Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a potential anti-apoptotic agent for various cells. We examined the protective effect of ANGPTL4 on hypoxia/serum deprivation (SD)-induced apoptosis of MSCs, as well as the possible mechanisms. MSCs were obtained from rat bone marrow and cultured in vitro. Apoptosis was induced by hypoxia/SD for up to 24 hr, and assessed by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. Expression levels of Akt, ERK1/2, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by Western blotting. Integrin β1 mRNA was detected by qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assayed using a membrane-permeable dye. Hypoxia/SD-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by recombinant rat ANGPTL4 in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, ANGPTL4 decreased the hypoxia/SD-induced caspase-3 cleavage and the cytochrome C release, but increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the mitochondrial membrane potential. Decreased expression of integrin β1, the ANGPTL4 receptor was observed during hypoxia/SD conditions, however, such decrease was reversed by ANGPTL4. In addition, ANGPTL4 induced integrin β1-associated FAK and Src phosphorylation, which was blocked by anti-integrin β1 antibody. ANGPTL4 also reversed the hypoxia/SD-induced decrease of Akt and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, and the effect of ANGPTL4 was abolished by inhibitors of either integrins, ERK1/2, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Blocking integrinβ1, Akt or ERK largely attenuated anti-apoptotic effect of ANGPTL4. ANGPTL4 protects MSCs from hypoxia/SD-induced apoptosis by interacting with integrins to stimulate FAK complex, leading to downstream ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and mimicking the pathway in which MSCs contact with the extracellular matrix.
Because of their regenerative and paracrine abilities, cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are the most appropriate, optimal and promising candidates for the development of cardiac regenerative medicine strategies. However, native and exogenous CSCs in ischemic hearts are exposed to various pro-apoptotic or cytotoxic factors preventing their regenerative and paracrine abilities.
Methods and Results
We examined the effects of H2O2 on mouse CSCs (mCSCs), and observed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment induces mCSCs apoptosis via the caspase 3 pathway, in a dose-dependent manner. We then examined the effects of Wnt1 over-expression on H2O2-induced apoptosis in mCSCs and observed that Wnt1 significantly decreased H2O2-induced apoptosis in mCSCs. On the other hand, inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway by the secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2) or knockdown of β-catenin in mCSCs reduced cells resistance to H2O2-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Wnt1 predominantly prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis through the canonical Wnt pathway.
Our results provide the first evidences that Wnt1 plays an important role in CSCs’ defenses against H2O2-induced apoptosis through the canonical Wnt1/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can suppress dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and function, mediated by soluble factors, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a common immunosuppressive cytokine, and the downstream signaling of the JAK-STAT pathway has been shown to be involved with DCs differentiation and maturation in the context of cancer. Whether IL-10 and/or the JAK-STAT pathway play a role in the inhibitory effect of MSCs on DCs maturation remains controversial. In our study, we cultured MSCs and DCs derived from rat bone marrow under different culturing conditions. Using Transwell plates, we detected by ELISA that the level of IL-10 significantly increased in the supernatants of MSC-DC co-cultures at 48 hours. The cell immunofluorescence assay suggested that the MSCs secreted more IL-10 than the DCs in the co-cultures. Adding exogenous IL-10 to the DCs monoculture or MSC-DC co-cultures stimulated IL-10 and led to a decrease in IL-12, and lower expression of the DCs surface markers CD80, CD86, OX62, MHC-II and CD11b/c. Supplementing the culture with an IL-10 neutralizing antibody (IL-10NA) showed precisely the opposite effect of adding IL-10. Moreover, we demonstrated that the JAK-STAT signaling pathway is involved in inhibiting DCs maturation. Both JAK1 and STAT3 expression and IL-10 secretion decreased markedly after adding a JAK inhibitor (AG490) to the co-culture plate. We propose that there is an IL-10 positive feedback loop, which may explain our observations of elevated IL-10 and enhanced JAK1 and STAT3 expression. Overall, we demonstrated that MSCs inhibit the maturation of DCs through the stimulation of IL-10 secretion, and by activating the JAK1 and STAT3 signaling pathway.
NQO1 is an emerging and promising therapeutic target in cancer therapy. This study was to determine whether the anti-tumor effect of tanshinone IIA (TSA) is NQO1 dependent and to elucidate the underlying apoptotic cell death pathways. NQO1+ A549 cells and isogenically matched NQO1 transfected and negative H596 cells were used to test the properties and mechanisms of TSA induced cell death. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and the tissue distribution properties of TSA were tested in tumor xenografted nude mice. We observed that TSA induced an excessive generation of ROS, DNA damage, and dramatic apoptotic cell death in NQO1+ A549 cells and H596-NQO1 cells, but not in NQO1− H596 cells. Inhibition or silence of NQO1 as well as the antioxidant NAC markedly reversed TSA induced apoptotic effects. TSA treatment significantly retarded the tumor growth of A549 tumor xenografts, which was significantly antagonized by dicoumarol co-treatment in spite of the increased and prolonged TSA accumulations in tumor tissues. TSA activated a ROS triggered, p53 independent and caspase dependent mitochondria apoptotic cell death pathway that is characterized with increased ratio of Bax to Bcl-xl, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release, and subsequent caspase activation and PARP-1 cleavage. The results of these findings suggest that TSA is a highly specific NQO1 target agent and is promising in developing as an effective drug in the therapy of NQO1 positive NSCLC.
In this paper, we described the symptoms and treatment of a patient with diabetic nephropathy accompanied by spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage after hemodialysis. An elderly female patient with diabetic nephropathy presented with severe pain, numbness, and an increasing swelling in the left hip and left thigh after six sessions of hemodialysis involving the use of an antiplatelet drug and an anticoagulant agent. Her hemoglobin decreased to 46 g/L. An abdominal ultrasound showed a hematoma in the left retroperitoneal space, and computed tomography (CT) findings revealed a 6 cm×8 cm×10 cm hematoma in the left psoas muscle. After aggressive supportive therapy [the administration of packed red blood cell transfusion, carbazochrome sodium sulfonate injection, and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)], the patient’s vital signs stabilized and her hemoglobin increased to 86 g/L. Repeat CT showed that the hematoma had been partially absorbed after two weeks. Eventually, the patient was discharged with stable vital signs. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage, particularly in patients with diabetic nephropathy undergoing hemodialysis involving the use of anticoagulant agents.
Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage; Diabetic nephropathy; Hemodialysis; Nadroparin calcium
Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is frequently used in pediatric general anesthesia. Accumulating evidence from animal experiments has demonstrated that ketamine causes neuronal cell death during the brain growth spurt. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms associated with ketamine-induced neuronal toxicity and search for approaches or agents to prevent ketamine’s adverse effects on the developing brain, a primary nerve cell culture system was utilized. Neurons harvested from the forebrain of newborn rats were maintained under normal control conditions or exposed to either ketamine (10µM) or ketamine plus l-carnitine (an antioxidant; 1–100µM) for 24h, followed by a 24-h withdrawal period. Ketamine exposure resulted in elevated NMDA receptor (NR1) expression, increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by higher levels of 8-oxoguanine production, and enhanced neuronal damage. Coadministration of l-carnitine significantly diminished ROS generation and provided near complete protection of neurons from ketamine-induced cell death. NMDA receptors regulate channels that are highly permeable to calcium, and calcium imaging data demonstrated that neurons exposed to ketamine had a significantly elevated amplitude of calcium influx and higher intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) evoked by NMDA (50µM), compared with control neurons. These findings suggest that prolonged ketamine exposure produces an increase in NMDA receptor expression (compensatory upregulation), which allows for a higher/toxic influx of calcium into neurons once ketamine is removed from the system, leading to elevated ROS generation and neuronal cell death. l-Carnitine appears to be a promising agent in preventing or reversing ketamine’s toxic effects on neurons at an early developmental stage.
ketamine; NMDA receptor; reactive oxygen species; calcium influx; l-carnitine
Background and Purpose
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) mediated quinone reduction and subsequent UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyzed glucuronidation is the dominant metabolic pathway of tanshinone IIA (TSA), a promising anti-cancer agent. UGTs are positively expressed in various tumor tissues and play an important role in the metabolic elimination of TSA. This study aims to explore the role of UGT1A in determining the intracellular accumulation and the resultant apoptotic effect of TSA.
We examined TSA intracellular accumulation and glucuronidation in HT29 (UGT1A positive) and HCT116 (UGT1A negative) human colon cancer cell lines. We also examined TSA-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytotoxicity and apoptotic effect in HT29 and HCT116 cells to investigate whether UGT1A levels are directly associated with TSA anti-cancer effect. UGT1A siRNA or propofol, a UGT1A9 competitive inhibitor, was used to inhibit UGT1A expression or UGT1A9 activity.
Multiple UGT1A isoforms are positively expressed in HT29 but not in HCT116 cells. Cellular S9 fractions prepared from HT29 cells exhibit strong glucuronidation activity towards TSA, which can be inhibited by propofol or UGT1A siRNA interference. TSA intracellular accumulation in HT29 cells is much lower than that in HCT116 cells, which correlates with high expression levels of UGT1A in HT29 cells. Consistently, TSA induces less intracellular ROS, cytotoxicity, and apoptotic effect in HT29 cells than those in HCT116 cells. Pretreatment of HT29 cells with UGT1A siRNA or propofol can decrease TSA glucuronidation and simultaneously improve its intracellular accumulation, as well as enhance TSA anti-cancer effect.
Conclusions and Implications
UGT1A can compromise TSA cytotoxicity via reducing its intracellular exposure and switching the NQO1-triggered redox cycle to metabolic elimination. Our study may shed a light in understanding the cellular pharmacokinetic and molecular mechanism by which UGTs determine the chemotherapy effects of drugs that are UGTs’ substrates.
In this paper, we present an investigation on the use of Au-Ag alloy popcorn-shaped nanoparticles (NPs) to realise the broadband optical absorption enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both simulation and experimental results indicate that compared with regular plasmonic NPs, such as nano-spheres, irregular popcorn-shaped alloy NPs exhibit absorption enhancement over a broad wavelength range due to the excitation of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) at different wavelengths. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is enhanced by 16% from 5.26% to 6.09% by incorporating 2.38 wt% Au-Ag alloy popcorn NPs. Moreover, by adding a scattering layer on the exterior of the counter electrode, the popcorn NPs demonstrate an even stronger ability to increase the PCE by 32% from 5.94% to 7.85%, which results from the more efficient excitation of the LSP mode on the popcorn NPs.
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide, with a high rate of death and low 5-year survival rate. To date, there is a lack of efficient therapeutic protocols for gastric cancer. Recent studies suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer therapies. Thus, therapies that target gastric CSCs are attractive. However, CSCs in human gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) have not been described. Here, we identify CSCs in tumor tissues and peripheral blood from GAC patients. CSCs of human GAC (GCSCs) that are isolated from tumor tissues and peripheral blood of patients carried CD44 and CD54 surface markers, generated tumors that highly resemble the original human tumors when injected into immunodeficient mice, differentiated into gastric epithelial cells in vitro, and self-renewed in vivo and in vitro. Our findings suggest that effective therapeutic protocols must target GCSCs. The capture of GCSCs from the circulation of GAC patients also shows great potential for identification of a critical cell population potentially responsible for tumor metastasis, and provides an effective protocol for early diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of gastric cancer.
cancer stem cells; gastric adenocarcinoma; CD44; CD54; circulating tumor cells
Although blockade of Rho kinase with pharmacologic inhibitors ameliorates renal fibrosis and diabetic kidney disease (DKD), the underlined mechanisms remain largely unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that ROCK1 may regulate the early development of albuminuria via the megalin/cubilin-dependent mechanism.
A DKD model was induced in ROCK1 knockout and wild-type mice by streptozotocin (STZ). The effect of deleted ROCK1 on urinary albumin excretion and the expression of megalin/cubilin were examined. In addition, the effect of blocking ROCK activities with an inhibitor (Y-27632) on tubular albumin reabsorption was tested in a normal rat tubular epithelial cell line (NRK52E) under high-glucose conditions. Expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin-1β and collagen-1 was also been examined.
Urinary albumin excretion was significantly increased in ROCK1 WT mice at 8 weeks after STZ injection. In contrast, mice lacking ROCK1 gene were protected against the development of albuminuria. This was associated with the protection against the loss of megalin/cubilin and an increase in TGF-β1, IL-1β, and fibrosis in the kidney. In vitro, we also found that blockade of Rho kinase with inhibitor Y-27632 prevented high-glucose-induced loss of megalin expression and an increase of TGF-β1, thereby increasing the absorption rate of FITC-labeled albumin by tubular epithelial cells.
ROCK1 may play a role in the development of albuminuria in DKD by downregulating the endocytosis receptors complex – megalin/cubilin.
Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel
Diabetic kidney disease; Tubular cells, albuminuria; ROCK; Megalin; Cubilin
It is of great interest to identify new neurons in the adult human brain, but the persistence of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the existence of the rostral migratory stream (RMS)-like pathway in the adult human forebrain remain highly controversial. In the present study, we have described the general configuration of the RMS in adult monkey, fetal human and adult human brains. We provide evidence that neuroblasts exist continuously in the anterior ventral SVZ and RMS of the adult human brain. The neuroblasts appear singly or in pairs without forming chains; they exhibit migratory morphologies and co-express the immature neuronal markers doublecortin, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and βIII-tubulin. Few of these neuroblasts appear to be actively proliferating in the anterior ventral SVZ but none in the RMS, indicating that neuroblasts distributed along the RMS are most likely derived from the ventral SVZ. Interestingly, no neuroblasts are found in the adult human olfactory bulb. Taken together, our data suggest that the SVZ maintains the ability to produce neuroblasts in the adult human brain.
human; rhesus monkey; stem cells; neurogenesis; neuroblasts; subventricular zone; rostral migratory stream
Synthetic regrowth of ZnO nanowires [NWs] under a similar chemical vapor transport and condensation [CVTC] process can produce abundant ZnO nanostructures which are not possible by a single CVTC step. In this work, we report three different regrowth modes of ZnO NWs: axial growth, radial growth, and both directions. The different growth modes seem to be determined by the properties of initial ZnO NW templates. By varying the growth parameters in the first-step CVTC process, ZnO nanostructures (e.g., nanoantenna) with drastically different morphologies can be obtained with distinct photoluminescence properties. The results have implications in guiding the rational synthesis of various ZnO NW heterostructures.
ZnO; nanoantenna; photoluminescence; second growth
Quantitative knowledge on the anatomy of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) is important for treatment of MCL injury and for MCL release during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the morphology of the MCL of human knees.
10 cadaveric human knees were dissected to investigate the MCL anatomy. The specimens were fixed in full extension and this position was maintained during the dissection and morphometric measurements. The outlines of the insertion sites of the superficial MCL (sMCL) and deep MCL (dMCL) were digitized using a 3D digitizing system.
The insertion areas of the superficial MCL (sMCL) were 348.6 ± 42.8 mm2 and 79.7 ± 17.6 mm2 on the tibia and femur, respectively. The insertion areas of the deep MCL (dMCL) were 63.6 ± 13.4 mm2 and 71.9 ± 14.8 mm2 on the tibia and femur, respectively. The distances from the centroids of the tibial and femoral insertions of the sMCL to the tibial and femoral joint line were 62.4 ± 5.5 mm and 31.1 ± 4.6 mm, respectively. The distances from the centroids of dMCL in the tibial insertion and the femoral insertion to the tibial and femoral joint line were 6.5 ± 1.3 mm and 20.5 ± 4.2 mm, respectively. The distal portion of the dMCL (meniscotibial ligament - MTL) was approximately 1.7 times wider than the proximal portion of the dMCL (meniscofemoral ligament - MFL), whereas the MFL was approximately 3 times longer than the MTL.
The morphologic data on the MCL may provide useful information for improving treatments of MCL-related pathology and performing MCL release during TKA.
A well-known observation with respect to cancer biology is that transformed cells display a disturbed cytoskeleton. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain only partly understood. In an effort to identify possible mechanisms, we compared the proteome of pancreatic cancer with matched normal pancreas and observed diminished protein levels of gelsolin—an actin filament severing and capping protein of crucial importance for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity—in pancreatic cancer. Additionally, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas displayed substantially decreased levels of gelsolin as judged by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of tissue micoarrays, when compared with cancerous and untransformed tissue from the same patients (P < 0.05). Importantly, no marked downregulation of gelsolin mRNA was observed (P > 0.05), suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms mediate low gelsolin protein levels. In apparent agreement, high activity ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in both patient samples and the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cell line was detected, and inhibition of the 26s proteasome system quickly restored gelsolin protein levels in the latter cell line. The status of ubiquitinated gelsolin is related to lymph node metastasis of pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, gelsolin levels are actively downregulated in pancreatic cancer and enhanced targeting of gelsolin to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is an important contributing factor for this effect.
Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) misfolding is associated with several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). In yeast cells and in neurons αSyn accumulation is cytotoxic, but little is known about its normal function or pathobiology. The earliest defect following αSyn expression in yeast was a block in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–to–Golgi vesicular trafficking. In a genomewide screen, the largest class of toxicity modifiers were proteins functioning at this same step, including the Rab guanosine triphosphatase Ypt1p, which associated with cytoplasmic αSyn inclusions. Elevated expression of Rab1, the mammalian YPT1 homolog, protected against αSyn-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in animal models of PD. Thus, synucleinopathies may result from disruptions in basic cellular functions that interface with the unique biology of particular neurons to make them especially vulnerable.
The winged-helix (WH) BF-1 gene, which encodes brain factor 1 (BF-1) (also known as foxg1), is essential for the proliferation of the progenitor cells of the cerebral cortex. Here we show that BF-1-deficient telencephalic progenitor cells are more apt to leave the cell cycle in response to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and activin. We found that ectopic expression of BF-1 in vitro inhibits TGF-β mediated growth inhibition and transcriptional activation. Surprisingly, we found that the ability of BF-1 to function as a TGF-β antagonist does not require its DNA binding activity. Therefore, we investigated whether BF-1 can inhibit Smad-dependent transcriptional responses by interacting with Smads or Smad binding partners. We found that BF-1 does not interact with Smads. Because the identities of the Smad partners mediating growth inhibition by TGF-β are not clearly established, we examined a model reporter system which is known to be activated by activin and TGF-β through Smads and the WH factor FAST-2. We demonstrate that BF-1 associates with FAST-2. This interaction is dependent on the same region of protein which mediates its ability to interfere with the antiproliferative activity of TGF-β and with TGF-β-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, the interaction of FAST-2 with BF-1 is mediated by the same domain which is required for FAST-2 to interact with Smad2. We propose a model in which BF-1 interferes with transcriptional responses to TGF-β by interacting with FAST-2 or with other DNA binding proteins which function as Smad2 partners and which have a common mode of interaction with Smad2.
Clinical and preclinical data demonstrate the analgesic actions of adenosine. Central administration of adenosine agonists, however, suppresses arousal and breathing by poorly understood mechanisms. This study tested the two-tailed hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) of C57BL/6J mice modulate breathing, behavioral arousal, and PRF acetylcholine release.
Three sets of experiments used 51 mice. First, breathing was measured by plethysmography after PRF microinjection of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-sulfophenyl adenosine (SPA) or saline. Second, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and time to recovery of righting response (RoRR) was quantified after PRF microinjection of SPA or saline. Third, acetylcholine release in the PRF was measured before and during microdialysis delivery of SPA, the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), or SPA and DPCPX.
First, SPA significantly decreased respiratory rate (−18%), tidal volume (−12%) and minute ventilation (−16%). Second, SPA concentration accounted for 76% of the variance in RoRR. Third, SPA concentration accounted for a significant amount of the variance in acetylcholine release (52%), RoRR (98%), and breathing rate (86%). DPCPX alone caused a concentration-dependent increase in acetylcholine, decrease in RoRR, and decrease in breathing rate. Coadministration of SPA and DPCPX blocked the SPA-induced decrease in acetylcholine and increase in RoRR.
Endogenous adenosine acting at adenosine A1 receptors in the PRF modulates breathing, behavioral arousal, and acetylcholine release. The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the PRF comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing.
Chronic users of cannabis often report withdrawal symptoms after abstinence from use, but little is known about cannabis withdrawal in people with schizophrenia.
Cannabis use patterns and withdrawal symptoms in adults with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use before attempting to quit without formal treatment were assessed with the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ), a 176-item, semi-structured questionnaire.
120 participants, predominantly African–American (62.5%) and male (76.7%), met inclusion criteria. 20.1% reported that their first regular cannabis use (median age 15 years [range 8–48]) preceded their age at first psychotic symptoms (20 [4–50] years). Twenty (16.7%) participants met lifetime criteria for cannabis abuse; 98 (81.7%) met surrogate criteria for lifetime cannabis dependence. Withdrawal symptoms were reported by 113 (94.2%) participants, with 74.2% reporting ≥4 symptoms. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were craving for cannabis (59.2%), feeling anxious (52.57%), feeling bored (47.5%), feeling sad or depressed (45.8%), feeling irritable or jumpy (45.0%), feeling restless (43.3%), and trouble failing asleep (33.3%). One hundred-and-four (92.0%) participants took some action to relieve at least one of their withdrawal symptoms during their index-quit attempt, including 26 (23.0%) participants who reported resuming cannabis use.
Cannabis withdrawal is a clinically significant feature of cannabis use among people with schizophrenia, may serve as a negative reinforcer for relapse, and deserves greater attention in treatment and research. Clinical Trials registration NCT00679016.
Schizophrenia; Marijuana; Co-morbidity; Cannabis; Withdrawal
Previously, we demonstrated that Tim-1-Fc prevents acute cardiac graft rejection by inhibiting Th1 response. In the present report, we tackled the impact of Tim-1-Fc on Th17 cells in a model of cardiac chronic rejection. Administration of Tim-1-Fc did not result in a detectable impact on innate immunity and regulatory T cells, while it provided protection for Bm12-derive cardiac grafts against chronic rejection in B6 recipients, as manifested by the reduction of inflammatory infiltration along with less severity of vasculopathy. Studies in T-bet-/- recipients by implanting Bm12-derived cardiac grafts further revealed that Tim-1-Fc significantly protected cardiac grafts from chronic rejection along with attenuated production of IL-17 producing T cells. Depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells or blockade of IL-17 in T-bet-/- recipients demonstrated that Tim-1-Fc selectively suppresses Th17 differentiation along with attenuated IL-17 secretion. Together, our data suggest that Tim-1-Fc protects cardiac grafts from chronic rejection by suppressing CD4 Th17 development and functionality. Therefore, Tim-1-Fc might be a potential immunosuppressive agent in the setting of cardiac transplantation.
Th17; Tim-1; vasculopathy
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly cancer with a poor prognosis that is characterized by excessive mitogenic pathway activation and marked chemoresistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs. Dual specificity protein phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) is a key negative regulator of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Yet, DUSP1 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) in PDAC where it paradoxically enhances colony formation in soft agar and promotes in vivo tumorigenicity. However, it is not known whether DUSP1 overexpression contributes to PDAC chemoresistance. Using BxPC3 and COLO-357 human PCCs, we show that gemcitabine activates c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), key kinases in two major stress-activated signaling pathways. Gemcitabine-induced JNK and p38 MAPK activation mediates increased apoptosis, but also transcriptionally upregulates DUSP1, as evidenced by increased DUSP1 mRNA levels and RNA polymerase II loading at DUSP1 gene body. Conversely, shRNA-mediated inhibition of DUSP1 enhances JNK and p38 MAPK activation and gemcitabine chemosensitivity. Using doxycycline-inducible knockdown of DUSP1 in established orthotopic pancreatic tumors, we found that combining gemcitabine with DUSP1 inhibition improves animal survival, attenuates angiogenesis, and enhances apoptotic cell death, as compared with gemcitabine alone. Taken together, these results suggest that gemcitabine-mediated upregulation of DUSP1 contributes to a negative feedback loop that attenuates its beneficial actions on stress pathways and apoptosis, raising the possibility that targeting DUSP1 in PDAC may have the advantage of enhancing gemcitabine chemosensitivity while suppressing angiogenesis.
The paired box homeotic gene 3 (PAX3) is a crucial regulator for the maintenance of melanocytic progenitor cells and has a poorly defined role in melanoma. To understand how PAX3 affects melanocyte and melanoma proliferation, we identified potential PAX3 downstream targets through gene expression profiling. Here we identify TBX2, a key developmental regulator of cell identity and an anti-senescence factor in melanoma, as a directly regulated PAX3 target. We also found that TBX2 is involved in the survival of melanoma cells, and is overexpressed in some melanoma specimens. The identification of TBX2 as a target for PAX3 provides a key insight into how PAX3 may contribute to melanoma evolution and may provide opportunities for pro-senescence therapeutic intervention aimed at disrupting the ability of PAX3 to regulate TBX2.
Oral cannabinoids are taken for medicinal or recreational purposes, yet little is known about tolerance to their effects after high-dose extended exposure. The development of tolerance to effects of around-the-clock oral synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (20 mg every 3.5–6 h) was evaluated in 13 healthy male daily cannabis smokers residing on a secure research unit: 40 mg on Day 1; 100 mg on Days 2–4; 120 mg on Days 5–6. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and symptoms of subjective intoxication (100 mm visual-analogue scales, VAS) were assessed the morning of Day 1 (before any oral THC), and on Days 2, 4 and 6, every 30 min for 3 h after the first morning THC dose. Morning subjective intoxication ratings increased from Days 1 to 2, and then declined on Days 4 and 6. The morning THC dose increased intoxication ratings on Day 2, but had less effect on Days 4 and 6, a pattern consistent with tolerance. THC lowered BP and increased heart rate over the six days. Plasma THC and 11-OH-THC concentrations increased significantly over the first five days of dosing. Six days of around-the-clock, oral THC produced tolerance to subjective intoxication, but not to cardiovascular effects.
A rare mutation G84E in HOXB13 was recently identified to be associated with prostate cancer (PCa) in Caucasians. The goal of this study is to test association between HOXB13 genetic variants and PCa risk in Chinese men.
All study subjects were part of the Chinese Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (China PCa). In the first stage, we screened for mutations by sequencing the HOXB13 coding region in 96 unrelated PCa patients. In stage 2, G84E and novel mutations found in stage 1 were genotyped in 671 PCa patients and 1,536 controls. In stage 3, mutation status in 751 additional PCa patients was imputed via haplotype.
The G84E mutation was not detected in this study. However, a novel mutation, G135E, was identified among 96 patients in stage 1. It was also observed twice in 575 additional PCa patients but not in 1,536 control subjects of stage 2. The frequency of G135E was significantly different between cases and controls, with a P-value of 0.027, based on Fisher’s exact test. Haplotype estimation showed that G135E mutation carriers shared a unique haplotype that was not observed in other subjects. In stage 3, two more PCa patients were predicted to carry the G135E mutation.
We identified a novel rare mutation in the HOXB13 gene, G135E, which appears to be a founder mutation. This mutation is associated with increased PCa risk in Chinese men. Consistent with a previous report, our findings provide further evidence that rare mutations in HOXB13 contribute to PCa risk. Prostate 73: 169–175, 2013.
HOXB13; G135E; G84E; prostate cancer; Chinese; rare mutation
Our intent is to examine the predictive role of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) on mortality of patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Based on the CCI score, the severity of comorbidity was categorized into three grades: mild, with CCI scores of 1–2; moderate, with CCI scores of 3–4; and severe, with CCI scores ≥5. Factors influencing mortality and differences between groups stratified by CCI were determined by logistical regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The impact of CCI on mortality was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 533 patients with type 2 DN were enrolled in this study, all of them had comorbidity (CCI score >1), and 44.7% (238/533) died. The mortality increased with CCI scores: 21.0% (50/238) patients with CCI scores of 1–2, 56.7% (135/238) patients with CCI scores of 3–4, and 22.3% (53/238) patients with CCI scores ≥5. Logistical regression analysis showed that CCI scores, hemoglobin, and serum albumin were the potential predictors of mortality (P<0.05). One-way ANOVA analysis showed that DN patients with higher CCI scores had lower levels of hemoglobulin, higher levels of serum creatinine, and higher mortality rates than those with lower CCI scores. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that survival time decreased when the CCI scores and mortality rates went up. In conclusion, CCI provides a simple, readily applicable, and valid method for classifying comorbidities and predicting the mortality of type 2 DN. An increased awareness of the potential comorbidities in type 2 DN patients may provide insights into this complicated disease and improve the outcomes by identifying and treating patients earlier and more effectively.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN); Charlson comorbidity index (CCI); Mortality