prediabetes in this population.
Leptin; insulin resistance; prediabetes; Chinese
Chronic pain is a major health concern that affects millions of people. There are no adequate long-term therapies for chronic pain sufferers, leading to significant cost for both society and the individual. The most commonly used therapy for chronic pain is the application of opioid analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but these drugs can lead to addiction and may cause side effects. Further studies of the mechanisms of chronic pain have opened the way for development of new treatment strategies, one of which is gene therapy. The key to gene therapy is selecting safe and highly efficient gene delivery systems that can deliver therapeutic genes to overexpress or suppress relevant targets in specific cell types. Here we review several promising viral vectors that could be applied in gene transfer for the treatment of chronic pain and further discuss the possible mechanisms of genes of interest that could be delivered with viral vectors for the treatment of chronic pain.
Mutations in GJB2 are the most common molecular defects responsible for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (NSHI). The mutation spectra of this gene vary among different ethnic groups.
In order to understand the spectrum and frequency of GJB2 mutations in the Chinese population, the coding region of the GJB2 gene from 2063 unrelated patients with NSHI was PCR amplified and sequenced.
A total of 23 pathogenic mutations were identified. Among them, five (p.W3X, c.99delT, c.155_c.158delTCTG, c.512_c.513insAACG, and p.Y152X) are novel. Three hundred and seven patients carry two confirmed pathogenic mutations, including 178 homozygotes and 129 compound heterozygotes. One hundred twenty five patients carry only one mutant allele. Thus, GJB2 mutations account for 17.9% of the mutant alleles in 2063 NSHI patients. Overall, 92.6% (684/739) of the pathogenic mutations are frame-shift truncation or nonsense mutations. The four prevalent mutations; c.235delC, c.299_c.300delAT, c.176_c.191del16, and c.35delG, account for 88.0% of all mutantalleles identified. The frequency of GJB2 mutations (alleles) varies from 4% to 30.4% among different regions of China. It also varies among different sub-ethnic groups.
In some regions of China, testing of the three most common mutations can identify at least one GJB2 mutant allele in all patients. In other regions such as Tibet, the three most common mutations account for only 16% the GJB2 mutant alleles. Thus, in this region, sequencing of GJB2 would be recommended. In addition, the etiology of more than 80% of the mutant alleles for NSHI in China remains to be identified. Analysis of other NSHI related genes will be necessary.
To identify novel small compound inhibitor of p53 protein.
Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were tested. Cell proliferation rate was determined using a Cell Proliferation Kit. The mRNA and protein levels of p53-related genes were measured using real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Global response in the p53 signaling network was analyzed using Illumina whole-genome expression BeadChips.
Treatment of MEF cells with a small molecule 1,4-bis-[4-(3-phenoxy-propoxy)-but-2-ynyl]-piperazine (G5) at 10 μmol/L for 24 h markedly reduced the mRNA and protein levels of the p53 downstream genes MDM2 and p21. In G5-treated ES cells, a total of 372 differentially expressed genes were identified, and 18 among them were direct downstream genes of p53; 6 out of 9 p53-repressed genes were upregulated, and 5 out of 9 p53-activated genes were downregulated. In both MEF cells and ES cells, treatment of with G5 (10 μmol/L) up to 48 h neither affected the proliferation rate nor caused morphological alterations.
G5 inhibits p53 activity and simultaneously preserves the normal growth and proliferation of cells, therefore is a new compound for studies of p53-mediated cell manipulation.
1,4-bis-[4-(3-phenoxy-propoxy)-but-2-ynyl]-piperazine; tumor suppressor protein; p53; p53 inhibitor; embryonic fibroblast; embryonic stem cell; proliferation
There are no available clinical tests that can accurately predict peanut allergy (PA) and/or anaphylaxis. This study is aimed at evaluating whether the component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) IgE and IgG4 tests can 1) distinguish PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization; and 2) differentiate anaphylactic vs. non-anaphylactic PA.
This study included 20 non-atopic controls, 58 asymptomatically peanut-sensitized children, 55 non-anaphylactic and 53 anaphylactic PA cases from the Chicago Food Allergy Study. IgE and IgG4 to 103 allergens were measured using the ImmunoCAP ISAC technology, and were compared among each group of children. The random forest test was applied to estimate each allergen’s ability to predict PA and/or peanut anaphylaxis.
PA cases (with or without anaphylaxis) had significantly higher IgE reactivity to Ara h 1–3 (peanut allergens) and Gly m 5–6 (soy allergens) than asymptomatically-sensitized children (p<0.00001). Similar but more modest relationships were found for IgG4 to Ara h 2 (p<0.01). IgE to Ara h 2 was the major contributor to accurate discrimination between PA and asymptomatic sensitization. With an optimal cutoff point of 0.65 ISU-E, it conferred 99.1% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, and a 1.2% misclassification rate in the prediction of PA, which represented a higher discriminative accuracy than IgE to whole peanut extract (p=0.008). However, none of the IgE and/or IgG4 tests could significantly differentiate peanut anaphylaxis from non-anaphylactic PA.
IgE to Ara h 2 can efficiently differentiate clinical PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization, which may represent a major step forward in the diagnosis of PA.
Ara h 2; Component-resolved diagnostics; Diagnostic performance; Peanut allergy; Peanut anaphylaxis
Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells) by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II) that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) poses a serious public health problem worldwide. Effective prevention and intervention require improved understanding of the factors that contribute to MS. We analyzed data on a large twin cohort to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to MS and to major MS components and their inter-correlations: waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. We applied structural equation modeling to determine genetic and environmental structure of MS and its major components, using 1,617 adult female twin pairs recruited from rural China. The heritability estimate for MS was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.00–0.83) in this sample with low MS prevalence (4.4%). For MS components, heritability estimates were statistically significant and ranged from 0.13 to 0.64 highest for WC, followed by TG, SBP, DBP, HDL-C, and FPG. HDL-C was mainly influenced by common environmental factors (0.62, 95%CI: 0.58–0.62), while the other five MS components were largely influenced by unique environmental factors (0.32–0.44). Bivariate Cholesky decomposition analysis indicated that the clinical clustering of MS components may be explained by shared genetic and/or environmental factors. Our study underscores the importance of examining MS components as inter-correlated traits, and to carefully consider environmental and genetic factors in studying MS etiology.
metabolic syndrome; twin study; heritability; Chinese
Whole-heart coronary MR angiography (MRA) is a promising method for non-invasive, radiation-free detection and exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the required imaging time and robustness of the technique are not yet satisfactory. We evaluated the value of whole-heart coronary MRA at 3.0T using a 32-channal cardiac coil, which reduces image acquisition times and hence allows to increase the clinical throughput.
Methods and Results
A total of 110 consecutive patients with suspected CAD referred for clinically indicated conventional coronary angiography were included in this prospective study. 32-channel receiver coils were used for 3.0T coronary MRA data acquisition. An ECG-triggered, navigator-gated, inversion-recovery prepared, segmented gradient-echo sequence was used for image acquisition with an acceleration factor of three in the phase-encoding direction using GRAPPA reconstruction. Acquisition of coronary MRA was successfully completed in 101 of 110 (92%) patients with average imaging time of 7.0 ± 1.8 min. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of coronary MRA on a patient-based analysis were 95.9% (47/49, 95% CI: 86.0% to 99.4%), 86.5% (45/52, 95% CI, 74.2% to 94.4%), 87.0% (47/54, 95% CI, 75.1% to 94.6%) and 95.7% (45/47, 95% CI, 85.4% to 99.4%), respectively.
Whole-heart coronary MRA at 3.0 T using a 32-channal cardiac coil allows high overall accuracy for detecting significant CAD with reduced imaging time. It has potential to be a robust and alternative technique for ruling out significant CAD.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: http://www.chictr.org. Unique identifier: ChiCTR-DDT-07000121.
magnetic resonance angiography; coronary arteries; 3.0 T
To evaluate associations between adiposity trajectories over time and insulin sensitivity and glucose deterioration in a Chinese twin cohort.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This study focused on 341 males and 292 females aged 20–50 years at baseline who had physical clinical examinations and oral glucose tolerance test at two time points with an average of 6 years apart. BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat (PBF), and percent trunk fat (PTF) trajectories were classified into five track groups based on age- and sex-specific tertiles at each visit. We calculated the odds of the insulin sensitivity index(0,120) [ISI(0,120)] or glycemic deterioration at follow-up among five defined trajectories (tertilebaseline → tertilefollow-up) using generalized estimate equation models. Additionally, we applied structural equation models to examine genetic and environmental influences on adiposity, adiposity change over time (ACO), ISI(0,120), and the interrelationships among them.
Participants with stable adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, PBF, and PTF) in the highest tertile or shifting to the highest tertile tended to have the lowest ISI(0,120) at follow-up or experience glycemic deterioration. Genetic factors exerted the major influence on adiposity, but environmental factors unique to each twin contributed more strongly to ISI and ACO. Correlations between adiposity/ACO and insulin sensitivity were mainly due to environmental influences.
When adiposity stays or becomes high, insulin sensitivity falls and risk of glycemic deterioration rises. Additionally, we found that genetic factors exerted the major influence on adiposity, while environmental factors played the principal role for ACO and insulin sensitivity.
The extracellular matrix of epithelial tumors undergoes structural remodeling during periods of uncontrolled growth, creating regional heterogeneity and torsional stress. How matrix integrity is maintained in the face of dynamic biophysical forces is largely undefined. Here we investigated the role of fibulin-2, a matrix glycoprotein that functions biomechanically as an inter-molecular clasp and thereby facilitates supra-molecular assembly. Fibulin-2 was abundant in the extracellular matrix of human lung adenocarcinomas and was highly expressed in tumor cell lines derived from mice that develop metastatic lung adenocarcinoma from co-expression of mutant K-ras and p53. Loss-of-function experiments in tumor cells revealed that fibulin-2 was required for tumor cells to grow and metastasize in syngeneic mice, a surprising finding given that other intra-tumoral cell types are known to secrete fibulin-2. However, tumor cells grew and metastasized equally well in Fbln2-null and -wild-type littermates, implying that malignant progression was dependent specifically upon tumor cell-derived fibulin-2, which could not be offset by other cellular sources of fibulin-2. Fibulin-2 deficiency impaired the ability of tumor cells to migrate and invade in Boyden chambers, to create a stiff extracellular matrix in mice, to cross-link secreted collagen, and to adhere to collagen. We conclude that fibulin-2 is a driver of malignant progression in lung adenocarcinoma and plays an unexpected role in collagen cross-linking and tumor cell adherence to collagen.
Prenatal development and early childhood are critical periods for establishing the tissue-specific epigenome, and may have a profound impact on health and disease in later life. However, epigenomic profiles at birth and in early childhood remain largely unexplored. The focus of this report is to examine the individual variation and longitudinal pattern of genome-wide DNA methylation levels from birth through the first two years of life in 105 Black children (59 males and 46 females) enrolled at the Boston Medical Center. We performed epigenomic mapping of cord blood at birth and venous blood samples from the same set of children within the first two years of life using Illumina Infinium Humanmethylation27 BeadChip. We observed a wide range of inter-individual variations in genome-wide methylation at each time point including lower levels at CpG islands, TSS200, 5′UTR and 1st Exon locations, but significantly higher levels in CpG shores, shelves, TSS1500, gene body and 3′UTR. We identified CpG sites with significant intra-individual longitudinal changes in the first two years of life throughout the genome. Specifically, we identified 159 CpG sites in males and 149 CpG sites in females with significant longitudinal changes defined by both statistical significance and magnitude of changes. These significant CpG sites appeared to be located within genes with important biological functions including immunity and inflammation. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings, including analysis by specific cell types, and link those individual variations and longitudinal changes with specific health outcomes in early childhood and later life.
CpG; DIP test; DNA Methylation; empirical bayes; genome-wide; normal mixture
Neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), are promising therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the application of GDNF to treat these diseases effectively is limited because the blood–brain barrier (BBB) prevents the local delivery of macromolecular therapeutic agents from entering the central nervous system (CNS). Focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles (MBs) using appropriate parameters has been previously demonstrated to be able to open the BBB locally and noninvasively. This study investigated the targeted delivery of GDNF MBs through the BBB by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound. Evans Blue extravasation and histological examination were used to determine the optimum focused ultrasound parameters. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify the effects of GDNF bound on MBs using a biotin–avidin bridging chemistry method to promote GDNF delivery into the brain. The results showed that GDNF can be delivered locally and noninvasively into the CNS through the BBB using MRI-guided focused ultrasound combined with MBs under optimum parameters. MBs that bind GDNF combined with MRI-guided focused ultrasound may be an effective way of delivering neurotrophic factors directly into the CNS. The method described herein provides a potential means of treating patients with CNS diseases.
Src plays various roles in tumour progression, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and survival. It is one of the multiple targets of multi-target kinase inhibitors in clinical uses and trials for the treatment of leukemia and other cancers. These successes and appearances of drug resistance in some patients have raised significant interest and efforts in discovering new Src inhibitors. Various in-silico methods have been used in some of these efforts. It is desirable to explore additional in-silico methods, particularly those capable of searching large compound libraries at high yields and reduced false-hit rates.
We evaluated support vector machines (SVM) as virtual screening tools for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries. SVM trained and tested by 1,703 inhibitors and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 93.53%~ 95.01% inhibitors and 99.81%~ 99.90% non-inhibitors in 5-fold cross validation studies. SVM trained by 1,703 inhibitors reported before 2011 and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 70.45% of the 44 inhibitors reported since 2011, and predicted as inhibitors 44,843 (0.33%) of 13.56M PubChem, 1,496 (0.89%) of 168 K MDDR, and 719 (7.73%) of 9,305 MDDR compounds similar to the known inhibitors.
SVM showed comparable yield and reduced false hit rates in searching large compound libraries compared to the similarity-based and other machine-learning VS methods developed from the same set of training compounds and molecular descriptors. We tested three virtual hits of the same novel scaffold from in-house chemical libraries not reported as Src inhibitor, one of which showed moderate activity. SVM may be potentially explored for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries at low false-hit rates.
Src; c-src; Computer aided drug design; Kinase inhibitor; Virtual screening; Support vector machine
It has been hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) contributes to the development of food sensitization (FS) and then food allergy. However, the epidemiological evidence is conflicting. We aim to examine if cord blood VDD is associated with FS and if such association can be modified by genetic variants in a prospective birth cohort.
This study included 649 children who were enrolled at birth and followed from birth onward at the Boston Medical Center. We defined VDD as cord blood 25(OH)D < 11ng/ml, and FS as specific IgE ≥ 0.35kUA/L to any of eight common food allergens in early childhood. We genotyped potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes known to be involved in regulating IgE and 25(OH)D concentrations. Logistic regressions were used to test the effects of VDD on FS individually and jointly with SNPs.
Among the 649 children, 44% had VDD and 37% had FS. When examined alone, VDD was not associated with FS. When examined jointly with SNPs, a significant interaction between IL4 gene polymorphism (rs2243250) and VDD (pinteraction=0.003, pFDR=0.10) was found: VDD increased the risk of FS among children carrying CC/CT genotypes (OR=1.79, 95%CI: 1.15–2.77). Similar but weaker interactions were observed for SNPs in MS4A2 (rs512555), FCER1G (rs2070901), and CYP24A1 (rs2762934). When all four SNPs were simultaneously considered, a strong gene-VDD interaction was evident (pinteraction=9×10−6).
Our data demonstrate that VDD may increase the risk of FS among individuals with certain genotypes, providing evidence of gene-vitamin D interaction on FS.
cord blood plasma 25(OH)D; food sensitization; gene-vitamin D deficiency interaction; SNP
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a disease with high morbidity, high disability rate, high mortality, and high economic burden. Whether patients can benefit from surgical evacuation of hematomas is still controversial, especially for those with moderate-volume hematomas in the basal ganglia. This study is designed to compare the efficacy of endoscopic surgery and conservative treatment for the moderate-volume hematoma in spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage.
Patients meet the criteria will be randomized into the endoscopic surgery group (endoscopic surgery for hematoma evacuation and the best medical treatment) or the conservative treatment group (the best medical treatment). Patients will be followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months after initial treatment. The primary outcomes include the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale. The secondary outcomes consist of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the mortality. The Barthel Index(BI) will also be evaluated. The sample size is 100 patients.
The ECMOH trial is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate if endoscopic surgery is better than conservative treatment for patients with moderate-volume hematomas in the basal ganglia.
Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-11001614
Endoscopic surgery; Conservative treatment; Moderate-volume hematoma; Spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most lethal lesions associated with genome stability, which, when destabilized, predisposes organs to cancers. DSBs are primarily fixed either with little fidelity by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair or with high fidelity by homology-directed repair (HDR). The phosphorylated form of H2AX on serine 139 (γ-H2AX) is a marker of DSBs. In this study, we explored if the protein phosphatase PP6 is involved in DSB repair by depletion of its expression in human cancer cell lines, and determined PP6 expression in human breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry staining. We found that bacterially produced PP6c (the catalytic subunit of PP6)-containing heterotrimeric combinations exhibit phosphatase activity against γ-H2AX in the in vitro phosphatase assays. Depletion of PP6c or PP6R2 led to persistent high levels of γ-H2AX after DNA damage and a defective HDR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that PP6c was recruited to the region adjacent to the DSB sites. Expression of PP6c, PP6R2 and PP6R3 in human breast tumors was significantly lower than those in benign breast diseases. Taken together, our results suggest that γ-H2AX is a physiological substrate of PP6 and PP6 is required for HDR and its expression may harbor a protective role during the development of breast cancer.
protein phosphatase; PP6; γ-H2AX; DNA double-strand break; homology-directed repair
It is important to develop novel antipsychotics that can effectively treat schizophrenia with minor side-effects. The aim of our work is to develop novel antipsychotics that act on dopamine D2 and D3, serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors with low affinity for the serotonin 5-HT2C and H1 receptors, which can effectively cure positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive impairment without the weight gain side-effect.
A series of 2-substituted-5-thiopropylpiperazine (piperidine) -1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives have been synthesized and the target compounds were evaluated for binding affinities to D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Preliminary results indicated that compounds 14, 16 and 22 exhibited high affinities to D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors among these compounds. Further binding tests showed that compound 22 had high affinity for D3 receptor, and low affinity for serotonin 5-HT2C and H1 receptors. In addition, compound 22 inhibited apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and MK-801-induced hyperactivity with no extrapyramidal symptoms liability in mice. Moreover, compound 22 exhibited acceptable pharmacokinetic properties.
Compound 22 showed an atypical antipsychotic activity without liability for extrapyramidal symptoms. We anticipate compound 22 to be useful for developing a novel class of drug for the treatment of schizophrenia.
In this work, we conducted functional analysis of Arabidopsis HRS1 gene in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms governing seed germination. Compared with wild type (WT) control, HRS1 knockout mutant (hrs1-1) exhibited significant germination delays on either normal medium or those supplemented with abscisic acid (ABA) or sodium chloride (NaCl), with the magnitude of the delay being substantially larger on the latter media. The hypersensitivity of hrs1-1 germination to ABA and NaCl required ABI3, ABI4 and ABI5, and was aggravated in the double mutant hrs1-1abi1-2 and triple mutant hrs1-1hab1-1abi1-2, indicating that HRS1 acts as a negative regulator of ABA signaling during seed germination. Consistent with this notion, HRS1 expression was found in the embryo axis, and was regulated both temporally and spatially, during seed germination. Further analysis showed that the delay of hrs1-1 germination under normal conditions was associated with reduction in the elongation of the cells located in the lower hypocotyl (LH) and transition zone (TZ) of embryo axis. Interestingly, the germination rate of hrs1-1 was more severely reduced by the inhibitor of cell elongation, and more significantly decreased by the suppressors of plasmalemma H+-ATPase activity, than that of WT control. The plasmalemma H+-ATPase activity in the germinating seeds of hrs1-1 was substantially lower than that exhibited by WT control, and fusicoccin, an activator of this pump, corrected the transient germination delay of hrs1-1. Together, our data suggest that HRS1 may be needed for suppressing ABA signaling in germinating embryo axis, which promotes the timely germination of Arabidopsis seeds probably by facilitating the proper function of plasmalemma H+-ATPase and the efficient elongation of LH and TZ cells.
Both long and short sleep duration have been associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. However, there have been no previous studies investigating the potential relationship between altered sleep duration and allergen sensitization.
To explore the association between sleep duration and sensitization to food and aeroallergens.
This study includes 1534 rural Chinese adolescent twins aged 12 to 21 years who completed standard sleep questionnaires and skin prick tests (SPTs) to 9 food and 5 aeroallergens. Total sleep time was defined as the interval from bedtime to wake-up time minus sleep latency. Sensitization was defined as having at least one positive SPT.
Compared to individuals with the highest (3rd) tertile of sleep duration, those who slept less were more likely to be sensitized to any food allergen with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval(CI):1.3–2.7) and 1.4 (95%CI:1.0–1.9) for the 1st and 2nd tertiles (trend test Ptrend=3×10−4), respectively. The corresponding ORs for sensitization to any aeroallergen were 1.5 (95%CI: 1.1–2.0) and 1.3 (95%CI:1.0–1.7) (Ptrend=8×10−3). These associations were independent of percent body fat. In addition, we observed a significant dose-response association between the number of positive SPTs and percentage of shortest sleep duration (1st tertile) (Ptrend=1×10−3).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
In this sample of relatively lean rural Chinese adolescents, we found that short sleep duration was associated with increased risk of sensitization to food and aeroallergens, independent of percent body fat. Longitudinal studies are needed to further determine the temporal and causal relationships. If short sleep duration indeed is one of the risk factors for allergic sensitization, the global burden of allergic diseases could be dramatically reduced by providing appropriate guidance on sleep duration for youth.
sleep duration; skin prick test; allergen; sensitization; adolescent
Myxococcus fulvus HW-1 (ATCC BAA-855) is a halotolerant marine myxobacterium. This strain exhibits complex social behaviors in the presence of low concentrations of seawater but adopts an asocial living pattern under oceanic conditions. The whole genome of M. fulvus HW-1 will enable us to further investigate the details of its evolution.
Theranostic platform integrating diagnostic imaging and therapeutic function into a single system has become a new direction of nanoparticle research. In the process of treatment, therapeutic efficacy is monitored. The use of theranostic nanoparticle can add an additional "layer" to keep track on the therapeutic agent such as the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. In this report, we have developed quantum rod (QR) based formulations for the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to human neuronal cells. PEGlyated QRs with different surface functional groups (amine and maleimide) were designed for selectively down-regulating the dopaminergic signaling pathway which is associated with the drug abuse behavior. We have demonstrated that the DARPP-32 siRNAs were successfully delivered to dopaminergic neuronal (DAN) cells which led to drastic knockdown of specific gene expression by both the electrostatic and covalent bond conjugation regimes. The PEGlyated surface offered high biocompatibilities and negligible cytotoxicities to the QR formulations that may facilitate the in vivo applications of these nanoparticles.
Quantum Rod; Gene Delivery; Addiction Gene Therapy; Phospholipid; PEG; siRNA.