Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer.
Pokemon; anoikis; Bim; hepatoma
Here we described a paclitaxel (PTX) nanocrystals formulation using D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) as the sole excipient for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR), a key challenge in current cancer therapy. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on PTX nanocrystals which can reverse MDR. TPGS serves as a surfactant to stabilize the nanocrystals and a P-gp inhibitor to reverse MDR. The size and morphology of the nanocrystals were studied by transmission electron microscopy and the crystalline structure was determined by powder X-ray diffraction. In vitro drug release profile showed that the nanocrystals exhibited sustained release kinetics compared to Taxol which is the clinical paclitaxel formulation. The cytotoxicity and antitumor efficacy in xenograft models were also investigated. It is demonstrated that PTX/TPGS nanocrystals have significant advantages over Taxol in achieving better therapeutic effect in Taxol-resistant cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was also confirmed by apoptosis assays. We envision that further development of this type of nanocrystals will provide a novel strategy for drug delivery and multidrug resistance treatment.
multidrug resistance; paclitaxel; nanocrystals; TPGS; cancer
Traceability through physical labels is well established, but it is not highly reliable as physical labels can be easily changed or lost. Application of DNA markers to the traceability of food plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection and confidence building. In this study, we tested the efficiency of 16 polymorphic microsatellites and their combinations for tracing 368 fish to four populations where they originated. Using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, three most efficient microsatellites were required to assign over 95% of fish to the correct populations. Selection of markers based on the assignment score estimated with the software WHICHLOCI was most effective in choosing markers for individual assignment, followed by the selection based on the allele number of individual markers. By combining rapid DNA extraction, and high-throughput genotyping of selected microsatellites, it is possible to conduct routine genetic traceability with high accuracy in Asian seabass.
In aquaculture species, maintaining pedigree information and genetic variation in each generation is essential, but very difficult. In this study, we used nine microsatellites to genotype 2,520 offspring from four independent full-factorial crosses (10 males ×10 females) of Asian seabass to reconstruct pedigree and monitor the change of genetic variations. In all four crosses, over 96.8% of the offspring could be assigned to their parents, indicating the high power of the nine microsatellites for parentage assignment. This study revealed several interesting results: (1). In all four crosses, the contribution of parents to offspring was significantly uneven, and some dominant breeding fishes (i.e. brooders) were found; (2). In two mass crosses where the brooders were carefully checked for reproductive status, a majority (≥90%) of brooders contributed to offspring, whereas in another two crosses, where the brooders were randomly picked without checking reproductive status, only a few brooders (40.0–45.0%) produced offspring; (3). Females had more problems in successful spawning compared to males; and (4). In the two crosses where a few brooders produced offspring, there was a substantial loss in allelic (24.1–34.3%) and gene (20.5–25.7%) diversities in offspring, while in the other two crosses, the majority of allelic (96.8–97.0%) and gene diversities (94.8–97.1%) were maintained. These observations suggest that a routine molecular parentage analysis is required to maintain both allelic and gene diversity in breeding Asian seabass.
To gain valuable insights into the gene interaction and the complex regulation system involved in the development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus, we conducted a whole transcriptome analysis of Culex mosquitoes following permethrin selection. Gene expression profiles for the lower resistant parental mosquito strain HAmCqG0 and their permethrin-selected high resistant offspring HAmCqG8 were compared and a total of 367 and 3982 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated, respectively, in HAmCqG8, indicating that multiple genes are involved in response to permethrin selection. However, a similar overall cumulative gene expression abundance was identified between up- and down-regulated genes in HAmCqG8 mosquitoes following permethrin selection, suggesting a homeostatic response to insecticides through a balancing of the up- and down-regulation of the genes. While structural and/or cuticular structural functions were the only two enriched GO terms for down-regulated genes, the enriched GO terms obtained for the up-regulated genes occurred primarily among the catalytic and metabolic functions where they represented three functional categories: electron carrier activity, binding, and catalytic activity. Interestingly, the functional GO terms in these three functional categories were overwhelmingly overrepresented in P450s and proteases/serine proteases. The important role played by P450s in the development of insecticide resistance has been extensively studied but the function of proteases/serine proteases in resistance is less well understood. Hence, the characterization of the functions of these proteins, including their digestive, catalytic and proteinase activities; regulation of signaling transduction and protein trafficking, immunity and storage; and their precise function in the development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes will provide new insights into how genes are interconnected and regulated in resistance.
Previous studies have found numerous brain changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but no neurological biomarker has been developed to diagnose depression or to predict responses to antidepressants. In the present study, we used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to classify MDD patients with different therapeutic responses and healthy controls and to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of structural neuroimaging data of MDD.
Eighteen patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), 17 patients with treatment-sensitive depression (TSD) and 17 matched healthy controls were scanned using structural MRI. Voxel-based morphometry, together with a modified MVPA technique which combined searchlight algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA), was used to classify the subjects with TRD, those with TSD and healthy controls. The results revealed that both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions as well as cerebellum structures had a high classification power in patients with MDD. The accuracy of the GM and WM that correctly discriminated TRD patients from TSD patients was both 82.9%. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the GM that correctly discriminated TRD or TSD patients from healthy controls were 85.7% and 82.4%, respectively; and the WM that correctly discriminated TRD or TSD patients from healthy controls were 85.7% and 91.2%, respectively.
These results suggest that structural MRI with MVPA might be a useful and reliable method to study the neuroanatomical changes to differentiate patients with MDD from healthy controls and patients with TRD from those with TSD. This method might also be useful to study potential brain regions associated with treatment response in patients with MDD.
Recent observations in in vitro and in vivo models suggest that arsenic (As) is an endocrine disruptor at environmentally-relevant levels. When exposed to As, male rats and mice show steroidogenic dysfunction that can lead to infertility. However, the possible effects of As on human male semen quality remain obscure.
We monitored the profile of As species in the urine of a reproductive-age human cohort and assessed its association with semen quality. Men (n = 96) were recruited in an infertility clinic from July 2009 to August 2010 in the Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Institute for Population and Family Planning. Five urinary As species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Clinical information on the semen volume, sperm concentration and motility was employed to catalogue and evaluate semen quality according to WHO guidelines. As species concentrations in addition to other continuous variables were dichotomized by the medians and modelled as categorical variables in order to explore using the binary logistic regression possible associations between As exposure and semen quality.
Urinary concentrations (geometric mean ± SD, μg g-1 creatinine) of different As species were 7.49 (±24.8) for AsB, 20.9 (±13.7) for DMA, 2.77 (±3.33) for MMA, and 4.03 (±3.67) for Asi (AsiIII and AsiV). DMA concentrations above the median were significantly associated with below-reference sperm concentrations (P =0.02) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), abstinence, smoking and drinking habits. In addition, smoking was positively associated with MMA.
Reduced parameters in human semen quality are positively associated with As exposure in a reproductive-age Chinese cohort.
Arsenic; China; Cross-sectional study; Human reproduction; Semen quality
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) do
not only influence self-antigen specific immune responses, but also dampen
the protective effect induced by a number of vaccines. The impact of CD4+CD25+
Tregs on vaccines against schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that
is a major public health concern, however, has not been examined. In this
study, a DNA vaccine encoding a 26 kDa glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma
japonicum (pVAX1-Sj26GST) was constructed and its potential effects
were evaluated by depleting CD25+ cells prior to pVAX1-Sj26GST
immunization. This work shows that removal of CD25+ cells
prior to immunization with the pVAX1-Sj26GST schistosomiasis DNA vaccine significantly
increases the proliferation of splenocytes and IgG levels. However, CD25+
cell-depleted mice immunized with pVAX1-Sj26GST show no improved protection
against S. japonicum. Furthermore, depletion of CD25+
cells causes an increase in both pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IFN-γ,
GM-CSF and IL-4) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. IL-10), with CD4+CD25-
T cells being one of the major sources of both IFN-γ and IL-10. These
findings indicate that partial CD25+ cell depletion fails
to enhance the effectiveness of the schistosome vaccine, possibly due to IL-10
production by CD4+CD25- T cells, or other cell
types, after CD25+ cell depletion during vaccination.
To assess the potential efficacy of mechano growth factor (MGF) for bone injury, we firstly investigated the effects of growth factors, including MGF, its E peptide (a short 24-amino acid C-terminal peptide, MGF-Ct24E), and insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell proliferation. MGF-Ct24E had the highest pro-proliferation activity among three growth factors, which was 1.4 times greater than that of IGF-1. Moreover, MGF-Ct24E promoted cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle, but also mainly by the activation of the MAPK-Erk1/2 pathway. In vivo, a 5-mm segmental bone defect in the radius of 27 rabbits was treated with MGF-Ct24E by two doses (28.5 and 57 μg /kg body weight) vs. non-growth factor injection for five consecutive days postoperatively. The cumulative rate of radiographically healed defects and histological scores of bone defect-healing revealed a statistical difference between high-dose treatment and non treatment (p < 0.01), which showed the treatment promoted defect healing. This report is the first to demonstrate that MGF-Ct24E possesses positive effects on osteoblast proliferation and bone-defect healing, suggesting a new strategy in fracture healing.
AIM: To investigate the relationship between donor liver cold preservation, lung surfactant (LS) changes and acute lung injury (ALI) after liver transplantation.
METHODS: Liver transplantation models were established using male Wistar rats. Donor livers were preserved in University of Wisconsin solution at 4 °C for different lengths of time. The effect of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) on ALI was also detected. All samples were harvested after 3 h reperfusion. The severity of ALI was evaluated by lung weight/body weight ratio, lung histopathological score, serum nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET)-1 levels, lung tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. Lung surfactants (LSs) were determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.
RESULTS: With extended donor liver cold preservation time (CPT), lung histopathological scores, serum ET-1 levels, lung weight/body weight ratio and the level of TNF-α and IL-1β in lung were increased significantly in the 180-min group compared with the sham group (3.16 ± 0.28 vs 1.12 ± 0.21, P < 0.001; 343.59 ± 53.97 vs 141.53 ± 48.48, P < 0.001; 0.00687 ± 0.00037 vs 0.00557 ± 0.00056, P < 0.001; 17.5 ± 3.0 vs 1.3 ± 0.3, P < 0.001; 10.8 ± 2.3 vs 1.8 ± 0.4, P < 0.001), but serum NO levels decreased remarkably (74.67 ± 10.01 vs 24.97 ± 3.18, P < 0.001). The expression of lung phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS) increased when CPT was < 120 min, and decreased when CPT was > 180 min (PC: 1318.89 ± 54.79 vs 1011.18 ± 59.99, P < 0.001; PE: 1504.45 ± 119.96 vs 1340.80 ± 76.39, P = 0.0019; PI: 201.23 ± 34.82 vs 185.88 ± 17.04, P = 0.2265; PS: 300.43 ± 32.95 vs 286.55 ± 55.55, P = 0.5054). All these ALI-associated indexes could be partially reversed by PDTC treatment.
CONCLUSION: Prolonged CPT could induce or inhibit the expression of LSs at the compensation or decompensation stage, and some antioxidants (e.g., PDTC) may reverse the pathological process partially.
Liver transplantation; Acute lung injury; Organ preservation; Lung surfactants
Obesity impairs adiponectin expression, assembly, and secretion, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the molecular mechanisms by which obesity impairs adiponectin multimerization and stability, and 2) to determine the potential role of disulfide-bond-A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a recently identified adiponectin interactive protein that promotes adiponectin multimerization and stability in obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adiponectin downregulation.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, was used to study the mechanism underlying obesity-induced adiponectin downregulation in db/db mice, high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and in ER-stressed 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The cellular levels of DsbA-L were altered by RNAi-mediated suppression or adenovirus-mediated overexpression. The protective role of DsbA-L in obesity- and ER stress–induced adiponectin downregulation was characterized.
Treating db/db mice and diet-induced obese mice with TUDCA increased the cellular and serum levels of adiponectin. In addition, inducing ER stress is sufficient to downregulate adiponectin levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which could be protected by treating cells with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or by overexpression of DsbA-L.
ER stress plays a key role in obesity-induced adiponectin downregulation. In addition, DsbA-L facilitates adiponectin folding and assembly and provides a protective effect against ER stress–mediated adiponectin downregulation in obesity.
The rice somaclonal mutant T3612 produces small grains with a floury endosperm, caused by the loose packing of starch granules. The positional cloning of the mutation revealed a deletion in a gene encoding a protein disulphide isomerase-like enzyme (PDIL1-1). In the wild type, PDIL1-1 was expressed throughout the plant, but most intensely in the developing grain. In T3612, its expression was abolished, resulting in a decrease in the activity of plastidial phosphorylase and pullulanase, and an increase in that of soluble starch synthase I and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. The amylopectin in the T3612 endosperm showed an increase in chains with a degree of polymerization 8–13 compared with the wild type. The expression in the mutant's endosperm of certain endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive genes was noticeably elevated. PDIL1-1 appears to play an important role in starch synthesis. Its absence is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress in the endosperm, which is likely to underlie the formation of the floury endosperm in the T3612 mutant.
ER stress; floury endosperm; protein disulphide isomerase-like 1-1; starch synthesis
Hantaan virus (HTNV) is the causative agent of the most severe form of a rodent-borne disease known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). A safe and effective HTNV vaccine is needed. Vaccination with DNA constructs expressing fused antigen with bioactive factors, has shown promising improvement of immunogenicity for viral agents in animal models, but the effect of fusion strategy on HTNV DNA vaccine has not been investigated.
DNA plasmids encoding the HTNV nucleocapsid protein (N) and glycoprotein (Gn and Gc) in fusion to the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated-antigen 4 (eCTLA-4) targeting to antigen presenting cells (APCs) were constructed. Intramuscular immunization of mice with plasmids expressing eCTLA-4-HTNV-N/GP fusion proteins leads to a significant enhancement of the specific antibody response as well as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, this effect could be further augmented when co-administered with CpG motifs.
Modification of viral antigen in fusion to bioactive factor will be promising to confer efficient antigen presentation and improve the potency of DNA vaccine in mice.
We have observed at our clinical work that acute lung injury (ALI) often occurs in patients transplanted with donor livers persevered for long time. So, we conducted this study to investigate the influence of cold preservation time (CPT) of donor liver on ALI induced by liver transplantation (LT), and further study the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the process.
Wistar rats were used as donors and recipients to establish orthotopic rat liver transplantation models. Donor livers were preserved at 4°C for different lengths of time. The effect of NF-κB inhibitor, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), on ALI was detected. All samples were harvested after 3 h reperfusion. The severity of liver injury was evaluated first. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in liver tissue and liver outflow serum were measured respectively. The severity indexes of ALI, the activity of NF-κB and inhibitor-κBα (I-κBα) in lung/liver were measured accordingly.
With the prolonged liver CPT, the liver damage associated indexes and ALI-related indexes all increased significantly. TNF-α and IL-1β in liver outflow serum increased accordingly, and the activity of NF-κB in liver/lung increased correspondingly. All these ALI-associated indexes could be partially reversed by the use of PDTC.
Extended CPT aggravates the damage of donor liver and induces the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β in liver. These inflammatory factors migrate to lung via liver outflow blood and activate NF-κB in lung, inducing ALI finally. NF-κB may play a critical role in LT-related ALI. Patients with or at risk of ALI may benefit from acute anti-inflammatory treatment with PDTC.
Resveratrol (RSV, trans-3,4,5-Trihydroxystilbene), a type of polyphenol originally found in red wines, shows a great promise for the treatment of cancer, aging, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies suggest that suppressing the signaling pathway mediated by mTOR, a well-known energy sensor that integrates various hormonal, nutrient and environmental signals to regulate cell growth, metabolism and survival, could play an important role in mediating the beneficial effect of RSV. The underlying mechanisms by which RSV inhibits mTOR signaling remain elusive, but our recent studies show that RSV inhibits amino acid-stimulated mTOR signaling in C2C12 fibroblasts via a Sirt1- and AMPK-independent mechanism. RSV treatment has no effect on the expression levels of mTOR, raptor and DEPTOR, but greatly promotes the interaction between mTOR and its inhibitor DEPTOR. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which RSV inhibits mTOR signaling and its function.
resveratrol; mTOR; Sirt1; AMPK; PI3K; PIKK; DEPTOR
Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms.
Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Pokemon expression and its correlation with the progression and prognosis of the disease. DNA microarray analysis of MCF-7 cells that overexpress Pokemon was used to identify Pokemon target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to determine how Pokemon regulates survivin expression, a target gene.
Pokemon was found to be overexpressed in 158 (86.8%) of 182 breast cancer tissues, and its expression was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.0148) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0014). Pokemon expression led to worse overall (n = 175, P = 0.01) and disease-related (n = 79, P = 0.0134) patient survival. DNA microarray analyses revealed that in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, Pokemon regulates the expression of at least 121 genes involved in several signaling and metabolic pathways, including anti-apoptotic survivin. In clinical specimens, Pokemon and survivin expression were highly correlated (n = 49, r = 0.6799, P < 0.0001). ChIP and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Pokemon induces survivin expression by binding to the GT boxes in its promoter.
Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression and thus may be a potential target for the treatment of this malignancy.
Oridonin, a tetracycline diterpenoid compound, has the potential antitumor activities. Here, we evaluate the antitumor activity and action mechanisms of oridonin in colorectal cancer.
Effects of oridonin on cell proliferation were determined by using a CCK-8 Kit. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was examined by analyzing subdiploid population and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. Senescent cells were determined by senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity analysis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the changes of mRNA of p16, p21, p27 and c-myc. The concomitant changes of protein expression were analyzed with Western blot. Expression of AcH3 and AcH4 were examined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blots. Effects of oridonin on colony formation of SW1116 were examined by Soft Agar assay. The in vivo efficacy of oridonin was detected using a xenograft colorectal cancer model in nude mice.
Oridonin induced potent growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and colony-forming inhibition in three colorectal cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Daily i.p. injection of oridonin (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg) for 28 days significantly inhibited the growth of SW1116 s.c. xenografts in BABL/C nude mice. With western blot and reverse transcription-PCR, we further showed that the antitumor activities of oridonin correlated with induction of histone (H3 and H4) hyperacetylation, activation of p21, p27 and p16, and suppression of c-myc expression.
Oridonin possesses potent in vitro and in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activities that correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and regulation of pathways critical for maintaining growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Therefore, oridonin may represent a novel therapeutic option in colorectal cancer treatment.
In this study, 4′,7-diacetoxyapigenin [4-(7-acetoxy-5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl) phenyl acetate] was synthesized for the first time. Its chemical structure was identified by UV, ESI-MS, 1H and 13C-NMR. It could inhibit the proliferation of Hep G2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce the significant increase of the G0/G1 cell population. After treatment by 4′,7-diacetoxyapigenin, phosphatidylserine of Hep G2 cells could significantly translocate to the surface of the membrane. The increase of an early apoptotic population was observed by both annexin-FITC and PI staining. It was concluded that 4′,7-diacetoxyapigenin not only induced cells to enter into apoptosis, but also affected the progress of the cell cycle.
apoptosis; cell cycle; Hep G2; 4′,7-diacetoxyapigenin
The development of new therapeutic targets and strategies to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection in humans is urgently needed. Broadly cross-neutralizing recombinant human antibodies obtained from the survivors of H5N1 avian influenza provide an important role in immunotherapy for human H5N1 virus infection and definition of the critical epitopes for vaccine development.
We have characterized two recombinant baculovirus-expressed human antibodies (rhAbs), AVFluIgG01 and AVFluIgG03, generated by screening a Fab antibody phage library derived from a patient recovered from infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 clade 2.3 virus. AVFluIgG01 cross-neutralized the most of clade 0, clade 1, and clade 2 viruses tested, in contrast, AVFluIgG03 only neutralized clade 2 viruses. Passive immunization of mice with either AVFluIgG01 or AVFluIgG03 antibody resulted in protection from a lethal H5N1 clade 2.3 virus infection. Furthermore, through epitope mapping, we identify two distinct epitopes on H5 HA molecule recognized by these rhAbs and demonstrate their potential to protect against a lethal H5N1 virus infection in a mouse model.
Importantly, localization of the epitopes recognized by these two neutralizing and protective antibodies has provided, for the first time, insight into the human antibody responses to H5N1 viruses which contribute to the H5 immunity in the recovered patient. These results highlight the potential of a rhAbs treatment strategy for human H5N1 virus infection and provide new insight for the development of effective H5N1 pandemic vaccines.
Nineteen teams presented results for the Gene Mention Task at the BioCreative II Workshop. In this task participants designed systems to identify substrings in sentences corresponding to gene name mentions. A variety of different methods were used and the results varied with a highest achieved F1 score of 0.8721. Here we present brief descriptions of all the methods used and a statistical analysis of the results. We also demonstrate that, by combining the results from all submissions, an F score of 0.9066 is feasible, and furthermore that the best result makes use of the lowest scoring submissions.
Among developmental control genes, transcription factor-target gene “linkages” — the direct connections between target genes and the factors that control their patterns of expression — can show remarkable evolutionary stability. However, the specific binding sites that mediate and define these regulatory connections are themselves often subject to rapid turnover. Here we describe several instances in which particular transcription factor binding motif combinations have evidently been conserved upstream of orthologous target genes for extraordinarily long evolutionary periods. This occurs against a backdrop in which other binding sites for the same factors are coming and going rapidly. Our examples include a particular Dpp Silencer Element upstream of insect brinker genes, in combination with a novel motif we refer to as the Downstream Element; combinations of a Suppressor of Hairless Paired Site (SPS) and a specific proneural protein binding site associated with arthropod Notch pathway target genes; and a three-motif combination, also including an SPS, upstream of deuterostome Hes repressor genes, which are also Notch targets. We propose that these stable motif architectures have been conserved intact from a deep ancestor, in part because they mediate a special mode of regulation that cannot be supplied by the other, unstable motif instances.
Cis-regulatory evolution; Conserved motifs; Notch pathway; Dpp signaling; Hairy/Enhancer of split repressor genes; Bearded family genes
Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes and is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater food fish. Mozambique tilapia and its hybrids, including red tilapia are main representatives of salt tolerant tilapias. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping QTL for important traits, positional cloning of genes and understanding of genome evolution.
We constructed a consensus linkage map of Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia using 95 individuals from two F1 families and 401 microsatellites including 282 EST-derived markers. In addition, we conducted comparative mapping and searched for sex-determining loci on the whole genome. These 401 microsatellites were assigned to 22 linkage groups. The map spanned 1067.6 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 3.3 cM. Comparative mapping between tilapia and stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish revealed clear homologous relationships between chromosomes from different species. We found evidence for the fusion of two sets of two independent chromosomes forming two new chromosome pairs, leading to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex determination locus in Mozambique tilapia was mapped on LG1, and verified in five families containing 549 individuals. The major XY sex determination locus in red tilapia was located on LG22, and verified in two families containing 275 individuals.
A first-generation linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia was constructed using 401 microsatellites. Two separate fusions of two sets of two independent chromosomes may lead to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex-determining loci from Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia were mapped on LG1 and LG22, respectively. This map provides a useful resource for QTL mapping for important traits and comparative genome studies. The DNA markers linked to the sex-determining loci could be used in the selection of YY males for breeding all-male populations of salt tolerant tilapia, as well as in studies on mechanisms of sex determination in fish.
Tilapia; Salt tolerance; Breeding; Sex; Growth
The dynamic alteration of ABO blood group in ABO-incompatible haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be well defined by ABO chimerism analysis. In view of the intrinsic difference in ABO phenotypes or genotypes between donor and recipient in ABO incompatible transplantation, ABO allele-associated nucleotide polymorphic sites could theoretically be used as available informative markers for chimerism analysis.
Materials and methods
We chose nucleotide polymorphism sites (261, 467, 802, 803 and 1,061) of common ABO alleles to use as markers from 76 randomly chosen donors and assessed the limit of linear detection of a specifically designed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green I dye with these sites for a chimerism assay.
We successfully established the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detecting 261, 467mutated and 803 sites and their limits of linear detection, which were at least 10−3, 10−2 and 10−2, respectively. The limits of linear detection between heterozygous DNA and homozygous DNA with 261 or 803 sites were not significantly different.
ABO chimerism can be well analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction with ABO gene-associated nucleotide polymorphic sites. This strategy could be very beneficial for the early and accurate judgement of the crucial point of transition in order to plan a safe transfusion strategy following ABO-incompatible transplantation.
ABO gene; chimerism; ABO incompatible; haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; real-time PCR
Reactive gliosis had been implicated in injury and recovery patterns associated with hydrocephalus. Our aim is to determine the efficacy of minocycline, an antibiotic known for its anti-inflammatory properties, to reduce reactive gliosis and inhibit the development of hydrocephalus.
The ventricular dilatation were evaluated by MRI at 1-week post drugs treated, while GFAP and Iba-1were detected by RT-PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The expression of GFAP and Iba-1 was significantly higher in hydrocephalic group compared with saline control group (p < 0.05). Minocycline treatment of hydrocephalic animals reduced the expression of GFAP and Iba-1 significantly (p < 0.05). Likewise, the severity of ventricular dilatation is lower in minocycline treated hydrocephalic animals compared with the no minocycline group (p < 0.05).
Minocycline treatment is effective in reducing the gliosis and delaying the development of hydrocephalus with prospective to be the auxiliary therapeutic method of hydrocephalus.
Hydrocephalus; Gliosis; Astrocytosis; Microgliosis; Minocycline