Chromatin remodeling, particularly histone acetylation, plays a critical role in the progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. We hypothesized that curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound abundant in the spice turmeric and a known suppressor of histone acetylation, would suppress cardiac hypertrophy through the disruption of p300 histone acetyltransferase–dependent (p300-HAT–dependent) transcriptional activation. We tested this hypothesis using primary cultured rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts as well as two well-established mouse models of cardiac hypertrophy. Curcumin blocked phenylephrin-induced (PE-induced) cardiac hypertrophy in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, curcumin both prevented and reversed mouse cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding (AB) and PE infusion, as assessed by heart weight/BW and lung weight/BW ratios, echocardiographic parameters, and gene expression of hypertrophic markers. Further investigation demonstrated that curcumin abrogated histone acetylation, GATA4 acetylation, and DNA-binding activity through blocking p300-HAT activity. Curcumin also blocked AB-induced inflammation and fibrosis through disrupting p300-HAT–dependent signaling pathways. Our results indicate that curcumin has the potential to protect against cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis through suppression of p300-HAT activity and downstream GATA4, NF-κB, and TGF-β–Smad signaling pathways.
Bub1 is a critical component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and closely linked to cell proliferation and differentiation. We previously found that spontaneous abortion embryos contained a low level of Bub1 protein but normal mRNA level, while the knockdown of Bub1 leads to abnormal numerical chromosomes in embryonic cells. Here, we investigated the mechanism through which governs the post-transcriptional regulation of Bub1 protein expression level. We first conducted bioinformatics analysis and identified eight putative miRNAs that may target Bub1. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-450a-3p can directly regulate Bub1 by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of Bub1 mRNA. We found that the overexpression of miR-450a-3p in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells down-regulated Bub1 protein level, repressed cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and restricted most cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, when the fertilized eggs were microinjected with miR-450a-3p mimics, the cleavage of zygotes was effectively suppressed. Our results strongly suggest that an abnormally decreased Bub1 level regulated by miRNAs may be implicated in the pathogenesis of spontaneous miscarriage. Therefore, the blockade of miR-450a-3p may be explored as a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing spontaneous miscarriages.
Hepatitis C viral infection affects 170 million people worldwide. It causes serious chronic liver diseases. HCV infection has been implicated in iron accumulation in the liver and iron overload has been shown to be a potential cofactor for HCV associated hepatocellular carcinoma progression. The underlying mechanisms are not understood. Human hepcidin, a 25 amino acid peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes, is a key regulator of iron metabolism. Alteration of hepcidin expression levels has been reported in the setting of chronic HCV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we aim to examine the interactions between HCV infection and hepcidin expression in liver cells. We found that hepcidin expression was suppressed in HCV infected cells. The suppressive effect appears to be regulated by histone acetylation but not DNA methylation. Moreover, we found that hepcidin had a direct antiviral activity against HCV replication in cell culture. The antiviral effect is associated with STAT3 activation. In conclusion, hepcidin can induce intracellular antiviral state while HCV has a strategy to suppress hepcidin expression. This may be a novel mechanism by which HCV circumvents hepatic innate antiviral defense.
Poly(ω-pentadecalactone-co-p-dioxanone) [poly(PDL-co-DO)] copolyesters are copolymers of an isodimorphic system, which remain semicrystalline over the whole range of compositions. Here, we evaluated enzymatically synthesized poly(PDL-co-DO) copolymers as new materials for biomedical applications. In vivo experiments using mice showed that the copolyesters are well tolerated, with tissue responses that are comparable to poly(p-dioxanone). In addition, the copolymers were found to degrade hydrolytically at controlled rates over a period of several months under physiological conditions. The poly(PDL-co-DO) copolymers with up to 69 mol% DO units were successfully transformed to free-standing nanoparticles that are capable of encapsulating an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, or a polynucleotide, siRNA. Drug- or siRNA-loaded nanoparticles exhibited controlled and continuous release of agent over many weeks. In addition, siLUC-encapsulated poly(PDL-co-DO) nanoparticles were active in inhibiting luciferase gene expression in LUC-RKO cells. Because of substantial differences in structure and hydrophobicity between PDL and DO units, poly(PDL-co-DO) biodegradation rate and physical properties can be tuned over a wide range depending on the copolymer composition. Our results demonstrate that the semicrystalline and biodegradable poly(PDL-co-DO) copolyesters are promising biomaterials to serve as drug carriers, as well as potential raw materials for constructing bioabsorbable sutures and other medical devices.
Poly(ω-pentadecalactone-co-p-dioxanone); doxorubicin; siRNA; biodegradable nanoparticles; drug delivery
Using antibody/aptamer-drug conjugates can be a promising method for decreasing toxicity, while increasing the efficiency of chemotherapy.
In this study, the antitumor agent Doxorubicin (Dox) was incorporated into the modified DNA aptamer TLS11a-GC, which specifically targets LH86, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Cell viability tests demonstrated that the TLS11a-GC-Dox conjugates exhibited both potency and target specificity. Importantly, intercalating Dox into the modified aptamer inhibited nonspecific uptake of membrane-permeable Dox to the non-target cell line. Since the conjugates are selective for cells that express higher amounts of target proteins, both criteria noted above are met, making TLS11a-GC-Dox conjugates potential candidates for targeted delivery to liver cancer cells.
Considering the large number of available aptamers that have specific targets for a wide variety of cancer cells, this novel aptamer-drug intercalation method will have promising implications for chemotherapeutics in general.
Background and Aim
The interaction between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and innate antiviral defense systems in primary human hepatocytes is not well understood. The objective of this study is to examine how primary human hepatocytes response to HCV infection.
An infectious HCV isolate JFH1 was used to infect isolated primary human hepatocytes. HCV RNA or NS5A protein in the cells was detected by real-time PCR or immunofluorescence staining respectively. Apoptosis was examined with flow cytometry. Mechanisms of HCV-induced IFN-β expression and apoptosis were determined.
Primary human hepatocytes were susceptible to JFH1 virus and released infectious virus. IFN-α inhibited viral RNA replication in the cells. IFN-β and interferon-stimulated genes were induced in the cells during acute infection. HCV infection induced apoptosis of primary human hepatocytes through the TRAIL-mediated pathway. Silencing RIG-I expression in primary human hepatocytes inhibited IFN-β and TRAIL expression and blocked apoptosis of the cells, which facilitated viral RNA replication in the cells. Moreover, HCV NS34A protein inhibited viral induced IFN-β expression in primary human hepatocytes.
Innate host response is intact in HCV-infected primary human hepatocytes. RIG-I plays a key role in the induction of IFN and TRAIL by viruses and apoptosis of primary human hepatocytes via activation of the TRAIL-mediated pathway. HCV NS34A protein appears to be capable of disrupting the innate antiviral host responses in primary human hepatocytes. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which primary human hepatocytes respond to natural HCV infection.
Background and Aim
The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of IFN induction and viral escape. In order to accomplish the goal we compared our new hepatoma cell line LH86, which has intact TLR3 and RIG-I expression and responds to HCV by inducing IFN, with Huh7.5 cells which lack those features.
The initial interaction of LH86 cells, Huh7.5 cells or their transfected counter parts (LH86 siRIG-I, siTLR3 or siTLR7 and Huh7.5 RIG-I, TLR3 or TLR7) after infection with HCV (strain JFH-1) was studied by measuring the expression levels of IFNβ, TRAIL, DR4, DR5 and their correlation to viral replication.
HCV replicating RNA induces IFN in LH86 cells. The IFN induction system is functional in LH86, and the expression of the RIG-I and TLR3 in LH86 is comparable to the primary hepatocytes. Both proteins appear to play important roles in suppression of viral replication. We found that innate immunity against HCV is associated with the induction of apoptosis by RIG-I through the TRAIL pathway and the establishment of an antiviral state by TLR3. HCV envelope proteins interfere with the expression of TLR3 and RIG-I.
These findings correlate with the lower expression level of PRRs in HCV chronic patients and highlight the importance of the PRRs in the initial interaction of the virus and its host cells. This work represents a novel mechanism of viral pathogenesis for HCV and demonstrates the role of PRRs in viral infection.
This study aims to investigate apoptosis induced by lexatumumab (Lexa) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We assessed the sensitivity of HCC cell lines and normal human hepatocytes to Lexa and explored the sensitization of HCC cells to Lexa-induced apoptosis by cycloheximide (CHX). Our data indicated that CHX sensitized HCC cell lines to Lexa-induced apoptosis, whereas treatment using solely CHX or Lexa was ineffective. The sequential treatment of CHX followed by Lexa dramatically induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HCC cells and had synergistically increased intracellular rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, when ROS production was blocked by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), HCC cells were protected against Lexa and CHX combination treatment-induced apoptosis. ROS generation induced by combination treatment of Lexa and CHX triggered pro-apoptotic protein Bax oligomerization, conformation change, and translocation to mitochondria, which resulted in the release of cytochrome c and subsequent cell death. Furthermore, HSP90 was involved in mediating Lexa and CHX combination treatment-induced ROS increase and apoptotic death. More importantly, we observed that combination treatment of Lexa and CHX did not cause apoptotic toxicity in normal human primary hepatocytes. These results suggest that Lexa and CHX combination treatment merits investigation for the development of therapies for patients with HCC.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) polymorphisms are independent risk factors for Crohn's disease and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In Crohn's disease, the proinflammatory state resulting from NOD2 mutations have been associated with a loss of antibacterial function of enterocytes such as paneth cells. NOD2 has not been studied in experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Using chimeric recipients with NOD2−/− hematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that NOD2 deficiency in host hematopoietic cells exacerbates GVHD. We found that proliferation and activation of donor T cells was enhanced in NOD-deficient allo-BMT recipients, suggesting that NOD2 plays a role in the regulation of host antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Next, we used bone marrow chimeras in an experimental colitis model and observed again that NOD2 deficiency in the hematopoietic cells results in increased intestinal inflammation. We conclude that NOD2 regulates the development of GVHD through its inhibitory effect on host APC function.
Background and Aim
Cancer invasion and metastasis are characterized by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes metastasis and significant mortality. Elucidating factors promoting EMT in HCC is necessary to develop effective therapeutic strategies.
The LH86 cell line was developed in our laboratory from well-differentiated HCC without associated hepatitis or cirrhosis and used as a model to study EMT in HCC. Effects of transforming growth factor (TGF) β-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined using morphology, molecular markers, effects on migration and tumorigenicity. The involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Akt were examined.
LH86 cells display epithelial morphology. TGFβ-1, EGF, HGF and bFGF induced mesenchymal changes in them associated with loss of E-cadherin, albumin, α-1 anti-trypsin expression and increased expression of vimentin, collagen I and fibronectin. There was associated increased migration, tumorigenicity and increased expression of COX-2, PGE2, Akt and phosphorylated Akt. Inhibition of COX-2 and Akt pathways led to inhibition of characteristics of EMT.
Multiple growth factors induce EMT in HCC. COX-2 and Akt may mediate EMT associated development and progression of HCC and molecular targeting of COX-2 and Akt may be an effective therapeutic or chemopreventative strategy in advanced and metastatic HCC.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Growth factors; Cyclooxygenase-2; Chemoprevention
Two-photon microscopy has enabled the study of individual cell behavior in live animals. Many organs and tissues cannot be studied, especially longitudinally, because they are located too deep, behind bony structures or too close to the lung and heart. Here we report a novel mouse model that allows long-term single cell imaging of many organs. A wide variety of live tissues were successfully engrafted in the pinna of the mouse ear. Many of these engrafted tissues maintained the normal tissue histology. Using the heart and thymus as models, we further demonstrated that the engrafted tissues functioned as would be expected. Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. Four dimensional (three-dimensional (3D) plus time) information of individual cells was obtained from this imaging. This model makes long-term high resolution 4D imaging of multiple organs possible.
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, and obesity-related illnesses have become a leading preventable cause of death. Childhood obesity is also growing in frequency, and the impact of a lifetime spent in the overweight state is only beginning to emerge in the literature. In this issue of the JCI, Bumaschny et al. used a genetic mouse model to investigate the self-perpetuating nature of obesity and shed some light on why it can become increasingly difficult to lose weight over time.
Our recent studies have revealed that among the 10 different commonly used AAV serotypes, AAV3 vectors transduce human liver cancer cells extremely efficiently because these cells express high levels of human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (hHGFR), and AAV3 utilizes hHGFR as a cellular co-receptor for viral entry. In this report, we provide further evidence that both extracellular as well as intracellular kinase domains of hHGFR are involved in AAV3 vector entry and AAV3-mediated transgene expression. We also document that AAV3 vectors are targeted for degradation by the host cell proteasome machinery, and that site-directed mutagenesis of surface exposed tyrosine (Y) to phenylalanine (F) residues on AAV3 capsids significantly improves the transduction efficiency of Y701F, Y705F and Y731F mutant AAV3 vectors. The transduction efficiency of the Y705+731F double-mutant vector is significantly higher than each of the single-mutants in liver cancer cells in vitro. In immuno-deficient mouse xenograft models, direct intra-tumor injection of AAV3 vectors also led to high-efficiency transduction of human liver tumor cells in vivo. We also document here that the optimized tyrosine-mutant AAV3 vectors lead to increased transduction efficiency following both intra-tumor and tail-vein injections in vivo. The optimized tyrosine-mutant AAV3 serotype vectors containing pro-apoptotic genes should prove useful for the potential gene therapy of human liver cancers.
AAV vectors; tyrosine mutants; human hepatocyte growth factor receptor; human liver cancer; gene therapy
Host hematopoietic derived antigen presenting cells are important for induction of graft-versus-host disease. The relative importance of various subsets of hematopoietic derived APCs is not well-understood. Recent data suggest that basophils can function as antigen presenting cells and induce T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte responses. We investigated the role of host basophils in the induction of donor T cell responses and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Elimination of host basophils did not alter the severity of graft-versus-host disease induced mortality across multiple clinically relevant models of allogeneic BMT. Furthermore induction of donor T cell proliferation and Th2 polarization was not significantly altered following depletion of host basophils. In contrast to their role in the induction of Th2 responses under certain contexts, our results demonstrate that basophils are dispensable for induction of donor Th2 responses and for the severity of GVHD.
Antigen presenting cells; basophils; BMT; GVHD; Th2 polarization
GVHD is associated with significant shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in human and mouse models; manipulating the microbiota can alter the severity of GVHD in mice.
Despite a growing understanding of the link between intestinal inflammation and resident gut microbes, longitudinal studies of human flora before initial onset of intestinal inflammation have not been reported. Here, we demonstrate in murine and human recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) that intestinal inflammation secondary to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is associated with major shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiota. The microbiota, in turn, can modulate the severity of intestinal inflammation. In mouse models of GVHD, we observed loss of overall diversity and expansion of Lactobacillales and loss of Clostridiales. Eliminating Lactobacillales from the flora of mice before BMT aggravated GVHD, whereas reintroducing the predominant species of Lactobacillus mediated significant protection against GVHD. We then characterized gut flora of patients during onset of intestinal inflammation caused by GVHD and found patterns mirroring those in mice. We also identified increased microbial chaos early after allogeneic BMT as a potential risk factor for subsequent GVHD. Together, these data demonstrate regulation of flora by intestinal inflammation and suggest that flora manipulation may reduce intestinal inflammation and improve outcomes for allogeneic BMT recipients.
To determine the accuracy of MR imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA for the detection of liver metastases.
Materials and Methods
PUBMED, EMBASE, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for original articles published prior to February 2012. The criteria for the inclusion of articles were as follows: reported in the English language; MR imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA was performed to detect liver metastases; histopathologic analysis (surgery, biopsy), intraoperative observation (manual palpatation, intraoperative ultrasonography), and/or follow-up US was the reference standard; and data were sufficient for the calculation of true-positive or false-negative values. The methodological quality was assessed by using the quality assessment of diagnostic studies instrument. The data were extracted to calculate sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, diagnostic odds ratio, and areas under hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve to perform heterogeneity test and threshold effect test, as well as publication bias analysis and subgroup analyses.
From 229 citations, 13 were included in the meta-analysis with a total of 1900 lesions. We detected heterogeneity between studies and evidence of publication bias. The methodological quality was moderate. The pooled weighted sensitivity with a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.90, 0. 95), the specificity was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97), the positive likelihood ratio was 18.07 (95% CI: 10.52, 31.04), the negative likelihood ratio was 0.07 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.10), and the diagnostic odds ratio was 249.81 (95% CI: 125.12, 498.74). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99).
MR imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA is a reliable, non-invasive, and no-radiation-exposure imaging modality with a high sensitivity and specificity for detection of liver metastases. Nonetheless, it should be applied cautiously, and large scale, well-designed trials are necessary to assess its clinical value.
Allografts from donors positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc+) can transmit hepatitis B virus (HBV) to the recipients. We aimed to study the prevalence of HBV DNA in liver allografts from anti-HBc+ donors. Between January 2003 and December 2008, this retrospective study identified 18 patients who received a liver from an anti-HBc+ donor. Pre- and post-transplantation HBV serology and serum HBV DNA level of the study subjects were reviewed. DNA extracted from liver biopsy tissue was used for PCR assay. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine viral protein expression. We observed a low prevalence of HBV DNA in allografts from anti-HBc+ donors even among patients who did not receive prophylaxis. Only one of 18 patients had detectable HBV DNA in the liver allograft. This recipient was seronegative for HBV before transplantation and did not receive prophylaxis after transplantation, and developed de novo hepatitis B. Of the five patients who were positive for both antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBc before transplantation and did not receive prophylaxis after transplantation, none developed HBV infection. Prophylaxis for HBV is important for seronegative recipients receiving a liver from an anti-HBc+ donor. Such prophylaxis may not be necessary for recipients who do not have detectable HBV DNA in the liver allograft.
de novo hepatitis; hepatitis B virus DNA; liver transplantation; PCR; prophylaxis
Metastatic carcinomas involving the lung are a common specimen encountered in surgical pathology. These metastases may have different morphologic, and architectural patterns and may mimic primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma, especially the intra-alveolar (lepidic) pattern of spread which may simulate a primary pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma in situ). We present the case of a metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma that morphologically mimicked bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung in that the tumor had an exclusive intra-alveolar pattern of spread and had an immunophenotype that was noninformative as to the site of origin (cytokeratin 7+, cytokeratin 20−, TTF-1−). In this case, we used KRAS gene mutation analysis to support that the lung carcinoma represented a metastatic pancreatic carcinoma as they both possessed identical codon 12 KRAS mutations. We show that this method may be a useful way to prove site of origin of metastatic carcinoma—particularly if standard morphologic or immunohistochemical analysis is not definitive.
As a precursor of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), was conjugated onto cationic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT).
Cationic GNPs reduced by branched polyethyleneimine and 5-ALA were conjugated onto the cationic GNPs by creating an electrostatic interaction at physiological pH. The efficacy of ALA-GNP conjugates in PDT was investigated under irradiation with a mercury lamp (central wavelength of 395 nm) and three types of light-emitting diode arrays (central wavelengths of 399, 502, and 621 nm, respectively). The impacts of GNPs on PDT were then analyzed by measuring the intracellular PpIX levels in K562 cells and the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX under irradiation.
The 2 mM ALA-GNP conjugates showed greater cytotoxicity against K562 cells than ALA alone. Light-emitting diode (505 nm) irradiation of the conjugates caused a level of K562 cell destruction similar to that with irradiation by a mercury lamp, although it had no adverse effects on drug-free control cells. These results may be attributed to the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX, which can be enhanced by GNPs.
Under irradiation with a suitable light source, ALA-GNP conjugates can effectively destroy K562 cells. The technique offers a new strategy of PDT.
nonradiative energy transfer; photodamage; protoporphyrin IX; selective destruction; singlet oxygen sensor green reagent; surface plasmon resonance
T cells deficient for CD28 have reduced ability to expand and survive, but still cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Inducible costimulator (ICOS), the third member of the CD28 family, is expressed on antigen-activated T cells and has unique roles in T-cell activation and effector function. We hypothesized that ICOS contributes to the development of GVHD in the absence of B7:CD28/CTLA4 costimulation. In this study, we evaluated the roles of CD28, CTLA4 and ICOS in the pathogenesis of acute GVHD under myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Unexpectedly, we found that blocking CD28 and CTLA4 signals using the clinically relevant reagent, CTLA4-Ig, results in the enhancement of GVHD severity mediated by CD4+ T cells, and such treatment does not add any benefit to blockade of ICOS. In contrast, selectively blocking CD28 and ICOS but not CTLA4 prevents GVHD more effectively than blocking either CD28 or ICOS alone. Taken together, these results indicate that CD28 and ICOS are synergistic in promoting GVHD, whereas the CTLA4-signal is required for T-cell tolerance regardless of ICOS signaling. Thus, blocking CD28 and ICOS while sparing CTLA4 represents a promising approach for abrogating pathogenic T-cell responses after allogeneic BMT.
In order to produce petroleum alternatives from biomass, a significant amount of research has been focused on oils from microalgae due to their origin, which would not affect food availability. Nanoporous hybrid catalysts composed of ns Al2O3 and zeolites have been proven to be very useful compared to traditional catalysts in hydrotreating (HT), hydrocracking (HC), and catalytic cracking (CC) of large molecules. To evaluate the reaction scheme and products from model isoprenoid compounds of microalgae oil, nanoporous hybrid catalyst technologies (CC: ns Al2O3/H-USY and ns Al2O3/H-GaAlMFI; HC: [Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3]/ns Al2O3/H-beta) were studied. The major product from CC on ns Al2O3/H-USY was highly aromatic gasoline, while the product from HC was half-isoparaffinic/olefinic kerosene. Although more than 50 wt% of the products from HT/CC on the USY catalyst was liquefied petroleum gas due to overcracking, the product from HT/CC on the MFI catalyst was high-octane-number gasoline. Delightfully, the product from HT/HC was kerosene and its average number was 11, with more than 80 wt% being isoparaffinic. As a result, it was demonstrated that hydrotreating may convert isoprenoid oil from microalgae over nanoporous hybrid catalysts into a variety of products.
Cells generate ATP by glycolysis and by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) (1, 2). Despite the importance of having sufficient ATP available for the energy-dependent processes involved in immune activation, little is known about the metabolic adaptations that occur in vivo to meet the increased demand for ATP in activated and proliferating lymphocytes. We found that bone marrow (BM) cells proliferating after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) increased aerobic glycolysis but not OXPHOS, while T cells proliferating in response to alloantigens during graft versus host disease (GVHD) increased both aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS. Metabolomic analysis of alloreactive T cells showed an accumulation of acylcarnitines consistent with changes in fatty acid oxidation. Alloreactive T cells also exhibited a hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), increased superoxide production and decreased antioxidant levels, whereas proliferating BM cells did not. Bz-423, a novel small molecule inhibitor of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase, selectively increased superoxide and induced the apoptosis of alloreactive T cells, which arrested established GVHD in several BMT models without affecting hematopoietic engraftment or lymphocyte reconstitution. These findings challenge the current paradigm that activated T cells meet their increased demands for ATP though aerobic glycolysis, and identify the possibility that bioenergetic and redox characteristics can be selectively exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for immune disorders.
Previous studies have identified that variants in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR-δ (PPARD), a target gene of vitamin D, were significantly associated with fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity in European populations. This current study sought to determine (1) whether the genetic associations of PPARD variants with type 2 diabetes and its related traits could be replicated in Chinese Han population, and (2) whether the associations would be modified by the effect of vitamin D status.
Methods and Findings
We genotyped 9 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cover the gene of PPARD (rs2267664, rs6902123, rs3798343, rs2267665, rs2267668, rs2016520, rs2299869, rs1053049, and rs9658056) and tested their associations with type 2 diabetes risk and its related traits, including fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c in 3,210 Chinese Hans. Among the 9 PPARD tag SNPs, rs6902123 was significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.75 [95%CI 1.22–2.53]; P = 0.0025) and combined type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (odds ratio 1.47 [95%CI 1.12–1.92]; P = 0.0054). The minor C allele of rs6902123 was associated with increased levels of fasting glucose (P = 0.0316) and HbA1c (P = 0.0180). In addition, we observed that vitamin D modified the effect of rs6902123 on HbA1c (P for interaction = 0.0347).
Our findings demonstrate that common variants in PPARD contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese Hans, and provided suggestive evidence of interaction between 25(OH)D levels and PPARD-rs6902123 on HbA1c.
In prostate cancer, genes encoding androgen-regulated, Y-chromosome-encoded, and tissue-specific antigens may all be overexpressed. In the adult male host, however, most high affinity T cells targeting these potential tumor rejection antigens will be removed during negative selection. In contrast, the female mature T-cell repertoire should contain abundant precursors capable of recognizing these classes of prostate cancer antigens and mediating effective anti-tumor immune responses.
We find that syngeneic TRAMP-C2 prostatic adenocarcinoma cells are spontaneously rejected in female hosts. Adoptive transfer of naïve female lymphocytes to irradiated male hosts bearing pre-implanted TRAMP-C2 tumor cells slows tumor growth and mediates tumor rejection in some animals. The success of this adoptive transfer was dependent on the transfer of female CD4 T cells and independent of the presence of CD25-expressing regulatory T cells in the transferred lymphocytes. We identify in female CD4 T cells stimulated with TRAMP-C2 a dominant MHC II-restricted response to the Y-chromosome antigen DBY. Furthermore, CD8 T cell responses in female lymphocytes to the immunodominant MHC I-restricted antigen SPAS-1 are markedly increased compared to male mice. Finally, we find no exacerbation of graft-versus-host disease in either syngeneic or minor-antigen mismatched allogeneic lymphocyte adoptive transfer models by using female into male versus male into male cells.
This study shows that adoptively transferred female lymphocytes, particularly CD4 T cells, can control the outgrowth of pre-implanted prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. This approach does not significantly worsen graft-versus-host responses suggesting it may be viable in the clinic. Further, enhancing the available immune repertoire with female-derived T cells may provide an excellent pool of prostate cancer reactive T cells for further augmentation by combination with either vaccination or immune regulatory blockade strategies.