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1.  Alcohol consumption in 0.5 million people from 10 diverse regions of China: prevalence, patterns and socio-demographic and health-related correlates 
Millwood, Iona Y | Li, Liming | Smith, Margaret | Guo, Yu | Yang, Ling | Bian, Zheng | Lewington, Sarah | Whitlock, Gary | Sherliker, Paul | Collins, Rory | Chen, Junshi | Peto, Richard | Wang, Hongmei | Xu, Jiujiu | He, Jian | Yu, Min | Liu, Huilin | Chen, Zhengming | Li, Liming | Chen, Zhengming | Chen, Junshi | Collins, Rory | Wu, Fan | Peto, Richard | Chen, Zhengming | Lancaster, Garry | Yang, Xiaoming | Williams, Alex | Smith, Margaret | Yang, Ling | Chang, Yumei | Millwood, Iona | Chen, Yiping | Zhang, Qiuli | Lewington, Sarah | Whitlock, Gary | Guo, Yu | Zhao, Guoqing | Bian, Zheng | Wu, Lixue | Hou, Can | Pang, Zengchang | Wang, Shaojie | Zhang, Yun | Zhang, Kui | Liu, Silu | Zhao, Zhonghou | Liu, Shumei | Pang, Zhigang | Feng, Weijia | Wu, Shuling | Yang, Liqiu | Han, Huili | He, Hui | Pan, Xianhai | Wang, Shanqing | Wang, Hongmei | Hao, Xinhua | Chen, Chunxing | Lin, Shuxiong | Hu, Xiaoshu | Zhou, Minghao | Wu, Ming | Wang, Yeyuan | Hu, Yihe | Ma, Liangcai | Zhou, Renxian | Xu, Guanqun | Dong, Baiqing | Chen, Naying | Huang, Ying | Li, Mingqiang | Meng, Jinhuai | Gan, Zhigao | Xu, Jiujiu | Liu, Yun | Wu, Xianping | Gao, Yali | Zhang, Ningmei | Luo, Guojin | Que, Xiangsan | Chen, Xiaofang | Ge, Pengfei | He, Jian | Ren, Xiaolan | Zhang, Hui | Mao, Enke | Li, Guanzhong | Li, Zhongxiao | He, Jun | Liu, Guohua | Zhu, Baoyu | Zhou, Gang | Feng, Shixian | Gao, Yulian | He, Tianyou | Jiang, Li | Qin, Jianhua | Sun, Huarong | Liu, Liqun | Yu, Min | Chen, Yaping | Hu, Zhixiang | Hu, Jianjin | Qian, Yijian | Wu, Zhiying | Chen, Lingli | Liu, Wen | Li, Guangchun | Liu, Huilin | Long, Xiangquan | Xiong, Youping | Tan, Zhongwen | Xie, Xuqiu | Peng, Yunfang
Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited.
Methods During 2004–08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30–79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately.
Results Overall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286 g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of all men) reported weekly heavy drinking episodes, with the prevalence highest in younger men. Drinking alcohol was positively correlated with regular smoking, blood pressure and heart rate. Among male weekly drinkers, each 20 g/day alcohol consumed was associated with 2 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure. Potential indicators of problem drinking were reported by 24% of male weekly drinkers.
Conclusion The prevalence and patterns of drinking in China differ greatly by age, sex and geographical region. Alcohol consumption is associated with a number of unfavourable health behaviours and characteristics.
doi:10.1093/ije/dyt078
PMCID: PMC3733702  PMID: 23918852
Alcohol; drinking; cohort study; descriptive analysis; China
2.  Rotenone Induction of Hydrogen Peroxide Inhibits mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1/eIF4E Pathways, Leading to Neuronal Apoptosis 
Toxicological Sciences  2014;143(1):81-96.
Rotenone, a common pesticide and inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, induces loss of dopaminergic neurons and consequential aspects of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the exact mechanism of rotenone neurotoxicity is not fully elucidated. Here, we show that rotenone induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells and primary neurons. Pretreatment with catalase (CAT), a hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme, attenuated rotenone-induced ROS and neuronal apoptosis, implying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) involved, which was further verified by imaging intracellular H2O2 using a peroxide-selective probe H2DCFDA. Using thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, or Mito-TEMPO, we further demonstrated rotenone-induced mitochondrial H2O2-dependent neuronal apoptosis. Rotenone dramatically inhibited mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1, which was also attenuated by CAT in the neuronal cells. Of interest, ectopic expression of wild-type mTOR or constitutively active S6K1, or downregulation of 4E-BP1 partially prevented rotenone-induced H2O2 and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we noticed that rotenone-induced H2O2 was linked to the activation of caspase-3 pathway. This was evidenced by the finding that pretreatment with CAT partially blocked rotenone-induced cleavages of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Of note, zVAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor, only partially prevented rotenone-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and primary neurons. Expression of mTOR-wt, S6K1-ca, or silencing 4E-BP1 potentiated zVAD-fmk protection against rotenone-induced apoptosis in the cells. The results indicate that rotenone induction of H2O2 inhibits mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1/eIF4E pathways, resulting in caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis in neuronal cells. Our findings suggest that rotenone-induced neuronal loss in PD may be prevented by activating mTOR signaling and/or administering antioxidants.
doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfu211
PMCID: PMC4274383  PMID: 25304210
rotenone; hydrogen peroxide; mammalian target of rapamycin; neuronal cells; apoptosis; Parkinson’s disease
3.  Establishment of using serum YKL-40 and SCCA in combination for the diagnosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:490.
Background
Elevated serum YKL-40 levels have been observed in various cancers. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of serum YKL-40 alone or in combination with the CEA, CYFRA21-1 and SCCA tumor markers for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Methods
YKL-40 was detected in ESCC cell lines and tissues by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA. YKL-40 protein expression was determined in 20 ESCC tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry. Serum YKL-40 was measured by ELISA in 126 healthy donors, 59 patients with benign esophageal diseases and 150 patients with ESCC. Serum CEA, CYFRA21-1 and SCCA were determined by electrochemiluminescence.
Results
YKL-40 mRNA and protein were observed in ESCC cancer cell lines, tissues and cell culture media, respectively. YKL-40 expression was observed in 17 of 20 ESCC samples (85%). Serum YKL-40 concentration was significantly elevated in patients with ESCC (Range: 6.95-502.10 ng/ml) compared with patients with benign diseases (Range: 1.21-429.30 ng/ml; P = 0.038) and healthy controls (Range: 2.56-132.26 ng/ml; P < 0.001). ROC curves demonstrated that serum YKL-40 has a sensitivity of 72.70%, a specificity of 84.13% and an AUC of 0.874 for the diagnosis of ESCC, which was superior to CEA (Sen: 8.00%; Spe: 96.80%, AUC = 0.652), CYFRA21-1 (Sen: 40.00%; Spe: 92.06%, AUC = 0.746) and SCCA (Sen: 32.67%; Spe: 94.44%, AUC = 0.789). The YKL-40 and SCCA combination was better for diagnosing ESCC (Sen: 82.00%, Spe: 79.37%, PPV: 82.55 and NPV: 78.74; AUC = 0.917) than the YKL-40 and CEA combination (Sen: 74.00%, Spe: 83.20%, PPV: 84.09 and NPV: 72.73; AUC = 0.877), the YKL-40 and CYFRA21-1 combination (Sen: 82.00%, Spe: 77.78%, PPV: 81.46% and NPV: 78.40%; AUC = 0.897) or the CEA, CYFRA21-1 and SCCA combination (Sen: 56.67%, Spe: 84.80%, PPV: 81.73 and NPV: 61.99; AUC = 0.831). Associations between serum YKL-40 levels and the clinic characteristics of ESCC were not significant, with the exception of age (p = 0.001).
Conclusions
ESCC tumor cells and tissues express YKL-40. Serum YKL-40 may be a potential biomarker for ESCC. Serum YKL-40 in combination with SCCA significantly increases the sensitivity of detecting ESCC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-490
PMCID: PMC4094903  PMID: 25001061
YKL-40; Esophageal cancer; ESCC
4.  Crosstalk between Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial H2O2 is required for rotenone inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway leading to neuronal apoptosis 
Oncotarget  2016;7(7):7534-7549.
Rotenone, a neurotoxic pesticide, induces loss of dopaminergic neurons related to Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown that rotenone induces neuronal apoptosis partly by triggering hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent suppression of mTOR pathway. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that rotenone elevates intracellular free calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) level, and activates CaMKII, resulting in inhibition of mTOR signaling and induction of neuronal apoptosis. Chelating [Ca2+]i with BAPTA/AM, preventing extracellular Ca2+ influx using EGTA, inhibiting CaMKII with KN93, or silencing CaMKII significantly attenuated rotenone-induced H2O2 production, mTOR inhibition, and cell death. Interestingly, using TTFA, antimycin A, catalase or Mito-TEMPO, we found that rotenone-induced mitochondrial H2O2 also in turn elevated [Ca2+]i level, thereby stimulating CaMKII, leading to inhibition of mTOR pathway and induction of neuronal apoptosis. Expression of wild type mTOR or constitutively active S6K1, or silencing 4E-BP1 strengthened the inhibitory effects of catalase, Mito-TEMPO, BAPTA/AM or EGTA on rotenone-induced [Ca2+]i elevation, CaMKII phosphorylation and neuronal apoptosis. Together, the results indicate that the crosstalk between Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial H2O2 is required for rotenone inhibition of mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1 pathways. Our findings suggest that how to control over-elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and overproduction of mitochondrial H2O2 may be a new approach to deal with the neurotoxicity of rotenone.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.7183
PMCID: PMC4884936  PMID: 26859572
rotenone; apoptosis; calcium ion; CaMKII; H2O2; mTOR; Pathology
5.  Biomarkers of Rheumatoid Arthritis–Associated Interstitial Lung Disease 
Objective
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a relatively common extraarticular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that contributes significantly to disease burden and excess mortality. The purpose of this study was to identify peripheral blood markers of RA-associated ILD that can facilitate earlier diagnosis and provide insight regarding the pathogenesis of this potentially devastating disease complication.
Methods
Patients with RA who were enrolled in a well-characterized Chinese identification cohort or a US replication cohort were subclassified as having RA–no ILD, RA–mild ILD, or RA–advanced ILD, based on high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest. Multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and Luminex xMAP technology were used to assess 36 cytokines/chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and acute-phase proteins in the identification cohort. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to quantify the strength of association between RA-ILD and biomarkers of interest.
Results
MMP-7 and interferon-γ–inducible protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10 were identified by multiplex ELISA as potential biomarkers for RA-ILD in 133 RA patients comprising the Chinese identification cohort (50 RA–no ILD, 41 RA-ILD, 42 RA–indeterminate ILD). The findings were confirmed by standard solid-phase sandwich ELISA in the Chinese identification cohort as well as an independent cohort of US patients with RA and different stages of ILD (22 RA–no ILD, 49 RA-ILD, 15 RA–indeterminate ILD), with statistically significant associations in both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses.
Conclusion
Levels of MMP-7 and IP-10/CXCL10 are elevated in the serum of RA patients with ILD, whether mild or advanced, supporting their value as pathogenically relevant biomarkers that can contribute to noninvasive detection of this extraarticular disease complication.
doi:10.1002/art.38904
PMCID: PMC4624107  PMID: 25302945
6.  Progranulin-Derived Atsttrin Directly Binds to TNFRSF25 (DR3) and Inhibits TNF-Like Ligand 1A (TL1A) Activity 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92743.
Atsttrin, a progranulin (PGRN)-derived molecule composed of three TNFR-binding domains of PGRN, binds to TNF receptors (TNFR) and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis. Here we screened the associations of Atsttrin and other members in TNFR subfamily, which led to the discovery of TNFRSF25 (DR3) as an additional Atsttrin-interacting member in TNFR family. Similar to TNFR1 and TNFR2, DR3 also directly bound to Atsttrin. The first three cysteine-rich domains (CRD) in the extracellular portion of DR3 were required for this interaction. Atsttrin inhibited the interaction between DR3 and its TNF-Like Ligand 1A (TL1A). In addition, Atsttrin inhibited TL1A-stimulated target gene expressions and neutralized TL1A-enhanced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Furthermore, Atsttrin ameliorated the pathology in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Taken together, these findings not only provide the new insights into Atsttrin's therapeutic action in inflammatory arthritis, but may also present Atsttrin as a novel biological agent for treating various types of diseases associated with TL1A/DR3 pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092743
PMCID: PMC3961393  PMID: 24651300
7.  Endosonography-Assisted Diagnosis and Therapy of Gastrointestinal Submucosal Tumors 
Endoscopic Ultrasound  2013;2(3):125-133.
Submucosal tumors (SMTs) are usually discovered fortuitously during routine endoscopy, including various non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered to be the best imaging procedure to characterize SMTs and to determine the need for further treatment. In this review, the following issues will be addressed: The role of EUS in diagnosis for SMTs, tissue diagnosis for SMTs and the influence of EUS on endoscopic resection techniques for SMTs.
doi:10.7178/eus.06.003
PMCID: PMC4062264  PMID: 24949380
Endoscopic ultrasound; submucosal tumor; gastrointestinal; diagnosis; therapy
8.  TIM-4 promotes the growth of non-small-cell lung cancer in a RGD motif-dependent manner 
British Journal of Cancer  2015;113(10):1484-1492.
Background:
T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 4 (TIM-4) is exclusively expressed in antigen-presenting cells and involved in immune regulation. However, the role of TIM-4 expressed in tumour cells remains completely unknown.
Methods:
Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine TIM-4 or Ki-67 expression in tumour tissues. Real-time PCR or RT-PCR was performed to detect TIM-4 mRNA expression. Lung cancer cell growth and proliferation were conducted by CCK-8 assay and EdU staining. Cell cycle progression was analysed by flow cytometry. The PCNA and cell cycle-related proteins were verified by western blot. Co-IP assay was used to identify the interaction of TIM-4 and integrin αvβ3. The efficacy of TIM-4 in vivo was evaluated using xenograft tumour model.
Results:
The expression of TIM-4 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues was significantly higher than that of the adjacent tissues. Enhanced TIM-4 expression was negatively correlated with histological differentiation of lung carcinoma and lifespan of patients. Overexpression of TIM-4 promoted lung cancer cell growth and proliferation, and upregulated the expression of PCNA, cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin D1, accompanied by accumulation of lung cancer cells in S phase. Interestingly, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif mutation abolished the effect of TIM-4 on lung cancer cells, which was further verified by tumour xenografts in mice. Furthermore, we found that TIM-4 interacted with αvβ3 integrin through RGD motif.
Conclusions:
This finding suggests that TIM-4 might be a potential biomarker for NSCLC that promotes lung cancer progression by RGD motif.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.323
PMCID: PMC4815884  PMID: 26512878
TIM-4; non-small-cell lung cancer; RGD motif; integrin αvβ3
9.  Potential of IL-33 for Preventing the Kidney Injury via Regulating the Lipid Metabolism in Gout Patients 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2016;2016:1028401.
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), the most recently discovered member of the IL-1 superfamily, has been linked to several human pathologies including autoimmune diseases, sepsis, and allergy through its specific IL-1 receptor ST2. However, there is little information regarding the role of IL-33 in gout. In this study, we investigated the potential role of IL-33 in gout patients. The serum level of IL-33 was measured by ELISA, and the clinical and laboratory parameters, serum creatinine, urea, and lipid, were extracted from medical record system. The serum IL-33 expression was predominantly increased in gout patients compared to healthy controls, and the IL-33 levels were higher in patients without kidney injury. Furthermore, IL-33 showed a negative correlation with biomarkers of kidney injury, such as CRE and urea. The lipid metabolism dysfunction, tophi, and hypertension are the common reasons for kidney injury in gout. Interestingly, inverse and positive correlation of IL-33 expression was observed in LDL and HDL, respectively. However, there was no significant alteration in the gout patients with hypertension and tophi. These data suggested that IL-33 might act as a protective role in kidney injury through regulating the lipid metabolism in gout.
doi:10.1155/2016/1028401
PMCID: PMC4992512  PMID: 27579324
10.  The genetic diversity of soil bacteria affected by phytoremediation in a typical barren rare earth mined site of South China 
SpringerPlus  2016;5(1):1131.
The soil bacterial diversity is one of the most important indicators to evaluate the effect of phytoremediation. In this study, the technologies of Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were used to evaluate the soil bacterial diversity after phytoremediation in a barren rare earth mined area. The results showed that the plant density was remarkably increased after the phytoremediation. The SRAP analysis suggested that the soil bacterial diversity declined dramatically after mining, while increased significantly in second and third year of the phytoremediation. A total of eight bacterial genera were identified by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with Arthrobacter and Bacillus as the dominant species before the mining, and Brevibacillus as the dominant species after the mining and during the first year of the phytoremediation. The Bacillus, which was a dominant type of bacteria before the mining, disappeared after mining and appeared again in the second and third years of the phytoremediation, other bacterial genera present. Principal component analysis and 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed a new bacterial type after phytoremediation that was not existed in the original mined area. The results of the present study indicated that the soil bacterial richness and genetic diversity significantly increased after the phytoremediation in the mined site.
doi:10.1186/s40064-016-2814-0
PMCID: PMC4951393  PMID: 27478748
Rare earth mined zone; Phytoremediation; Soil bacteria; Genetic diversity
11.  Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials 
Nutrients  2016;8(7):388.
The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: −30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −54.87 to −5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: −0.41%; 95% CI: −0.55% to −0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue.
doi:10.3390/nu8070388
PMCID: PMC4963864  PMID: 27347994
aloe vera; prediabetes; randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis
12.  National equity of health resource allocation in China: data from 2009 to 2013 
Background
The inequitable allocation of health resources is a worldwide problem, and it is also one of the obstacles facing for health services utilization in China. A new round of health care reform which contains the important aspect of improving the equity in health resource allocation was released by Chinese government in 2009. The aim of this study is to understand the changes of equity in health resource allocation from 2009 to 2013, and make a further inquiry of the main factors which influence the equity conditions in China.
Methods
Data resources are the China Health Statistics Yearbook (2014) and the China Statistical Yearbook (2014). Four indicators were chosen to measure the trends in equity of health resource allocation. Data were disaggregated by three geographical regions: west, central, and east. Theil index was used to calculate the degree of unfairness.
Results
The total amount of health care resources in China had been increasing in recent years. However, the per 10, 000 km2 number of health resources showed a huge gap in different regions, and per 10, 000 capita health resources ownership showed a relatively small disparities at the same time. The index of health resources showed an overall downward trend, in which health financial investment the most unfair from 2009 to 2012 and the number of health institutions the most unfair in 2013. The equity of health resources allocation in eastern regions was the worst except for the aspect of health technical personnel allocation. The regional contribution rates were lower than that of the inter-regional contribution rates which were all beyond 60 %.
Conclusion
The equity of health resource allocation improved gradually from 2009 to 2013. However, the internal differences within the eastern region still have a huge impact on the overall equity in health resource allocation. The tough issues of inequitable in health resource allocation should be resolved by comprehensive measures from a multidisciplinary perspective.
doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0357-1
PMCID: PMC4837535  PMID: 27093960
Equity; Health care resources; Theil index
13.  mTORC1 regulates PTHrP to coordinate chondrocyte growth, proliferation and differentiation 
Nature Communications  2016;7:11151.
Precise coordination of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation is essential for the development of multicellular organisms. Here, we report that although the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is required for chondrocyte growth and proliferation, its inactivation is essential for chondrocyte differentiation. Hyperactivation of mTORC1 via TSC1 gene deletion in chondrocytes causes uncoupling of the normal proliferation and differentiation programme within the growth plate, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation, and blockage of differentiation and chondrodysplasia in mice. Rapamycin promotes chondrocyte differentiation and restores these defects in mutant mice. Mechanistically, mTORC1 downstream kinase S6K1 interacts with and phosphorylates Gli2, and releases Gli2 from SuFu binding, resulting in nuclear translocation of Gli2 and transcription of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), a key regulator of bone development. Our findings demonstrate that dynamically controlled mTORC1 activity is crucial to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation partially through regulating Gli2/PTHrP during endochondral bone development.
mTORC1 is crucial for chondrocyte proliferation and bone growth, but the downstream signalling is not clear. Here, the authors use rapamycin and chondrocyte-specific Tsc1 knockout mice to show that S6K1 can cause nuclear accumulation of Gli2, thus driving PTHrP expression and preventing terminal differentiation of prehypertrophic chondrocytes.
doi:10.1038/ncomms11151
PMCID: PMC4822018  PMID: 27039827
14.  Clinical evaluation of double-channel gastroscope for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy 
Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny  2016;11(3):163-169.
Aim
To evaluate the use of a double-channel gastroscope in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and interventions.
Material and methods
From January 2008 to December 2013, 18 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed using a straight forward gastroscope with double working channel (4.2-mm diameter, 2.8-mm diameter).
Results
The success rate of selective cannulation and accomplishment of planned procedures was 15 out of 18 patients (83.3%), and no serious complications were encountered.
Conclusions
The double-channel gastroscope appears to be useful in performing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy.
doi:10.5114/pg.2016.61370
PMCID: PMC5047970  PMID: 27713777
Billroth II gastrectomy; double-channel gastroscope; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
15.  Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Development of a Core Collection of Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Populations in China 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0145990.
Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), the progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), is endangered due to habitat loss. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic diversity of wild rice species in isolated populations and to develop a core collection of representative genotypes for ex situ conservation. We collected 885 wild rice accessions from eight geographically distinct regions and transplanted these accessions in a protected conservation garden over a period of almost two decades. We evaluated these accessions for 13 morphological or phenological traits and genotyped them for 36 DNA markers evenly distributed on the 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of variation of quantitative traits was 0.56 and ranged from 0.37 to 1.06. SSR markers detected 206 different alleles with an average of 6 alleles per locus. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.64 in all populations, indicating that the marker loci have a high level of polymorphism and genetic diversity in all populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data revealed remarkable differences in the genetic diversity of common wild rice populations. The results showed that the Zengcheng, Gaozhou, and Suixi populations possess higher levels of genetic diversity, whereas the Huilai and Boluo populations have lower levels of genetic diversity than do the other populations. Based on their genetic distance, 130 accessions were selected as a core collection that retained over 90% of the alleles at the 36 marker loci. This genetically diverse core collection will be a useful resource for genomic studies of rice and for initiatives aimed at developing rice with improved agronomic traits.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145990
PMCID: PMC4703137  PMID: 26720755
16.  Determination of reference intervals of serum levels of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in Chinese women 
Background
To determine reference intervals for serum levels of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in Chinese women.
Methods
In this multicenter (n = 9) study, 618 healthy women, 767 patients with non-malignant diseases, and 951 patients with malignant tumors were enrolled. Serum levels of HE4 were measured in all patients using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. The influence of age, menopause, malignancy status and other characteristics on the levels of HE4 was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Confidence intervals (2.5–97.5 %) were determined in different populations.
Results
There were significant differences in HE4 levels among groups with different ages, menopause or malignancy status. Higher levels of HE4 were detected in elder compared to younger, post- compare to pre- menopause and malignant compared to benign subjects. Multivariate analysis showed that menopause and malignancy status, as well as smoking and pelvic masses were independent factors involved in serum HE4 levels. In pre-menopause stage, the reference ranges of HE4 level were 29.30–68.79, 28.12–1284.83 and 34.75–981.91 pmol/L in healthy, benign and malignant populations, respectively. In post-menopause stage, the reference ranges are 35.96–114.43, 39.11–2208.70 and 39.40–1678.13 pmol/L for those populations.
Conclusions
The present study has established the reference intervals of HE4 levels in pre- and post-menopause populations with different malignancy status.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13048-015-0201-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13048-015-0201-z
PMCID: PMC4637994  PMID: 26552478
Human epididymis protein 4; Epithelial ovarian cancer; Pelvic masses
17.  Structure-based Mechanistic Insights into Terminal Amide Synthase in Nosiheptide-Represented Thiopeptides Biosynthesis 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:12744.
Nosiheptide is a parent compound of thiopeptide family that exhibit potent activities against various bacterial pathogens. Its C-terminal amide formation is catalyzed by NosA, which is an unusual strategy for maturating certain thiopeptides by processing their precursor peptides featuring a serine extension. We here report the crystal structure of truncated NosA1-111 variant, revealing three key elements, including basic lysine 49 (K49), acidic glutamic acid 101 (E101) and flexible C-terminal loop NosA112-151, are crucial to the catalytic terminal amide formation in nosiheptide biosynthesis. The side-chain of residue K49 and the C-terminal loop fasten the substrate through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The side-chain of residue E101 enhances nucleophilic attack of H2O to the methyl imine intermediate, leading to Cα-N bond cleavage and nosiheptide maturation. The sequence alignment of NosA and its homologs NocA, PbtH, TpdK and BerI, and the enzymatic assay suggest that the mechanistic studies on NosA present an intriguing paradigm about how NosA family members function during thiopeptide biosynthesis.
doi:10.1038/srep12744
PMCID: PMC4525488  PMID: 26244829
19.  Factors associated with endoscopic full-thickness resection of gastric submucosal tumors 
Surgical Endoscopy  2015;29(12):3588-3593.
Objective
To identify factors that impact the procedure and treatment outcomes for endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs).
Methods
Medical records were collected for all patients with gastric SMTs who underwent EFTR procedures in Shengjing Hospital between June 2012 and April 2014. The data from each patient were reviewed, including gender, age, maximum tumor size on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), tumor location in stomach, length of EFTR procedure, pneumoperitoneum during EFTR, cost to close defects, length of hospital stay after the procedure, and procedure-related complications.
Results
Endoscopic full-thickness resection of gastric SMTs was successfully performed in all 41 patients. Maximum size on EUS [parameter estimate (PE) = 4.443, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.191–6.695; p = 0.000] and tumor location in the greater curvature (PE = 44.441, 95 % CI 5.539–83.343; p = 0.026) were significantly associated with the length of the procedure. A pneumoperitoneum was more likely to occur during EFTR in tumors with a larger EUS size [odds ratio (OR) = 1.415, 95 % CI 1.034–1.936; p = 0.03], and less likely to occur during EFTR for tumors located in the posterior wall (OR = 0.003, 95 % CI 0–0.351; p = 0.017). The use of the over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was significantly associated with shorter hospital stays (PE = −1.006, 95 % CI −1.998 to −0.014; p = 0.047) and a higher cost of closing defects (PE = 854.742, 95 % CI 358.377–1351.107; p = 0.001).
Conclusions
Endoscopic full-thickness resection is an effective and safe method for removing gastric SMTs. Tumor size on EUS and location of the tumor were associated with the duration of EFTR and the occurrence of a pneumoperitoneum during the procedure. The use of an OTSC system was significantly associated with shorter hospital stays and a higher cost of closing defects.
doi:10.1007/s00464-015-4113-1
PMCID: PMC4648854  PMID: 25894443
Gastric submucosal tumor; Endoscopic full-thickness resection; Risk factors
20.  The application of linear endoscopic ultrasound in the patients with esophageal anastomotic strictures 
Endoscopic Ultrasound  2015;4(2):126-131.
Objectives:
To evaluate the role of linear endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis and treatment of the anastomotic stricture after esophagectomy for locally advanced esophageal cancer (EC).
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis was performed in patients undergone EUS assessment and endoscopic treatment for anastomotic stricture after esophagectomy for locally advanced EC from January 2010 to December 2014 at Shengjing Hospital. The linear EUS was performed in all the patients to assess the thickness of the esophageal wall, the length and width of the lesion, and to evaluate the severity of anastomotic stricture. According to the EUS features of the lesion, different endoscopic therapy were performed.
Results:
There were 92 patients enrolled in this study. All the lesions of the patients were assessed by EUS. Eighty-six patients had cicatricial stricture of the esophagus confirmed by EUS, and were treated by endoscopic balloon dilation. Five patients were suspected to have tumor relapses, and the other one had lymphatic metastasis. All the six patients were undergone endoscopic metal stent implantation. The EUS diagnoses of all the patients were confirmed by pathological biopsy.
Conclusion:
Linear EUS is safe and effective for distinguishing the nature of the anastomotic stricture, and should be performed before endoscopic or surgical treatment.
doi:10.4103/2303-9027.156740
PMCID: PMC4445170  PMID: 26020047
Anastomotic stricture; endoscopic treatment; endoscopic ultrasound; esophagectomy
21.  Endoscopic ultrasound-assisted cholecystogastrostomy by a novel fully covered metal stent for the treatment of gallbladder stones 
Endoscopic Ultrasound  2015;4(2):152-155.
An 85-year-old male patient with common bile duct stones and gallbladder stone was admitted to the hospital. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided cholecystogastrostomy and the placement of a novel covered mental stent was performed after the endoscopic sphincter ectomy procedure. Two weeks later the stents were removed, and an endoscope was advanced into the gallbladder via the fistula, and cholecystolithotomy was performed. For weeks later gallbladder was assessed by abdominal ultrasound. EUS-guided cholecystogastrostomy with mental stent deployment was successfully performed. Two weeks after the procedure, the fistulas had formed, and the stent were removed. Endoscopic cholecystolithotomy was successfully performed through the fistula. The ultrasound exam of gallbladder 4 weeks later showed no stone remain and satisfactory function. The EUS-guided placement of a novel metal stent was a safe and simple approach to performing an endoscopic cholecystogastrostomy, which can subsequently allow procedures for treating biliary disease, including cholecystolithotomy.
doi:10.4103/2303-9027.156749
PMCID: PMC4445175  PMID: 26020052
Cholecystogastrostomy; endoscopic ultrasound; gallbladder stones; metal stent
22.  Stent displacement in endoscopic pancreatic pseudocyst drainage and endoscopic management 
A pancreatic pseudocyst (PPC) is a collection of pancreatic fluid enclosed by a non-epithelialized, fibrous or granulomatous wall. Endoscopic pancreatic pseudocyst drainage (PPD) has been widely used clinically to treat PPCs. The success and complications of endoscopic PPD are comparable with surgical interventions. Stent displacement is a rare complication after endoscopic PPD. Almost all the complications of endoscopic PPD have been managed surgically, and there is rare report involving the endoscopic treatment of intraperitoneal stent displacement. We report here a case of stent displacement after endoscopic ultrasound- and fluoroscopy-guided PPD in a 41-year-old female patient with a PPC in the tail of the pancreas. The endoscopic treatment was successfully performed to remove the displaced stent. The clinical course of the patient was unremarkable. The cyst had significantly reduced and disappeared by 12 wk. We found that both endoscopic ultrasound and fluoroscopy should be used during endoscopic PPD to avoid stent displacement. The displaced stent can be successfully treated by endoscopic removal.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i7.2249
PMCID: PMC4326168  PMID: 25717266
Endoscopic management; Endoscopic ultrasound; Pancreatic pseudocyst; Stent displacement
23.  Aggregation of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Using Alcalase 2.4 L 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109439.
Here, we describe peptide aggregation, which is also known as enzymatic protein resynthesis. Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is the starting material for assembling peptides. Analyses of the involved amino acids, intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence phase diagram, secondary structure, turbidity, and surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the reaction process. The aggregation mechanism consists of two parts: 1) formation and 2) aggregation of the building blocks that form the ordered secondary β-sheet structure. Constructing the building blocks requires at least one intermediate state, which is formed after 0.5 hours. Non-synergistic changes in the secondary and tertiary structures then allow the intermediate state to emerge.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109439
PMCID: PMC4188594  PMID: 25290460
24.  miR-98 suppresses melanoma metastasis through a negative feedback loop with its target gene IL-6 
Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression has a critical role in tumor development and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which miRNAs control melanoma metastasis is unknown. Here, we report reduced miR-98 expression in melanoma tissues with increasing tumor stage as well as metastasis; its expression is also negatively associated with melanoma patient survival. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-98 inhibits melanoma cell migration in vitro as well as metastatic tumor size in vivo. We also found that IL-6 is a target gene of miR-98, and IL-6 represses miR-98 levels via the Stat3-NF-κB-lin28B pathway. In an in vivo melanoma model, we demonstrate that miR-98 reduces melanoma metastasis and increases survival in part by reducing IL-6 levels; it also decreases Stat3 and p65 phosphorylation as well as lin28B mRNA levels. These results suggest that miR-98 inhibits melanoma metastasis in part through a novel miR-98-IL-6-negative feedback loop.
doi:10.1038/emm.2014.63
PMCID: PMC4221693  PMID: 25277211
25.  EUS assisted transmural cholecystogastrostomy fistula creation as a bridge for endoscopic internal gallbladder therapy using a novel fully covered metal stent 
BMC Gastroenterology  2014;14:164.
Background
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the “gold standard” for treating symptomatic gallstones. Innovative methods, such as a scarless therapeutic procedure through a natural orifice are being introduced, and include transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic cholecystectomy. However, before clinical implementation, instruments still need modification, and a more convenient treatment is still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic internal gallbladder therapy such as cholecystolithotomy in an animal survival model.
Methods
Four pigs underwent endoscopic-ultrasound (EUS)-guided cholecystogastrostomy and the placement of a novel covered mental stent. Four weeks later the stents were removed and an endoscope was advanced into the gallbladder via the fistula, and cholecystolithotomy was performed. Two weeks later the pigs were sacrificed, and the healing of the fistulas was assessed.
Results
EUS-guided cholecystogastrostomy with mental stent deployment was successfully performed in all the animals. Four weeks after the procedure, the fistulas had formed and all the stents were removed. Endoscopic cholecystolithotomy was performed through each fistula. All the animals survived until they were sacrificed 2 weeks later. The fistulas were found to be completely healed.
Conclusions
This study reports the first endoscopic transmural cholecystolithotomy after placement of a novel mental stent in an animal survival model.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-164
PMCID: PMC4189557  PMID: 25249425
Endoscopic-ultrasound; Cholecystectomy; Mental stent

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