The X protein (HBx) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) promotes the growth of liver cancer cells through altering S-adenosylmethionine homeostasis. Thus, we speculated that a link between HBx and MAT2A may contribute to HCC development. In this study, the effects of HBx on MAT2A expression and cell apoptosis were investigated, and the molecular mechanism by which HBx and MAT2A regulate tumorigenesis was evaluated. Results from immunohistochemistry analyses of 37 pairs of HBV-associated liver cancer tissues/corresponding peritumor tissues showed that HBx and MAT2A are highly expressed in most liver tumor tissues. Our in vitro results revealed that HBx activates MAT2A expression in a dose-dependent manner in hepatoma cells, and such regulation requires the cis-regulatory elements NF-κB and CREB on the MAT2A gene promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) further demonstrated that HBx facilitates the binding of NF-κB and CREB to MAT2A gene promoter. In addition, overexpression of HBx or MAT2A inhibits cell apoptosis, whereas knockdown of MAT2A expression stimulates apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HBx reduces MAT1A expression and AdoMet production but enhances MAT2β expression. Thus, we proposed that HBx activates MAT2A expression through NF-κB and CREB signaling pathways to reduce AdoMet production, inhibit hepatoma cell apoptosis, and perhaps enhance HCC development. These findings should provide new insights into our understanding how the molecular mechanisms underline the effects of HBV infection on the production of MAT2A and the development of HCC.
Apoptosis; Cancer Tumor Promoter; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChiP); CREB; DNA-Protein Interaction; DNA Viruses; Gene Regulation; Hepatitis Virus; Oncogene; S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)
Adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) are two major histological subtypes of lung cancer. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have made considerable advances in the understanding of lung cancer susceptibility. Obvious heterogeneity has been observed between different histological subtypes of lung cancer, but genetic determinants in specific to lung SqCC have not been systematically investigated. Here, we performed the GWAS analysis specifically for lung SqCC in 833 SqCC cases and 3,094 controls followed by a two-stage replication in additional 2,223 lung SqCC cases and 6,409 controls from Chinese populations. We found that rs12296850 in SLC17A8-NR1H4 gene region at12q23.1 was significantly associated with risk of lung SqCC at genome-wide significance level [additive model: odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.72–0.84, P = 1.19×10−10]. Subjects carrying AG or GG genotype had a 26% (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.67–0.81) or 32% (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56–0.83) decreased risk of lung SqCC, respectively, as compared with AA genotype. However, we did not observe significant association between rs12296850 and risk of lung AC in a total of 4,368 cases with lung AC and 9,486 controls (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.90–1.02, P = 0.173). These results indicate that genetic variations on chromosome 12q23.1 may specifically contribute to lung SqCC susceptibility in Chinese population.
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) strongly suggested the importance of genetic susceptibility for lung cancer. However, the studies specific to different histological subtypes of lung cancer were limited. We performed the GWAS analysis specifically for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) with 570,009 autosomal SNPs in 833 SqCC cases and 3,094 controls and replicated in additional 2,223 lung SqCC cases and 6,409 controls from Chinese populations (822 SqCC cases and 2,243 controls for the first replication stage and 1,401 SqCC cases and 4,166 controls for the second replication stage). We found a novel association at rs12296850 (SLC17A8-NR1H4) on12q23.1. However, rs12296850 didn't show significant association with risk of lung adenocacinoma (AC) in 4,368 lung AC cases and 9,486 controls. These results indicate that genetic variations on chromosome 12q23.1 may specifically contribute to lung SqCC susceptibility in Chinese population.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified KIF1B as susceptibility locus for hepatitis B virus (HBV)–related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To further identify novel susceptibility loci associated with HBV–related HCC and replicate the previously reported association, we performed a large three-stage GWAS in the Han Chinese population. 523,663 autosomal SNPs in 1,538 HBV–positive HCC patients and 1,465 chronic HBV carriers were genotyped for the discovery stage. Top candidate SNPs were genotyped in the initial validation samples of 2,112 HBV–positive HCC cases and 2,208 HBV carriers and then in the second validation samples of 1,021 cases and 1,491 HBV carriers. We discovered two novel associations at rs9272105 (HLA-DQA1/DRB1) on 6p21.32 (OR = 1.30, P = 1.13×10−19) and rs455804 (GRIK1) on 21q21.3 (OR = 0.84, P = 1.86×10−8), which were further replicated in the fourth independent sample of 1,298 cases and 1,026 controls (rs9272105: OR = 1.25, P = 1.71×10−4; rs455804: OR = 0.84, P = 6.92×10−3). We also revealed the associations of HLA-DRB1*0405 and 0901*0602, which could partially account for the association at rs9272105. The association at rs455804 implicates GRIK1 as a novel susceptibility gene for HBV–related HCC, suggesting the involvement of glutamate signaling in the development of HBV–related HCC.
Previous studies strongly suggest the importance of genetic susceptibility for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the studies about genetic etiology on HBV–related HCC were limited. Our genome-wide association study included 523,663 autosomal SNPs in 1,538 HBV–positive HCC patients and 1,465 chronic HBV carriers for the discovery analysis. 2,112 HBV–positive HCC cases and 2,208 HBV carriers (the initial validation), and 1,021 cases and 1,491 HBV carriers (the second validation), were then analyzed for validation. The fourth independent samples of 1,298 cases and 1,026 controls were analyzed as replication. We discovered two novel associations at rs9272105 (HLA-DQA1/DRB1) on 6p21.32 and rs455804 (GRIK1) on 21q21.3. HLA-DRB1 molecules play an important role in chronic HBV infection and progression to HCC. The association at rs455804 implicates GRIK1 as a novel susceptibility gene for HBV–related HCC, suggesting the involvement of glutamate signaling in the development of HBV–related HCC.
Recently, several studies have demonstrated that two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), HULC and MALAT1, may participate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. However, genetic variations in the two lncRNAs and their associations with HCC susceptibility have not been reported. In this study, we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HULC and MALAT1 may contribute to HCC risk.
We conducted a case-control study and genotyped two SNPs, rs7763881 in HULC and rs619586 in MALAT1, in 1300 HBV positive HCC patients, 1344 HBV persistent carriers and 1344 subjects with HBV natural clearance to test the associations between the two SNPs and susceptibility to HCC and HBV chronic infection.
The variant genotypes of rs7763881 were significantly associated with decreased HCC risk in a dominant genetic model [AC/CC vs. AA: adjusted odds ration (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.68–0.97, P = 0.022]. Furthermore, the variant genotypes of rs619586 was associated with decreased HCC risk with a borderline significance (AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.81, 95% CIs = 0.65–1.01, P = 0.057). However, no significant association was found between the two SNPs and HBV clearance.
The variant genotypes of rs7763881 in HULC may contribute to decreased susceptibility to HCC in HBV persistent carriers.
Claudin-6 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer, and has been shown to be regulated by DNA methylation and histone modification in breast cancer lines. However, the expression of claudin-6 in breast invasive ductal carcinomas and correlation with clinical behavior or expression of other markers is unclear. We considered that the expression pattern of claudin-6 might be related to the expression of DNA methylation associated proteins (methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)) and histone modification associated proteins (histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), acetyl-histone H3 (H3Ac) and acetyl- histone H4 (H4Ac)).
We have investigated the expression of claudin-6, MeCP2, HDAC1, H3Ac and H4Ac in 100 breast invasive ductal carcinoma tissues and 22 mammary gland fibroadenoma tissues using immunohistochemistry.
Claudin-6 protein expression was reduced in breast invasive ductal carcinomas (P < 0.001). In contrast, expression of MeCP2 (P < 0.001), DNMT1 (P = 0.001), HDAC1 (P < 0.001) and H3Ac (P = 0.004) expressions was increased. Claudin-6 expression was inversely correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021). Increased expression of HDAC1 was correlated with histological grade (P < 0.001), age (P = 0.004), clinical stage (P = 0.007) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). H3Ac expression was associated with tumor size (P = 0.044) and clinical stage of cancers (P = 0.034). MeCP2, DNMT1 and H4Ac expression levels did not correlate with any of the tested clinicopathological parameters (P > 0.05). We identified a positive correlation between MeCP2 protein expression and H3Ac and H4Ac protein expression.
Our results show that claudin-6 protein is significantly down-regulated in breast invasive ductal carcinomas and is an important correlate with lymphatic metastasis, but claudin-6 down-regulation was not correlated with upregulation of the methylation associated proteins (MeCP2, DNMT1) or histone modification associated proteins (HDAC1, H3Ac, H4Ac). Interestingly, the expression of MeCP2 was positively correlated with the expression of H3Ac and H3Ac protein expression was positively correlated with the expression of H4Ac in breast invasive ductal carcinoma
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4549669866581452
Claudin-6; Histone deacetylase 1; Methyl-CpG binding protein 2; DNA methyltransferase 1; Breast invasive ductal carcinomas
MiR-106b-25 cluster, hosted in intron 13 of MCM7, may play integral roles in diverse processes including immune response and tumorigenesis. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs999885, is located in the promoter region of MCM7.
We performed a case-control study including 1300 HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 1344 HBV persistent carriers and 1344 subjects with HBV natural clearance to test the association between rs999885 and the risk of HBV persistent infection and HCC. We also investigated the genotype-expression correlation between rs999885 and miR-106b-25 cluster in 25 pairs of HCC and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues.
Compared with the HBV natural clearance subjects carrying rs999885 AA genotype, those with AG/GG genotypes had a decreased risk of chronic HBV infection with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.79 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.67–0.93]. However, the AG/GG genotypes were significantly associated with an increased HCC risk in HBV persistent carriers (adjusted OR = 1.25, 95% CIs = 1.06–1.47). Expression analysis revealed that the expression level of miR-106b-25 cluster was significantly higher in AG/GG carriers than those in AA carriers in non-tumor liver tissues.
These findings indicate that the A to G base change of rs999885 may provide a protective effect against chronic HBV infection but an increased risk for HCC in HBV persistent carriers by altering the expression of the miR-106b-25 cluster.
AIM: To evaluate the value of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication mouse model with regard to several aspects of the study of HBV biology.
METHODS: To evaluate the HBV replication mouse model in detecting the efficacy of anti-HBV agents, the interferon inducer polyinosinic-polytidylin acid (polyIC) and nucleotide analogues adefovir and entecavir were administered to mice injected with wild type pHBV4.1, and the inhibiting effect of these agents on HBV DNA replication was evaluated. To identify the model’s value in a replication ability study of HBV drug-resistant mutants and a HBx-minus mutant, telbivudine resistance mutants (rtM204I, ayw subtype), adefovir resistance mutants (rtA181V + rtN236T, ayw subtype) and HBx-minus mutants were injected respectively, and their corresponding HBV DNA replication intermediates in mouse liver were assessed.
RESULTS: Compared with the wild type HBV replication mouse model without antiviral agent treatment, the HBV DNA replication intermediates of the polyIC-treated group were decreased 1-fold; while in the entecavir- and adefovir-treated groups, the levels of HBV DNA replication intermediates were inhibited 13.6-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. For the mouse models injected with telbivudine resistance mutant, adefovir resistance mutant and HBx-minus mutant, HBV DNA replication intermediates could still be detected, but the levels of HBV DNA replication intermediates of these mutants decreased 4.5-fold, 5.6-fold and 2.9-fold respectively, compared with the mouse model with wild type HBV plasmid.
CONCLUSION: The HBV replication mouse model we established was a useful and convenient tool to detect the efficacy of antiviral agents and to study the replication ability of HBV mutants in vivo.
Hepatitis B virus; Antiviral agents; Drug resistance; Mutants; Mouse model
The six-membered ring of the title compound, C8H11NO3, adopts an envelope shape with the C atom in the meta position of the carbonyl representing the flap. This atom is disordered over two positions in an 0.865 (6): 0.135 (6) ratio. In the crystal, a two-dimensional supramolecular network parallel to the ac plane is built up from O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
The receptors for hepatocyte and vascular endothelial cell growth factors (MET and VEGFR2, respectively) are critical oncogenic mediators in gastric adenocarcinoma. The purpose is to examine the safety and efficacy of foretinib, an oral multikinase inhibitor targeting MET, RON, AXL, TIE-2, and VEGFR2 receptors, for the treatment of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma.
Patients and Methods
Foretinib safety and tolerability, and objective response rate (ORR) were evaluated in patients using intermittent (240 mg/day, for 5 days every 2 weeks) or daily (80 mg/day) dosing schedules. Thirty evaluable patients were required to achieve alpha = 0.10 and beta = 0.2 to test the alternative hypothesis that single-agent foretinib would result in an ORR of ≥25%. Up to 10 additional patients could be enrolled to ensure at least eight with MET amplification. Correlative studies included tumor MET amplification, MET signaling, pharmacokinetics and plasma biomarkers of foretinib activity.
From March 2007 until October 2009, 74 patients were enrolled; 74% male; median age, 61 years (range, 25–88); 93% had received prior therapy. Best response was stable disease (SD) in 10 (23%) patients receiving intermittent dosing and five (20%) receiving daily dosing; SD duration was 1.9–7.2 months (median 3.2 months). Of 67 patients with tumor samples, 3 had MET amplification, one of whom had SD. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 91% of patients. Rates of hypertension (35% vs. 15%) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (23% vs. 8%) were higher with intermittent dosing. In both patients with high baseline tumor phospho-MET (pMET), the pMET:total MET protein ratio decreased with foretinib treatment.
These results indicate that few gastric carcinomas are driven solely by MET and VEGFR2, and underscore the diverse molecular oncogenesis of this disease. Despite evidence of MET inhibition by foretinib, single-agent foretinib lacked efficacy in unselected patients with metastatic gastric cancer.
Neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), are promising therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the application of GDNF to treat these diseases effectively is limited because the blood–brain barrier (BBB) prevents the local delivery of macromolecular therapeutic agents from entering the central nervous system (CNS). Focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles (MBs) using appropriate parameters has been previously demonstrated to be able to open the BBB locally and noninvasively. This study investigated the targeted delivery of GDNF MBs through the BBB by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound. Evans Blue extravasation and histological examination were used to determine the optimum focused ultrasound parameters. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify the effects of GDNF bound on MBs using a biotin–avidin bridging chemistry method to promote GDNF delivery into the brain. The results showed that GDNF can be delivered locally and noninvasively into the CNS through the BBB using MRI-guided focused ultrasound combined with MBs under optimum parameters. MBs that bind GDNF combined with MRI-guided focused ultrasound may be an effective way of delivering neurotrophic factors directly into the CNS. The method described herein provides a potential means of treating patients with CNS diseases.
Verticillium wilt caused by soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. Here, we cloned a tomato Ve homologous gene, Gbve1, from an island cotton cultivar that is resistant to Verticillium wilt. We found that the Gbve1 gene was induced by V. dahliae and by phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, but not by abscisic acid. The induction of Gbve1 in resistant cotton was quicker and stronger than in Verticillium-susceptible upland cotton following V. dahliae inoculation. Gbve1 promoter-driving GUS activity was found exclusively in the vascular bundles of roots and stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Virus-induced silencing of endogenous genes in resistant cotton via targeting a fragment of the Gbve1 gene compromised cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Furthermore, we transformed the Gbve1 gene into Arabidopsis and upland cotton through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of the Gbve1 gene endowed transgenic Arabidopsis and upland cotton with resistance to high aggressive defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of V. dahliae. And HR-mimic cell death was observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrate that the Gbve1 gene is responsible for resistance to V. dahliae in island cotton and can be used for breeding cotton varieties that are resistant to Verticillium wilt.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that have no protein-coding capacity make up a large proportion of the transcriptome of various species. Many lncRNAs are expressed within the animal central nervous system in spatial- and temporal-specific patterns, indicating that lncRNAs play important roles in cellular processes, neural development, and even in cognitive and behavioral processes. However, relatively little is known about their in vivo functions and underlying molecular mechanisms in the nervous system. Here, we report a neural-specific Drosophila lncRNA, CASK regulatory gene (CRG), which participates in locomotor activity and climbing ability by positively regulating its neighboring gene CASK (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase). CRG deficiency led to reduced locomotor activity and a defective climbing ability—phenotypes that are often seen in CASK mutant. CRG mutant also showed reduced CASK expression level while CASK over-expression could rescue the CRG mutant phenotypes in reciprocal. At the molecular level, CRG was required for the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the CASK promoter regions, which in turn enhanced CASK expression. Our work has revealed new functional roles of lncRNAs and has provided insights to explore the pathogenesis of neurological diseases associated with movement disorders.
Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has been reported as helpful in identifying hypervolemia. Observation data showed that hypervolemic maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients identified using BIA methods have higher mortality risk. However, it is not known if BIA-guided fluid management can improve MHD patients’ survival. The objectives of the BOCOMO study are to evaluate the outcome of BIA guided fluid management compared with standard care.
This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. More than 1300 participants from 16 clinical sites will be included in the study. The enrolment period will last 6 months, and minimum length of follow-up will be 36 months. MHD patients aged between 18 years and 80 years who have been on MHD for at least 3 months and meet eligibility criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomized to BIA arm or control arm in a 1:1 ratio. A portable whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy device (BCM—Fresenius Medical Care D GmbH) will be used for BIA measurement at baseline for both arms of the study. In the BIA arm, additional BCM measurements will be performed every 2 months. The primary intent-to-treat analysis will compare outcomes for a composite endpoint of death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke or incident peripheral arterial occlusive disease between groups. Secondary endpoints will include left ventricular wall thickness, blood pressure, medications, and incidence and length of hospitalization.
Previous results regarding the benefit of strict fluid control are conflicting due to small sample sizes and unstable dry weight estimating methods. To our knowledge this is the first large-scale, multicentre, prospective, randomized controlled trial to assess whether BIS-guided volume management improves outcomes of MHD patients. The endpoints of the BOCOMO study are of utmost importance to health care providers. In order to obtain that aim, the study was designed with very careful important considerations related to the endpoints, sample size, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and so on. For example, annual mortality of Beijing MHD patients was around 10%. To reach statistical significance, the sample size will be very large. By using composite endpoint, the sample size becomes reasonable and feasible. Limiting inclusion to patients with urine volume less than 800 ml/day the day before dialysis session will limit confounding due to residual renal function effects on the measured parameters. Patients who had received BIS measurement within 3 months prior to enrolment are excluded as data from such measurements might lead to protocol violation. Although not all patients enrolled will be incident patients, we will record the vintage of dialysis in the multivariable analysis.
Current Controlled Trials NCT01509937
Hemodialysis; Bioimpedance; Dry weight; Body composition monitor; Randomized controlled trial
To investigate white matter volume abnormalities in patients with major depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment on white matter volume.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 32 treatment-naïve depressed patients, 17 recovered patients who had received antidepressant treatment and subsequently achieved clinical recovery and 34 matched controls.
Relative to the healthy controls, the treatment-naïve depressed patients showed increased white matter volumes in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left putamen and reduced white matter volumes in the left cerebellum posterior lobe and left inferior parietal lobule. For the treatment-naïve patients, the length in months of the current depressive episode was positively correlated with the white matter volumes in both the left DLPFC and left putamen. In the recovered patients, the differences in white matter volume were no longer statistically significant relative to healthy controls. No significant difference was found in the total white matter volume among the three groups.
This study demonstrates that there were alterations in the white matter volumes of depressed patients, which might disrupt the neural circuits that are involved in emotional and cognitive function and thus contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. The finding of the significant correlations between refractoriness and the white matter volumes in the left DLPFC and left putamen combined with the finding that antidepressant treatment normalized the white matter volume of recovered patients, suggests that a quantitative, structural MRI measurement could act as a potential biomarker in depression therapy for individual subjects.
BPR0L075, 6-methoxy-3-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-benzoyl)-1H-indole, is a tubulin-binding agent that inhibits tubulin polymerization by binding to the colchicine-binding site. BPR0L075 has shown antimitotic and antiangiogenic activity in vitro. The current study evaluated the vascular-disrupting activity of BPR0L075 in human breast cancer mammary fat pad xenografts using dynamic bioluminescence imaging. A single dose of BPR0L075 (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) induced rapid, temporary tumor vascular shutdown (at 2, 4, and 6 hours); evidenced by rapid and reproducible decrease of light emission from luciferase-expressing orthotopic MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumors after administration of luciferin substrate. A time-dependent reduction of tumor perfusion after BPR0L075 treatment was confirmed by immunohistological staining of the perfusion marker Hoechst 33342 and tumor vasculature marker CD31. The vasculature showed distinct recovery within 24 hours post therapy. A single i.p. injection of 50 mg/kg of BPR0L075 initially produced plasma concentrations in the micromolar range within 6 hours, but subsequent drug distribution and elimination caused BPR0L075 plasma levels to drop rapidly into the nanomolar range within 24 h. Tests with human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells and tumor cells in culture showed that BPR0L075 was cytotoxic to both tumor cells and proliferating endothelial cells, and disrupted pre-established vessels in vitro and ex vivo. In conclusion, BPR0L075 caused rapid, albeit, temporary tumor vascular shutdown and led to reduction of tumor perfusion in orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts, suggesting that this antimitotic agent may be useful as a vascular-disrupting cancer therapy.
Binding of platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a critical step in both physiologic hemostasis and pathologic thrombosis, for initiating platelet adhesion to subendothelium of blood vessels at sites of vascular injury. Gain-of-function mutations in GPIbα contribute to an abnormally high-affinity binding of platelets to vWF and can lead to thrombosis, an accurate complication causing heart attack and stroke. Of various antithrombotic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting human GPIbα, 6B4 is a potent one to inhibit the interaction between GPIbα and vWF-A1 under static and flow conditions. Mapping paratope to epitope with mutagenesis experiments, a traditional route in researches of these antithrombotic mAbs, is usually expensive and time-consuming. Here, we suggested a novel computational procedure, which combines with homology modeling, rigid body docking, free and steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to identify key paratope residues on 6B4 and their partners on GPIbα, with hypothesis that the stable hydrogen bonds and salt bridges are the important linkers between paratope and epitope residues. Based on a best constructed model of 6B4 bound with GPIbα, the survival ratios and rupture times of all detected hydrogen bonds and salt bridges in binding site were examined via free and steered MD simulations and regarded as indices of thermal and mechanical stabilizations of the bonds, respectively. Five principal paratope residues with their partners were predicted with their high survival ratios and/or long rupture times of involved hydrogen bonds, or with their hydrogen bond stabilization indices ranked in top 5. Exciting, the present results were in good agreement with previous mutagenesis experiment data, meaning a wide application prospect of our novel computational procedure on researches of molecular of basis of ligand-receptor interactions, various antithrombotic mAbs and other antibodies as well as theoretically design of biomolecular drugs.
The rumen hosts one of the most efficient microbial systems for degrading plant cell walls, yet the predominant cellulolytic proteins and fibrolytic mechanism(s) remain elusive. Here we investigated the cellulolytic microbiome of the yak rumen by using a combination of metagenome-based and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based functional screening approaches. Totally 223 fibrolytic BAC clones were pyrosequenced and 10,070 ORFs were identified. Among them 150 were annotated as the glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes for fibrolytic proteins, and the majority (69%) of them were clustered or linked with genes encoding related functions. Among the 35 fibrolytic contigs of >10 Kb in length, 25 were derived from Bacteroidetes and four from Firmicutes. Coverage analysis indicated that the fibrolytic genes on most Bacteroidetes-contigs were abundantly represented in the metagenomic sequences, and they were frequently linked with genes encoding SusC/SusD-type outer-membrane proteins. GH5, GH9, and GH10 cellulase/hemicellulase genes were predominant, but no GH48 exocellulase gene was found. Most (85%) of the cellulase and hemicellulase proteins possessed a signal peptide; only a few carried carbohydrate-binding modules, and no cellulosomal domains were detected. These findings suggest that the SucC/SucD-involving mechanism, instead of one based on cellulosomes or the free-enzyme system, serves a major role in lignocellulose degradation in yak rumen. Genes encoding an endoglucanase of a novel GH5 subfamily occurred frequently in the metagenome, and the recombinant proteins encoded by the genes displayed moderate Avicelase in addition to endoglucanase activities, suggesting their important contribution to lignocellulose degradation in the exocellulase-scarce rumen.
Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are one of the key components of antiretroviral therapy drug regimen against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We previously described a newly synthesized small molecule, 10-chloromethyl-11-demethyl-12-oxo-calanolide A (F18), a (+)-calanolide A analog, as a novel anti-HIV-1 NNRTI (H. Xue et al., J. Med. Chem. 53:1397–1401, 2010). Here, we further investigated its antiviral range, drug resistance profile, and underlying mechanism of action. F18 consistently displayed potent activity against primary HIV-1 isolates, including various subtypes of group M, circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE, and laboratory-adapted drug-resistant viruses. Moreover, F18 displayed distinct profiles against 17 NNRTI-resistant pseudoviruses, with an excellent potency especially against one of the most prevalent strains with the Y181C mutation (50% effective concentration, 1.0 nM), which was in stark contrast to the extensively used NNRTIs nevirapine and efavirenz. Moreover, we induced F18-resistant viruses by in vitro serial passages and found that the mutation L100I appeared to be the dominant contributor to F18 resistance, further suggesting a binding motif different from that of nevirapine and efavirenz. F18 was nonantagonistic when used in combination with other antiretrovirals against both wild-type and drug-resistant viruses in infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interestingly, F18 displayed a highly synergistic antiviral effect with nevirapine against nevirapine-resistant virus (Y181C). Furthermore, in silico docking analysis suggested that F18 may bind to the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase differently from other NNRTIs. This study presents F18 as a new potential drug for clinical use and also presents a new mechanism-based design for future NNRTI.
Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia.
To reveal possible factors predicting the effect of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) treatment on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and optimize the utilization of ADV.
In total, 168 treatment-naïve CHB patients were enrolled, including 117 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients and 51 HBeAg-negative patients who met the inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with ADV 10 mg per day for 48 weeks. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate baseline factors, and responses at weeks 12 and 24 were analyzed as predictive values.
Multiple regression analyses showed that baseline HBeAg status and HBV DNA levels significantly affected the virological response (VR) (p<0.05), baseline ALT levels were an independent predictor of serological response (SR) (p<0.05) and the body mass index (BMI) may affect the biochemical response (BR) (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the VR and SR between patients with a primary nonresponse (PNR) at week 12 and those with a VR at week 12 (p<0.01). Additionally, the VR was significantly different between patients with HBV DNA lower than 103 copies/mL at week 24 and those with greater than 103 copies/mL (p<0.01).
Patients with negative HBeAg, lower HBV DNA levels and higher ALT values at baseline are more suitable for ADV treatment, whereas patients with lower BMIs may be more amenable to ALT normalization. Adjustments for treatment strategy should be considered if PNR at week 12 or HBV DNA ≥103 copies/mL at week 24 is observed.
Adefovir dipivoxil; Antiviral therapy; Chronic hepatitis B; Predictive factors
Antiviral treatment with nucleoside analogs has been used for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Each kind of nucleoside analog has its own characteristics and suitability for patients. Telbivudine (LdT, brand name: Sebivo, Beijing Novartis Pharma Ltd) is the newest nucleoside analog, with strong and rapid viral suppression. However, its resistance rate is relatively high during long-term application, due to low genetic barriers to resistance. So, it is necessary to increase the effect and reduce resistance with effective management, according to baseline factors and early on-treatment responses.
To reveal possible predictive factors of the effect of telbivudine (LdT) treatment on naïve HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients to optimize treatment.
Patients and Methods
A total 71 naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. All patients were treated with LdT 600 mg Qd for at least 52 weeks. Multiple logistic regression analyses were done to investigate the predictive values of baseline factors and responses at Week 24.
The reduction in hepatitis virus B (HBV) DNA level was 6.44 ± 2.38 lg copies/mL at Week 52 compared with baseline. The complete virus response (CVR), biochemical response (BR), serological response (SR), and drug resistance (DR) were 61.99%, 77.46%, 35.21%, and 8.45% respectively. By multiple regression analysis, baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels significantly affected CVR (P = 0.024, OR = 1.008), and baseline ALT and baseline HBV DNA levels were independent compact factors of SR (P = 0.012, OR = 1.007; P = 0.001, OR = 0.423). The differences in CVR, SR, and DR in patients with ALT > 120 Iu/mL compared with patients with ALT ≤ 120 Iu/mL were statistically significant. The differences in SR in patients with HBV DNA > 107 copies/mL compared with patients with HBV DNA ≤ 107 copies/mL were statistically significant. Additionally, CVR, BR, and SR were differed significantly between patients with HBV DNA lower than 300 copies/mL at Week 24 and patients with HBV DNA higher than 300 copies/mL (P = 0.000, P = 0.0016, and P = 0.000, respectively).
There were more responders among naïve HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with lower HBV DNA levels (especially lower than 107 copies/mL) and higher ALT values (especially higher than 120 Iu/mL at baseline) to LdT treatment. Adjustments for treatment strategy should be considered if HBV DNA > 300 copies/mL at Week 24 is observed.
Telbivudine; Hepatitis B, Chronic; Predictive Value of Tests; Alanine Transaminase; Hepatitis B Virus
An HIV infected hemophilia patient with huge inflammatory pseudotumor was in severe ill condition. The operation of right hip joint amputation was performed on the patient with perioperative infusion of coagulation factor VIII and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The pathological found that Inflammatory cell infiltration, formation of folliculus lymphaticus, muscular fiber breakage, and fibrous tissue hyperplasy, necrosis in both soft tissue and bone were seen in inflammatory pseudotumour. The vital signs remained stable during the operation and patient's overall health condition improved significantly ten months after operation. With the infusion of coagulation factor VIII and HAART, HIV infected hemophilia patient can be safety operation and may get effective result.
A recent genome-wide scan has identified two genetic variants in the HLA-DP region strongly associated with hepatitis B infection in Japanese. This study evaluates the effects of these risk variants in Chinese, where the HBV infection is the most popular in the world.
Methods and Findings
We have assessed the relationship between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3077 and rs9277535) and chronic hepatitis B infection in two independent case-control studies. The first population in Chinese Han included 736 patients and 782 spontaneously recovered controls. The second set was established in Chinese Zhuang minority of 177 patients and 208 controls. Both A alleles of rs3077 and rs9277535 significantly deceased the risk to CHB in Chinese Han (OR = 0.540, 95%CI: 0.464–0.628, P = 4.068×10−16 and OR = 0.696, 95%CI: 0.601–0.806, P = 1.062×10−6, respectively). Conceivably, rs9277535 was found to be associated with decreased risk of the disease in Chinese Zhuang, with an OR of 0.606 (95%CI, 0.441–0.833, P = 0.002).
Chronic hepatitis B susceptibility loci in HLA-DP region (rs3077 and rs9277535) identified by genome-wide scan in Japanese population were validated in Chinese population. These findings might provide clues to develop screening and surveillance strategies.
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a classic oligogenic disorder. Except inactivating mutations of RET, some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are identified to be associated with the risk of HSCR. This study was conducted to examine the impact of the haplotypes profile of the reported associated SNPs of RET on the risk of HSCR in a Southeastern Chinese population.
Genotypes of -5G > A (rs10900296), -1A > C (rs10900297), c135G > A (rs1800858), c1296A > G (rs1800860), and c2307T > G (rs1800861) were analyzed in 123 HSCR patients and 168 controls by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Associations with risk of HSCR were estimated by odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using logistic regression.
We observed a significantly increased risk of HSCR associated with the RET -5AA (OR = 17.75, 95% CI = 7.34-42.92), -1CC (OR = 10.89, 95% CI = 3.13-37.85), 135AA (OR = 13.61, 95% CI = 6.14-30.14), 1296GG (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.38-4.18) or 2307GG (OR = 9.79, 95% CI = 4.28-22.43) respectively. The five SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype A-C-A-G-G (OR = 5.06, 95% CI = 1.97-12.99) and diplotype A-C-A-G-G/A-C-A-G-G (OR = 21.08, 95% CI = 5.28-84.09) was also associated with the increased risk of HSCR, indicating a cumulative effect of these SNPs on the susceptibility of HSCR.
These results support the hypothesis that common variations in RET pathway might play an important role in development of HSCR.
Either combination treatment or monotherapy using agents with a high genetic barrier are recommended for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of this study was to compare effect of naïve HBeAg-negative CHB patients with either de novo combination of lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) or entecavir (ETV) monotherapy.
HBeAg-negative CHB patients (n = 71) with ALT levels between 2 and 10 times the upper normal limit and HBV DNA levels >104 copies/mL were enrolled. Patients were treated with either LAM 100 mg plus ADV 10 mg per day (n = 31) or ETV 0.5 mg per day (n = 40) for 48 weeks.
The average reduction in HBV DNA level compared with baseline were 5.16 ± 1.69 log in the LAM + ADV group and 5.36 ± 1.70 log in the ETV group by week 48 (P = 0.624). The virological response (VR) rates were 80.65 and 77.5%, the biochemical response (BR) rates were 93.55 and 90.00% at week 48 in the LAM + ADV and ETV groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in the VR and BR between the two groups. During the 48-week treatment period, virological breakthrough and serious side effects were not noted in any patient.
Both LAM + ADV combination therapy and ETV monotherapy are effective in naïve HBeAg-negative CHB patients, but further studies are needed to obtain long-term results.
Chronic hepatitis B; HBeAg-negative; Lamivudine; Adefovir dipivoxil; Combination treatment; Entecavir; Monotherapy