Resistance developed by leukemic cells, unsatisfactory efficacy on patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) at accelerated and blastic phases, and potential cardiotoxity, have been limitations for imatinib mesylate (IM) in treating CML. Whether low dose IM in combination with agents of distinct but related mechanisms could be one of the strategies to overcome these concerns warrants careful investigation.
Methods and Findings
We tested the therapeutic efficacies as well as adverse effects of low dose IM in combination with proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib (BOR) or proteasome inhibitor I (PSI), in two CML murine models, and investigated possible mechanisms of action on CML cells. Our results demonstrated that low dose IM in combination with BOR exerted satisfactory efficacy in prolongation of life span and inhibition of tumor growth in mice, and did not cause cardiotoxicity or body weight loss. Consistently, BOR and PSI enhanced IM-induced inhibition of long-term clonogenic activity and short-term cell growth of CML stem/progenitor cells, and potentiated IM-caused inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis of BCR-ABL+ cells. IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited Bcl-2, increased cytoplasmic cytochrome C, and activated caspases. While exerting suppressive effects on BCR-ABL, E2F1, and β-catenin, IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited proteasomal degradation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to a re-activation of this important negative regulator of BCR-ABL. In addition, both combination therapties inhibited Bruton's tyrosine kinase via suppression of NFκB.
These data suggest that combined use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and proteasome inhibitor might be helpful for optimizing CML treatment.
Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078), and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD) markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL). However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD.
A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL) in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy.
Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression.
IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
Ingredients of Huangqi decoction; Cholestatic liver fibrosis; Transforming growth factor beta 1; Smad-signaling pathway, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
Previously, Huangqi decoction (HQD) has been found to have a potential therapeutic effect on DMN-induced liver cirrhosis. Here, the mechanisms of HQD action against liver fibrosis were investigated in relation to hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic inflammation regulation.
Liver fibrosis was induced by DMN administration for 2 or 4 weeks. Hepatocyte apoptosis and of Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) interaction were investigated using confocal microscopy. The principle cytokines, fibrogenic proteins and apoptotic factors were investigated using western blot analysis.
Compared with the DMN-water group, HQD showed decreased hepatocyte apoptosis and reduced expression of apoptotic effectors, cleaved-caspase-3, and fibrotic factors, such as smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1). However, the KC marker CD68 increased significantly in DMN-HQD liver. Confocal microscopy demonstrated widespread adhesion of KCs to HSCs in DMN-water and DMN-HQD rats liver.
HQD exhibited positive protective effects against liver fibrosis; its mechanism of action was associated with protection from hepatocyte apoptosis and the promotion of CD68 expression in the devolopment of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis development.
Oxidative damage induced by H2O2 treatment can irreversibly damage the lens epithelium, resulting in cell death and cataract. Whether the effects of oxidative stress could be attenuated in cultured human lens epithelial cells by incubation with resveratrol (RES) is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the function of resveratrol in protecting human lens epithelial B-3 (HLEB-3) cells against H2O2 induced cell death and cell apoptosis, its role in reducing H2O2 induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and investigated the mechanism by which resveratrol underlies the effect.
HLEB-3 cells, a human lens epithelial cell line, were exposed to 100 μM H2O2 with or without RES pre-treatment at different concentrations for different time duration. Cell viabilities were monitored by 4-[3-[4-iodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio-1,3-benzene disulfonate] (WST-1) assay. The apoptosis rate and ROS generation were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Expression levels of superoxide dismutases-1 (SOD-1), catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) proteins were measured by western-blotting analysis. p38 and c-jun N terminal kinase (JNK) activation was also evaluated by western-blotting analysis.
Resveratrol clearly reduced H2O2 induced cell apoptosis and ROS accumulation; protected HLEB-3 cells from H2O2 induced oxidative damage, and increased the expression levels of SOD-1, catalase, and HO-1. Further studies showed that RES also inhibited H2O2 induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation.
These findings suggested that RES protected HLEB-3 cells from H2O2 induced oxidative damage, presumably by inducing three antioxidative enzymes including catalase, SOD-1, and HO-1.
Liver fibrosis is a common histological process to develop into cirrhosis in various chronic liver diseases including chronic hepatitis and fatty liver. Therefore anti-liver fibrosis is very important strategy to treat chronic liver diseases. Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY), a preparation containing herbs such as Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae, Cordyceps, Semen Persicae, was formulated on the basis of Chinese medicine theory in treating liver fibrosis and was approved. Pharmacological studies and clinical trials demonstrate that FZHY has a significant effect against liver fibrosis and that many of the pharmacological actions are attributable to the effect. This article reviews the effects and actions of FZHY, in particular the effects observed from clinical trials in treating liver fibrosis caused by chronic hepatitis B and the actions on inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation, protection of hepatocytes and inhibition of hepatic sinusoidal capillarization. This article also reviews the coordinated effects of the constituent herbs of FZHY and the actions of their active compounds such as salvianonic acid B (SA-B) on liver fibrosis.
Chinese medicine decoctions such as Yinchenhao Tang (YCHT), Xiayuxue Tang (XYXT), Huangqi Tang (HQT), Yiguan Jian (YGJ) and Xiaochaihu Tang (XCHT)) were used to treat liver cirrhosis. The present study evaluates the effects of these decoctions on fibrosis in rats induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN).
DMN solution (0.5%) was injected to rats for three consecutive days per week for four weeks. At the beginning of week 3, rats were randomly divided into 4-week DMN control group, YCHT, XYXT, HQT, YGJ, XCHT and vehicle groups. Each group was orally administered with specific decoctions daily for two weeks. Rats in the vehicle group were orally administered with only water.
Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were observed in weeks 2 and 4 in DMN-intoxicated rats. Compared with normal rats, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and level of total bilirubin acid (TBA) in serum and content of Hydroxyproline (Hyp) in liver tissue of model group rats rose significantly. However, the albumin (Alb) level in serum decreased significantly. Compared with the 4-week DMN group, the pathological conditions and functions of the liver in the YCHT group improved significantly, and the content of Hyp decreased remarkably: only one rat in this group developed liver cirrhosis and the ratio of cirrhosis was only 8.3%. On the other hand, the other decoctions did not show remarkable effects. YCHT inhibited α-SMA activation, including its gene expression into mRNA and protein.
Among the five Chinese medicine decoctions, YCHT exerted the most significant therapeutic effects on DMN-induced cirrhosis/fibrosis in rats.
The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C3H8, CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750°C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni surface, creating numerous nanostructured BaO/Ni interfaces that readily adsorb water and facilitate water-mediated carbon removal reactions. Density functional theory calculations predict that the dissociated OH from H2O on BaO reacts with C on Ni near the BaO/Ni interface to produce CO and H species, which are then electrochemically oxidized at the triple-phase boundaries of the anode. This anode offers potential for ushering in a new generation of SOFCs for efficient, low-emission conversion of readily available fuels to electricity.
Anodes composed of nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia in solid oxide fuel cells are known to suffer from coking, which reduces their performance. Here, Yang and colleagues report a new barium oxide/nickel anode, which efficiently oxidizes fuel with minimum carbon buildup.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the main pathogen causing respiratory tract infection in susceptible populations, particularly in children and the elderly. Specimens were collected from hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI), and the hMPV was detected by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full-length G gene of hMPV was amplified by RT-PCR. A total of 1,410 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected from April 2008 to March 2011, and 114 (10.2%) were positive for hMPV. Most hMPV-positive children were <5 years of age. The hMPV infection rate peaked in the spring-summer season of 2008 to 2009 and 2009 to 2010, while hMPV circulated predominantly during the winter-spring season of 2010 to 2011. The full-length G gene of 23 hMPV strains was amplified, and group A and B viruses accounted for 95.7% (22/23) and 4.3% (1/23), respectively. Genotype A2b of hMPV appeared to be predominant during the study period. Three genotypes (A2b, A1, and B1) were prevalent in the epidemic season of 2008 to 2009, and only genotype A2b was identified in the other two seasons (2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011). The G gene of hMPV was predicted to encode proteins with four different lengths, in which one with 210 amino acids was first identified in China. These findings suggest that hMPV was an important pathogen of ALRTI in pediatric patients, especially those <5 years of age. Genotype A2b of hMPV likely predominates in Southwest China, where other genotypes also circulate.
Hepatic fibrosis is a common pathological process of chronic liver diseases and would lead to cirrhosis, and Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) is an effective Chinese herbal product against liver fibrosis. This study observes FZHY influence on proteome of fibrotic liver with differential proteomic approach and aims to understand FZHY multiple action mechanisms on liver fibrosis.
The liver fibrosis models were induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine for 4 weeks in rats and divided into model control (model) and FZHY-treated (FZHY) groups, while normal rats were used as normal control (normal). After model establishment, rats in FZHY groups were administered 4 g/kg wt of FZHY for 4 weeks, and normal and model groups were given the same volume of saline. The liver proteins in the above 3 groups were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), the differentially expressed spots were analyzed and compared between normal and model or model and FZHY groups, and then the proteins were identified with mass spectrum analysis and validated partially with western blot and real-time PCR. 1000~1200 spots were displayed on each 2D gel, and a total of 61 protein spots were found with significant intensity difference between normal control or FZHY and model control. 23 most obviously differential spots were excised, and in-gel digestion and 21 peptide mass fingerprints (PMF) were obtained with MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and 14 proteins were identified through protein database searching. Among 14 differentially expressed proteins, 8 proteins in normal and FZHY groups had the same tendency of differential expression compared with the ones in model group. And one of them, vimentin, was validated by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Our study reveals 12 proteins responsible for fibrogenesis induced by DMN in rats, and among them, 8 proteins in fibrotic liver were regulated by FZHY, including aldehyde dehydrogenase, vimentin isoform (CRA_b), gamma-actin, vimentin, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B, aldo-keto reductase, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase isoform, and HSP90. It indicates that the action mechanism of FZHY antiliver fibrosis may be associated with modulation of proteins associated with metabolism and stress response, as well as myofibroblast activation. The study provides new insights and data for exploring the liver fibrogenesis pathophysiology and FZHY action mechanism against liver fibrosis.
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), one of the water-soluble components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, has been used to treat hepatic fibrosis, but it is still not clear whether the effect of Sal B is related to angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling pathway. In the present study, we studied Sal B effect on rat liver fibrosis and Ang-II related signaling mediators in dimethylnitrosamine-(DMN-) induced rat fibrotic model in vivo and Ang-II stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro, with perindopril or losartan as control drug, respectively. The results showed that Sal B and perindopril inhibited rat hepatic fibrosis and reduced expression of Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and ERK activation in fibrotic liver. Sal B and losartan also inhibited Ang II-stimulated HSC activation including cell proliferation and expression of type I collagen I (Col-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production in vitro, reduced the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and downregulated AT1R expression and ERK and c-Jun phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results indicate that Sal B may exert an antihepatic fibrosis effect via downregulating Ang II signaling in HSC activation.
To discover and develop novel natural compounds with therapeutic selectivity or that can preferentially kill cancer cells without significant toxicity to normal cells is an important area in cancer chemotherapy. Kushen, the dried roots of Sophora flavescens Aiton, has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases and cancer. Kushen alkaloids (KS-As) and kushen flavonoids (KS-Fs) are well-characterized components in kushen. KS-As containing oxymatrine, matrine, and total alkaloids have been developed in China as anticancer drugs. More potent antitumor activities were identified in KS-Fs than in KS-As in vitro and in vivo. KS-Fs may be developed as novel antitumor agents.
AIM: To investigate the cellular mechanisms of action of Yiguanjian (YGJ) decoction in treatment of chronic hepatic injury.
METHODS: One group of mice was irradiated, and received enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-positive bone marrow transplants followed by 13 wk of CCl4 injection and 6 wk of oral YGJ administration. A second group of Institute for Cancer Research mice was treated with 13 wk of CCl4 injection and 6 wk of oral YGJ administration. Liver function, histological changes in the liver, and Hyp content were analyzed. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), F4/80, albumin (Alb), EGFP, mitogen-activated protein kinase-2 (PKM2), Ki-67, α fetoprotein (AFP), monocyte chemotaxis protein-1 and CC chemokine receptor 2 were assayed.
RESULTS: As hepatic damage progressed, EGFP-positive marrow cells migrated into the liver and were mainly distributed along the fibrous septa. They showed a conspicuous coexpression of EGFP with α-SMA and F4/80 but no coexpression with Alb. Moreover, the expression of PKM2, AFP and Ki-67 was enhanced dynamically and steadily over the course of liver injury. YGJ abrogated the increases in the number of bone marrow-derived fibrogenic cells in the liver, inhibited expression of both progenitor and mature hepatocyte markers, and reduced fibrogenesis.
CONCLUSION: YGJ decoction improves liver fibrosis by inhibiting the migration of bone marrow cells into the liver as well as inhibiting their differentiation and suppressing the proliferation of both progenitors and hepatocytes in the injured liver.
Yiguanjian decoction; Bone marrow transplantation; Hepatic progenitors; Hepatocytes; Hepatic injury
To clarify the presence of oxidative stress in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress and PACG.
Fifty patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma and fifty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in the study prospectively. Serum samples were obtained to detect the oxidation degradation products malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated diene (CD), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyl (PC), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosin (8-OHdG).
The concentration of MDA and CD in PACG patients was significantly higher than those of the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01). The serum 4-HNE concentrations were increased in PACG patients, but the differences with those of the healthy controls were not statistically significant. Compared to normal subjects, there was significant higher in serum AOPP and PC in PACG patients (P<0.01). PACG patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG in serum with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01). When plasma IMA levels in the PACG group were compared with those in the control group, significant increases in IMA were observed in the former (P<0.05).
Our study demonstrated that IMA is a new biomarker available for assessing oxidative stress in PCAG. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Increased levels of oxidative stress products may be associated with primary angle-closure glaucoma.
In the recent years, a wide range of metabonomic technologies are widely used in the modern research of traditional chinese medicine (TCM). At present, the most prevailing methods for TCM research are mainly nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). With these techniques, metabonomics will help to understand syndromes, efficacy and toxicity of TCM. However, every analytical technique has its advantages and drawbacks, and there exist some obstacles of its applications on TCM. So, we discuss metabonomics in TCM and analyze some problems of its applications to study TCM in recent years. We believe that with the further development of metabonomic analytical technology, especially multianalysed techniques, metabonomics will greatly promote TCM research and be beneficial to the modernization of TCM.
The duplex mutation primers offer many advantages over other multi-labeled probes for real-time detection of amplification products.
To develop and validate a novel real-time PCR for quantification of HCV RNA based on the duplex mutation primers technology.
Materials and Methods
The duplex mutation primers were selected in the highly conservative 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) of the HCV RNA. The assay was validated with the Viral Quality Control panel, which also includes Chinese HCV RNA standards.
The detection limit was 57 IU/mL, and a good linear correlation in the range of 102-108 IU/mL was revealed (r(2) = 0.999) with the novel method. This assay has a dynamic range of at least 8 log10 without the need for specimen dilution, good clinical intra- and inter-run precision, and excellent correlation with a commercially available assay(r(2) = 0.95).
The high sensitivity, wide linear range, and good reproducibility, combined with low cost, make this novel quantitative HCV real-time PCR assay particularly well suited for application to clinical and epidemiological studies.
HCV; Quantification; PCR; Duplex mutation primers; Hepatitis
It has been well documented that the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of many positive-stranded RNA viruses contain key cis-acting regulatory sequences, as well as high-order structural elements. Little is known for such regulatory elements controlling porcine arterivirus replication. We investigated the roles of a conserved stem-loop 2 (SL2) that resides in the 5'UTR of the genome of a type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).
We provided genetic evidences demonstrating that 1) the SL2 in type II PRRSV 5' UTR, N-SL2, could be structurally and functionally substituted by its counterpart in type I PRRSV, E-SL2; 2) the functionality of N-SL2 was dependent upon the G-C rich stem structure, while the ternary-loop size was irrelevant to RNA synthesis; 3) serial deletions showed that the stem integrity of N-SL2 was crucial for subgenomic mRNA synthesis; and 4) when extensive base-pairs in the stem region was deleted, an alternative N-SL2-like structure with different sequence was utilized for virus replication.
Taken together, we concluded that the phylogenetically conserved SL2 in the 5' UTR was crucial for PRRSV virus replication, subgenomic mRNA synthesis in particular.
Avian Leukosis virus (ALV) of subgroup J (ALV-J) belong to retroviruses, which could induce tumors in domestic and wild birds. Myelocytomatosis was the most common neoplasma observed in infected flocks; however, few cases of hemangioma caused by ALV-J were reported in recent year.
An ALV-J strain SCDY1 associated with hemangioma was isolated and its proviral genomic sequences were determined. The full proviral sequence of SCDY1 was 7489 nt long. Homology analysis of the env, pol and gag gene between SCDY1 and other strains in GenBank were 90.3-94.2%, 96.6-97.6%, and 94.3-96.5% at nucleotide level, respectively; while 85.1-90.7%, 97.4-98.7%, and 96.2-98.4% at amino acid level, respectively. Alignment analysis of the genomic sequence of ALV-J strains by using HPRS-103 as reference showed that a special 11 bp deletion was observed in U3 region of 3'UTR of SCDY1 and another ALV-J strain NHH isolated from case of hemangioma, and the non-functional TM and E element were absent in the genome of SCDY1, but the transcriptional regulatory elements including C/EBP, E2BP, NFAP-1, CArG box and Y box were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all analyzed ALV-J strains could be separated into four groups, and SCDY1 as well as another strain NHH were included in the same cluster.
The variation in envelope glycoprotein was higher than other genes. The genome sequence of SCDY1 has a close relationship with that of another ALV-J strain NHH isolated from case of hemangioma. A 11 bp deletion observed in U3 region of 3'UTR of genome of ALV-J isolated from case of hemangioma is interesting, which may be associated with the occurrence of hemangioma.
Marek's disease (MD) is an economically important viral disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic herpesvirus. This disease was well controlled since the widespread use of commercial vaccines, but field MDVs have shown continuous increasing in virulence and acquired the ability to overcome the immune response induced by vaccines. Nowadays, MD continues to be a serious threat to poultry industry, isolation and characterization of MDVs are essential for monitoring changes of viruses and evaluating the effectiveness of existing vaccines.
Between 2008 and 2010, 18 field MDV strains were isolated from vaccinated chicken flocks in Sichuan province, China. Three oncogenic genes including Meq, pp38 and vIL-8 genes of the 18 isolates were amplified and sequenced. Homology analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of these three genes exhibit 95.0-98.8%, 99.3-100% and 97.0-98.5% homology respectively with these of other reference strains published in GenBank. Alignment analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that four amino acid mutations in Meq gene and two amino acid mutations in vIL-8 gene displayed perfect regularity in MDVs circulating in China, which could be considered as features of field MDVs prevalent in recent years in China. In addition, one amino acid mutation in pp38 gene can be considered as a feature of virulent MDVs from USA, and three amino acid mutations in Meq gene were identified and unique in very virulent plus (vv+) MDVs. Phylogenetic analysis based on Meq and vIL-8 protein sequences revealed that field MDVs in China evolved independently. Virulence studies showed that CVI988 could provide efficient protection against the field MDVs epidemic recently in China.
This study and other published data in the GenBank have demonstrated the features of Meq, pp38 and vIL-8 genes of MDVs circulating in recent years in Sichuan, China. Mutations, deletions or insertions were observed in these three genes, and some mutations could be considered as the unique marks of the MDVs circulating presently in China. The paper supplies some valuable information concerning the evolution of MDV which is useful for the vaccine development and control of MD in China.
The aim of this study was to identify glucocorticoid induced cataracts (GIC)-specific modified water insoluble-urea soluble (WI-US) crystallins and related changes after rat lens were exposed to dexamethasone (Dex).
We separated WI-US lens proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The crystallins were then analyzed with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS). Protein levels and morphological changes of αA- and αB-crystallins were also determined. Electronic microscope of lens and native-page analysis of crystallins were further determined.
Measured masses, isoelectric points (pIs), and amino acid sequences of all detected crystallins matched previously-reported data. Analysis by 2-DE indicated that αA- and αB-crystallin increased when the lens was viewed under 1 µM and 10 µM Dex, which was identical with the results of western-blot, immuno histochemistry or fluorescence; βB2- and βA3-crystallin increased when lens was viewed under 1 µM Dex and 100 µM Dex. βA1-, βA4-, and βB1-crystallins decreased under 0.1–100 µM Dex. Electronic microscope figures showed the condition of the lens center gradually worsened and cracked between fiber cells that became larger under 1–100 µM Dex. Moreover, αA-crystallins were associated with increased phosphorylation (PI decreased).The newly protein spots: βA2-, βA3-, βB1-, and γs-crystallin appeared under 0.1–100 µM Dex. Native-page showed α-crystallin increased when the lens was exposed to 1 µM Dex; however, β-crystallin did not decrease under 0.1–100 µM Dex. The percentage of α-crystallin gradually decreased, however β-crystallin gradually increased, perhaps because the emergence of newly appeared β-crystallin under Dex.
Our results showed multiple WI-US crystallins may be more vulnerable to glucocorticoid stress because of diminished important roles, which will in turn provide a mechanism for GIC from a proteomics perspective.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of rapamycin on rabbit lens epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and secrcetion of extracellular matrix fibronectin (Fn).
Rabbit lens epithelium cells (rLECs) were isolated from 1 month old rabbit. rLECs were either cultured for 24, 48, or 72 h with different doses of rapamycin (0.1, 1, and 10 ng/ml). The proliferation kinetics, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced migration of rLEC was determined by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, western blotting and transwell chamber assay, respectively. The effect of rapamycin on the synthesis of Fn was examined via immunofluorescence.
Rapamycin significantly inhibited rLEC proliferation and PCNA protein expression when administered doses and time periods except for 0.1 ng/ml for 24 h. bFGF-induced migration rLECs was inhibited by pretreatment with rapamycin for 48 h. Extracellular matrix Fn formation of rLECs was also reduced by rapamycin.
In our study, rapamycin strongly inhibited rLEC proliferation, bFGF-induced migration, and extracellular matrix Fn formation. Thus, rapamycin may have a potential inhibition of posterior capsule opacificatin (PCO) and needs further study.
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. The skeletal muscle calcium channel α-subunit gene CACNA1S is a major disease-causing gene for HypoPP, however, only three specific HypoPP-causing mutations, Arg528His, Arg1,239His and Arg1,239Gly, have been identified in CACNA1S to date. In this study, we studied a four-generation Chinese family with HypoPP with 43 living members and 19 affected individuals. Linkage analysis showed that the causative mutation in the family is linked to the CACNA1S gene with a LOD score of 6.7. DNA sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous C to G transition at nucleotide 1,582, resulting in a novel 1,582C→G (Arg528Gly) mutation. The Arg528Gly mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, and was not present in 200 matched normal controls. The penetrance of the Arg528Gly mutation was complete in male mutation carriers, however, a reduced penetrance of 83% (10/12) was observed in female carriers. No differences were detected for age-at-onset and severity of the disease (frequency of symptomatic attacks per year) between male and female patients. Oral intake of KCl is effective in blocking the symptomatic attacks. This study identifies a novel Arg528Gly mutation in the CACNA1S gene that causes HypoPP in a Chinese family, expands the spectrum of mutations causing HypoPP, and demonstrates a gender difference in the penetrance of the disease.
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; Skeletal muscle calcium channel; Mutation; CACNA1S; Ion channel; CACNA1S: Skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium channel α-subunit; HyperPP: Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HypoPP: Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; KCNE3: Voltage-gated potassium channel β subunit gene; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction; RFLP: Restriction fragment length polymorphism; SCN4A: Skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit
Variations in genetic background are the leading cause of differential susceptibility to traumatic infection. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a broadly distributed and conserved molecule, regulates inflammation under stressful and traumatic conditions. However, the relationships between HSP90 genetic polymorphisms, post-traumatic inflammatory responses and organ function remain unknown.
A total of 286 healthy volunteers and patients with severe trauma took part in a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based analysis of the HSP90beta gene and a clinical association analysis. HSP90beta and TNF-alpha levels were determined using quantitative PCR and western blot. The transcriptional activity of the HSP90beta promoter was assayed using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System.
The minor allele frequencies for the SNP located at −144 bp relative to the HSP90beta transcriptional start site were 28.47% and 28.52% in the normal and trauma populations, respectively; no significant differences were found between these two distributions. However, the results showed that a promoter containing the -144A allele had a higher transcriptional activity than did a promoter containing the wild-type -144C allele. Furthermore, the -144A promoter induced high expression of HSP90beta and low expression of the inflammatory factor TNF-alpha in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory model. A clinical association analysis showed that the multiple organ dysfunction scores for -144AA genotype carriers were significantly lower than those of -144CC carriers following trauma. No significant correlations were found between the presence of the two alleles and the incidence of sepsis.
These results indicate that differences in expression caused by the -144 polymorphism in the HSP90beta promoter are associated with cellular inflammatory responses and the severity of organ injury. These findings will aid in risk assessment and early prevention of complications for patients with severe trauma.
MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) plays important roles in cell growth and tumor invasion via mediating cleavage of MMP2/gelatinase A and a variety of substrates including type I collagen. BST-2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) is a membrane tetherin whose expression dramatically reduces the release of a broad range of enveloped viruses including HIV from infected cells. In this study, we provided evidence that both transient and IFN-α induced BST-2 could decrease the activity of MMP2 via binding to cellular MT1-MMP on its C- terminus and inhibiting its proteolytic activity; and finally block cell growth and migration. Zymography gel and Western-blot experiments demonstrated that BST-2 decreased MMP2 activity, but no effect on the expression of MMP2 and MT1-MMP genes. Confocal and immunoprecipitation data showed that BST-2 co-localized and interacted with MT1-MMP. This interaction inhibited the proteolytic enzyme activity of MT1-MMP, and blocked the activation of proMMP2. Experimental results of C-terminus deletion mutant of MT1-MMP showed that activity of MMP2 was no change and also no interaction existed between the mutant and BST-2 after co-transfection with the mutant and BST-2. It meant that C-terminus of MT1-MMP played a key role in the interaction with BST-2. In addition, cell growth in 3-D type I collagen gel lattice and cell migration were all inhibited by BST-2. Taken together, BST-2, as a membrane protein and a tetherin of enveloped viruses, was a novel inhibitor of MT1-MMP and could be considerable as an inhibitor of cancer cell growth and migration on clinic.
MT1-MMP; BST-2; MMP2; Type I collagen
Prostate imaging requires optimization in young and old mouse models. We tested which MR sequences and field strengths best depict the prostate gland in young and old mice; and, whether prostate MR signal, size, and architecture change with age.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate of young (2 months) and old (18 months) male nude mice (n = 6) was performed at 4.7 and 7 T and SCID mice (n = 6) at 7 T field strengths, using T1, fat suppressed T1, DWI, T2, fat suppressed T2, as well as T2-based- and proton density-based Dixon “water only” sequences. Images were ranked for best overall sequence for prostate visualization, prostate delineation, and quality of fat suppression. Prostate volume and signal characteristics were compared and histology was performed.
T2-based-Dixon “water only” images ranked best overall for prostate visualization and delineation as well as fat suppression (n = 6, P<0.001) at both 4.7 T and 7 T in nude and 7T in SCID mice. Evaluated in nude mice, T2-based Dixon “water only” had greater prostate CNR and lower fat SNR at 7 T than 4.7 T (P<0.001). Prostate volume was less in older than younger mice (n = 6, P<0.02 nude mice; n = 6, P<0.002 SCID mice). Prostate T2 FSE as well as proton density-based and T2-based-Dixon “water only” signal intensity was higher in younger than older mice (P<0.001 nude mice; P<0.01 SCID mice) both at 4.7 and 7 T. This corresponded to an increase in glandular hyperplasia in older mice by histology (P<0.01, n = 6).
T2-based Dixon “water only” images best depict the mouse prostate in young and old nude mice at 4.7 and 7 T. The mouse prostate decreases in size with age. The decrease in T2 and T2-based Dixon “water only” signal with age corresponds with glandular hyperplasia. Findings suggest age should be an important determinant when choosing models of prostate biology and disease.
AIM: To investigate the effects of different concentrations of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) egg antigen on fibrogenesis and apoptosis in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).
METHODS: A mouse model of schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis (SSLF) was established by infecting mice with schistosomal cercaria via the abdomen. HSCs were isolated from SSLF mice by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, and their identity was confirmed by immunofluorescence double staining of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. The growth inhibitory effect and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of S. japonicum egg antigen for primary HSCs (24 h) were determined using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The expression levels of α-SMA, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMOL/LP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in HSCs in response to different concentrations of S. japonicum egg antigen were detected by Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The levels of phospho-P38 (P-P38), phospho-Jun N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and phospho-Akt (P-AKT) in HSCs were detected by Western blotting.
RESULTS: An SSLF mouse model was established, and primary HSCs were successfully isolated and cultured. S. japonicum egg antigen inhibited HSC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 of the S. japonicum egg antigen was 244.53 ± 35.26 μg/mL. S. japonicum egg antigen enhanced α-SMA expression at both the mRNA and protein levels and enhanced TIMP-1 expression at the mRNA level in HSCs (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of MMOL/LP-9 was attenuated at both the mRNA and protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). A high concentration of S. japonicum egg antigen enhanced P-P38, P-JNK and P-AKT activation (P < 0.05). The changes in α-SMA and MMOL/LP-9 expression induced by S. japonicum egg antigen were closely correlated with P-P38 and P-JNK activation (P < 0.05). The attenuation of MMOL/LP-9 was also correlated with P-AKT activation (P < 0.05), but the increase in α-SMA expression was not. TIMP-1 expression was not correlated with P-P38, P-JNK or P-AKT activation.
CONCLUSION: S. japonicum egg antigen promotes fibrogenesis, activates the P38/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT/PI3K signaling pathways and inhibits proliferation in primary HSCs isolated from SSLF mice in a concentration-dependent manner.
Schistosomiasis; Liver fibrosis; Hepatic stellate cells; Mitogen-activated protein kinase; Akt