Multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells hold great promise for cell therapy. The reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells as well as mature neurons suggests a possibility to convert a terminally differentiated somatic cell into a multipotent state without first establishing pluripotency. Here, we demonstrate that Sertoli cells derived from mesoderm can be directly converted into a multipotent state that possesses neural stem/progenitor cell properties. The induced neural stem/progenitor cells (iNSCs) express multiple NSC-specific markers, exhibit a global gene-expression profile similar to normal NSCs, and are capable of self-renewal and differentiating into glia and electrophysiologically functional neurons. iNSC-derived neurons stain positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), γ-aminobutyric acid, and choline acetyltransferase. In addition, iNSCs can survive and generate synapses following transplantation into the dentate gyrus. Generation of iNSCs may have important implications for disease modeling and regenerative medicine.
direct conversion; neural stem cell; multipotent; transdifferentiation; transplantation
Patients with chronic pain usually suffer from working memory deficits, which may decrease their intellectual ability significantly. Despite intensive clinical studies, the mechanism underlying this form of memory impairment remains elusive. In this study, we investigated this issue in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain, a most common form of chronic pain. We found that SNI impaired working memory and short-term memory in rats and mice. To explore the potential mechanisms, we studied synaptic transmission/plasticity in hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in memory function. We found that frequency facilitation, a presynaptic form of short-term plasticity, and long-term potentiation at CA3–CA1 synapses were impaired after SNI. Structurally, density of presynaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 synapses was reduced significantly. At the molecular level, we found that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in cerebrospinal fluid, in hippocampal tissue and in plasma after SNI. Intracerebroventricular or intrahippocampal injection of recombinant rat TNF mimicked the effects of SNI in naive rats, whereas inhibition of TNF-α or genetic deletion of TNF receptor 1 prevented both memory deficits and synaptic dysfunction induced by SNI. As TNF-α is critical for development of neuropathic pain, we suggested that the over-production of TNF-α following peripheral nerve injury might lead to neuropathic pain and memory deficits, simultaneously.
spared nerve injury; chronic neuropathic pain; working memory; long-term potentiation; presynaptic boutons; tumor necrosis factor-α; pain/analgesics; learning & memory; neuropharmacology; plasticity; peripheral nerve injury; chronic neuropathic pain; working memory; long-term potentiation; presynaptic boutons; tumor necrosis factor alpha
The ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq techniques enable genome-wide mapping of in vivo protein-DNA interactions and chromatin states. The cross-platform and between-laboratory variation poses a challenge to the comparison and integration of results from different ChIP experiments. We describe a novel method, MM-ChIP, which integrates information from cross-platform and between-laboratory ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq datasets. It improves both the sensitivity and the specificity of detecting ChIP-enriched regions, and is a useful meta-analysis tool for driving discoveries from multiple data sources.
Pancreatic cancer significantly affects the quality of life due to the severe abdominal pain. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study aimed to determine the relationship between substance P (SP) and pancreatic cancer perineural invasion (PNI) as well as mechanism of SP mediating pancreatic cancer PNI which cause pain in patients with pancreatic cancer. Human pancreatic cancer cells MIA PaCa-2, BxPC-3 and newborn dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) were used to determine the expression of SP or NK-1R in pancreatic cancer cells and DRGs cells by QT-PCR and Western blotting. The effects of SP on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion were analyzed using MTT assay and Transwell matrigel invasion assay, respectively. Alterations in the neurotropism of pancreatic cancer cells were assessed by co-culture system which mimics the interaction of tumor/neuron in vivo. SP is not only widely distributed in the neurite outgrowth from newborn DRGs but also expressed in MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells. NK-1R is found to be overexpressed in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3. SP induces cancer cell proliferation and invasion and the expression of MMP-2 in pancreatic cancer cells; and NK-1R antagonists inhibit these effects. Furthermore, SP is also able to promote neurite outgrowth and the migration of pancreatic cancer cell cluster to the DRGs, which is blocked by NK-1R antagonists in the co-culture model. Our results suggest that SP plays an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer metastasis and PNI, and blocking the SP/NK-1R signaling system is a novel strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Substance P (SP); NK-1 receptor (NK-1R); pancreatic cancer; perineural invasion (PNI)
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), an acquired class B carbapenemase, is a significant clinical threat due to its extended hydrolysis of β-lactams including carbapenems. In this study, we identified the first confirmed clinical isolate of Escherichia coli BJ01 harboring blaNDM-1 in China. The isolate is highly resistant to all tested antimicrobials except polymyxin. blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-57, and blaTEM-1 were identified in the isolate. blaNDM-1 was transferable to E. coli EC600 and DH5α in both plasmid conjugation experiments and plasmid transformation tests. BJ01 was identified as a new sequence type, ST224, by multilocus sequence typing. Analysis of genetic environment shows complex transposon-like structures surrounding the blaNDM-1 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the region flanking blaNDM-1 was very similar to previously identified NDM-positive Acinetobacter spp. isolated in China. The findings of this study raise attention to the emergence and spread of NDM-1-carrying Enterobacteriaceae in China.
Summary: Transcription and chromatin regulators, and histone modifications play essential roles in gene expression regulation. We have created CistromeMap as a web server to provide a comprehensive knowledgebase of all of the publicly available ChIP-Seq and DNase-Seq data in mouse and human. We have also manually curated metadata to ensure annotation consistency, and developed a user-friendly display matrix for quick navigation and retrieval of data for specific factors, cells and papers. Finally, we provide users with summary statistics of ChIP-Seq and DNase-Seq studies.
Availability: Freely available on the web at http://cistrome.dfci.harvard.edu/pc/
Comprehensive discovery of genetic mechanisms of drug resistance and identification of in vivo drug targets represent significant challenges. Here we present a functional variomics technology in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This tool analyzes numerous genetic variants and effectively tackles both problems simultaneously. Using this tool, we discovered almost all genes that, due to mutations or modest overexpression, confer resistance to rapamycin, cycloheximide, and amphotericin B. Most significant among the resistance genes were drug targets, including multiple targets of a given drug. With amphotericin B, we discovered the highly conserved membrane protein Pmp3 as a potent resistance factor and a possible novel target. Widespread application of this tool should allow rapid identification of conserved resistance mechanisms and targets of many more compounds. New genes and alleles that confer resistance to other stresses can also be discovered. Similar tools in other systems such as human cell lines will also be useful.
Although intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is known as an early upstream event in the degenerative course of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) myopathy, the process by which Aβdeposits initiate various degradative pathways, and their relationship have not been fully clarified. We studied the possible secondary responses after amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) deposition including unfolded protein response (UPR), ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) activation and its correlation with autophagy system. Eight GNE myopathy patients and five individuals with normal muscle morphology were included in this study. We performed immunofluorescence and immunoblotting to investigate the expression of AβPP, phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones. Proteasome activities were measured by cleavage of fluorogenic substrates. The expression of proteasome subunits and linkers between proteasomal and autophagy systems were also evaluated by immunoblotting and relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Four molecular chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), calreticulin and calnexin and valosin containing protein (VCP) were highly expressed in GNE myopathy. 20S proteasome subunits, three main proteasome proteolytic activities, and the factors linking UPS and autophagy system were also increased. Our study suggests that AβPP deposition results in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and highly expressed VCP deliver unfolded proteins from endoplasmic reticulum to proteosomal system which is activated in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) in GNE myopathy. Excessive ubiquitinated unfolded proteins are exported by proteins that connect UPS and autophagy to autophagy system, which is activated as an alternative pathway for degradation.
The single and combined effects of scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI), ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and G1 on cholesterol efflux from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were investigated.
When apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) was used as an acceptor, ABCA1 overexpression led to an increase in total cholesterol (TC) in medium which is attributable to a 2-fold increase in free cholesterol (FC) content. When high-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) was used as an acceptor, SR-BI overexpression not only promoted FC efflux, but also promoted the uptake of cholesteryl ester (CE) into cells, resulting in no TC varieties in medium. Overexpression of ABCG1 increased both the FC and CE levels in medium. However, when apoA-I and HDL3 were both used as acceptors, coexpression of SR-BI has no effect on ABCA1-mediated increased FC and TC accumulation in medium. Interestingly, coexpression of SR-BI with ABCG1 blocked the ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux to HDL3, mostly by promoting the reuptake of CE from the medium. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that SR-BI interacted with ABCG1 in BHK cells overexpressing ABCG1 and SR-BI.
We found SR-BI associates with ABCG1 and inhibits ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux from cells to HDL3.
Since 1997, several countries within the Asian Pacific region have been affected by one or more massive outbreaks of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Virus typing experiments revealed that these outbreaks were caused by strains of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) belonging to several different, recently emerged subgenogroups. In mainland China, a different situation was observed. The first outbreak, localized in Shangdong Province, was reported in 2007, and was followed by a wide-spread outbreak in mainland China in 2008. Since then, numbers of reported HFMD cases have been persistently high.
To gain insight in the epidemiological behavior of EV71 in China, we studied genetic diversity and EV71 population dynamics to address whether the increase in number of reported EV71 infections reflects a real increase in viral spread or is just the result of increased awareness and surveillance. We used systematically collected VP1 gene sequences of 257 EV71 strains collected in Guangdong province from 2008 to 2010 as part of HFMD surveillance activities, and supplemented them with 305 GenBank EV71 reference stains collected in China from 1998 to 2010. All isolates from Guangdong Province belonged to subgenogroup C4. Viral population dynamics indicated that the increased reporting of HFMD in China since 2007 reflects a real increase in viral spread and continued replacement of viral lineages through time. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed substitution of amino acid in residues 22, 145 and 289 through time regularly with the VP1 gene of EV71 strains isolated in mainland China from 1998 to 2010.
EV71 strains isolated in mainland China mainly belonged to subgenogroup C4. There was exponential growth of the EV71 virus population in 2007 and 2008. There was amino acid substitution through time regularly with the VP1 gene which possibly increased viral spread and/or ability of the virus to circulate persistently among the Chinese population.
Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of “genetically tailored” human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.
developmental reprogramming; cleaved embryos; nuclear transfer; mitotic arrest; electrofusion; MG-132
We report a draft sequence of the genome of Gordonia neofelifaecis NRRL B-59395, a cholesterol-degrading actinomycete isolated from fresh feces of a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). As predicted, the reported genome contains several gene clusters for cholesterol degradation. This is the second available genome sequence of the family Gordoniaceae.
Oridonin, a tetracycline diterpenoid compound, has the potential antitumor activities. Here, we evaluate the antitumor activity and action mechanisms of oridonin in colorectal cancer.
Effects of oridonin on cell proliferation were determined by using a CCK-8 Kit. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was examined by analyzing subdiploid population and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. Senescent cells were determined by senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity analysis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the changes of mRNA of p16, p21, p27 and c-myc. The concomitant changes of protein expression were analyzed with Western blot. Expression of AcH3 and AcH4 were examined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blots. Effects of oridonin on colony formation of SW1116 were examined by Soft Agar assay. The in vivo efficacy of oridonin was detected using a xenograft colorectal cancer model in nude mice.
Oridonin induced potent growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and colony-forming inhibition in three colorectal cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Daily i.p. injection of oridonin (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg) for 28 days significantly inhibited the growth of SW1116 s.c. xenografts in BABL/C nude mice. With western blot and reverse transcription-PCR, we further showed that the antitumor activities of oridonin correlated with induction of histone (H3 and H4) hyperacetylation, activation of p21, p27 and p16, and suppression of c-myc expression.
Oridonin possesses potent in vitro and in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activities that correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and regulation of pathways critical for maintaining growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Therefore, oridonin may represent a novel therapeutic option in colorectal cancer treatment.
Low reprogramming efficiency and reduced pluripotency have been the two major obstacles in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research. An effective and quick method to assess the pluripotency levels of iPS cells at early stages would significantly increase the success rate of iPS cell generation and promote its applications. We have identified a conserved imprinted region of the mouse genome, the Dlk1-Dio3 region, which was activated in fully pluripotent mouse stem cells but repressed in partially pluripotent cells. The degree of activation of this region was positively correlated with the pluripotency levels of stem cells. A mammalian conserved cluster of microRNAs encoded by this region exhibited significant expression differences between full and partial pluripotent stem cells. Several microRNAs from this cluster potentially target components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and may form a feedback regulatory loop resulting in the expression of all genes and non-coding RNAs encoded by this region in full pluripotent stem cells. No other genomic regions were found to exhibit such clear expression changes between cell lines with different pluripotency levels; therefore, the Dlk1-Dio3 region may serve as a marker to identify fully pluripotent iPS or embryonic stem cells from partial pluripotent cells. These findings also provide a step forward toward understanding the operating mechanisms during reprogramming to produce iPS cells and can potentially promote the application of iPS cells in regenerative medicine and cancer therapy.
Differentiation; Embryonic Stem Cell; Epigenetics; Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell; MicroRNA; Dlk1-Dio3 Region; Pluripotency
MACS performs model-based analysis of ChIP-Seq data generated by short read sequencers.
We present Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq data, MACS, which analyzes data generated by short read sequencers such as Solexa's Genome Analyzer. MACS empirically models the shift size of ChIP-Seq tags, and uses it to improve the spatial resolution of predicted binding sites. MACS also uses a dynamic Poisson distribution to effectively capture local biases in the genome, allowing for more robust predictions. MACS compares favorably to existing ChIP-Seq peak-finding algorithms, and is freely available.
A normalization method based on probe GC content for two-color tiling arrays and an algorithm for detecting peak regions are presented. They are available in a stand-alone Java program.
A novel normalization method based on the GC content of probes is developed for two-color tiling arrays. The proposed method, together with robust estimates of the model parameters, is shown to perform superbly on published data sets. A robust algorithm for detecting peak regions is also formulated and shown to perform well compared to other approaches. The tools have been implemented as a stand-alone Java program called MA2C, which can display various plots of statistical analysis for quality control.
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. The skeletal muscle calcium channel α-subunit gene CACNA1S is a major disease-causing gene for HypoPP, however, only three specific HypoPP-causing mutations, Arg528His, Arg1,239His and Arg1,239Gly, have been identified in CACNA1S to date. In this study, we studied a four-generation Chinese family with HypoPP with 43 living members and 19 affected individuals. Linkage analysis showed that the causative mutation in the family is linked to the CACNA1S gene with a LOD score of 6.7. DNA sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous C to G transition at nucleotide 1,582, resulting in a novel 1,582C→G (Arg528Gly) mutation. The Arg528Gly mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, and was not present in 200 matched normal controls. The penetrance of the Arg528Gly mutation was complete in male mutation carriers, however, a reduced penetrance of 83% (10/12) was observed in female carriers. No differences were detected for age-at-onset and severity of the disease (frequency of symptomatic attacks per year) between male and female patients. Oral intake of KCl is effective in blocking the symptomatic attacks. This study identifies a novel Arg528Gly mutation in the CACNA1S gene that causes HypoPP in a Chinese family, expands the spectrum of mutations causing HypoPP, and demonstrates a gender difference in the penetrance of the disease.
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; Skeletal muscle calcium channel; Mutation; CACNA1S; Ion channel; CACNA1S: Skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium channel α-subunit; HyperPP: Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HypoPP: Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; KCNE3: Voltage-gated potassium channel β subunit gene; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction; RFLP: Restriction fragment length polymorphism; SCN4A: Skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit
Berberine (BER), a natural product and active ingredient of genera Berberis and Coptis, has been demonstrated to possess anti-diabetic activities. However, the poor bioavailability of this agent greatly limits its clinical application. In our previous study, we demonstrated that co-administration of sodium caprate, an absorption enhancer, with BER could significantly increase the bioavailability of BER without any serious mucosal damage. Here, we investigated the effects of BER on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/gluconeogenesis pathway and the effects of sodium caprate on hypoglycemic action of BER. The ability of BER co-administered with sodium caprate to reduce insulin resistance was investigated in diabetic rat model induced by high-fat diet and low dose STZ. Western blot was performed to evaluate effects of BER on AMPK signaling proteins involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis in diabetic rat and HepG2 hepatocytes. BER reduced body weight and caused a significant improvement in glucose tolerance without altering food intake in diabetic rats. Similarly, BER reduced plasma triglycerides and improved insulin action in diabetic rats. BER down-regulated the elevated expressions of gluconeogenesis key enzymes PEPCK and G6Pase, inhibited the translocation of TORC2 from cytoplasm to nucleus and increased AMPK activity in liver tissues. The effect of BER was higher when co-administered with sodium caprate. BER treatment resulted in reduced glucose production in HepG2 hepatocytes. BER increased AMPK activity, reduced the expression of PEPCK, and the nuclear transcription factors PGC-1, HNF-4α and FOXO1. The effect of BER on gluconeogenesis could be partly blocked by AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. BER could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rat model of diabetes at least in part via stimulation of AMPK activity and this action of BER is augmented by sodium caprate.
Berberine; Sodium caprate; AMP-activated protein kinase; Diabetes; Hepatic gluconeogenesis; Metabolic syndrome
The prognostic significance of p53 aberration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains inconclusive. This review aimed to provide comprehensive evidence on the association of p53 alterations with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in HCC patients.
Systematic literature searches were conducted until July 2010. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate prognostic effects of p53 alterations on patient outcomes in HCC. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in the meta-analysis.
Thirty-seven studies (7 tumour p53 mutation, 23 tumour p53 expression and 7 serum anti-p53 antibodies) were included in the systematic review. The average percentages of p53 mutation, p53 expression upregulation and anti-p53 antibody level elevation in HCC patients were 31.5%, 35.0% and 23.8%, respectively. Tumour p53 alterations were associated significantly with poor patient outcomes in HCC: the summary hazard ratio (HR) of mutant p53 versus wild type p53 phenotype was 2.58 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.96–3.41] for OS and 3.19 [95% CI: 2.21–4.60] for RFS, respectively; and the summary HR of upregulated p53 expression versus low/undetectable p53 expression was 1.68 [95% CI: 1.49–1.90] for OS and 1.89 [95% CI: 1.34–2.66] for RFS, respectively. However, elevated serum anti-p53 antibody was only associated with poor OS in HCC group with high propotion (≥50%) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection [HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.30–2.85]. Moreover, sensitivity analyses showed that the results of meta-analyses were not altered.
HCC patients with p53 mutation and upregulated expression in tumour tissue have a shorter OS and RFS than patients with wild type p53 and low/undetectable p53 expression. However, the prognostic value of serum anti-p53 antibody is required to be further examined.
systematic review; meta-analysis; TP53; hepatocellular carcinoma; tumour marker
Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge) is an oil-rich seed shrub that grows well in cold, barren environments and has great potential for biodiesel production in China. However, the limited genetic data means that little information about the key genes involved in oil biosynthesis is available, which limits further improvement of this species. In this study, we describe sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly to produce the first comprehensive and integrated genomic resource for yellow horn and identify the pathways and key genes related to oil accumulation. In addition, potential molecular markers were identified and compiled.
Total RNA was isolated from 30 plants from two regions, including buds, leaves, flowers and seeds. Equal quantities of RNA from these tissues were pooled to construct a cDNA library for 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 1,147,624 high-quality reads with total and average lengths of 530.6 Mb and 462 bp, respectively, were generated. These reads were assembled into 51,867 unigenes, corresponding to a total of 36.1 Mb with a mean length, N50 and median of 696, 928 and 570 bp, respectively. Of the unigenes, 17,541 (33.82%) were unmatched in any public protein databases. We identified 281 unigenes that may be involved in de novo fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and metabolism. Furthermore, 6,707 SSRs, 16,925 SNPs and 6,201 InDels with high-confidence were also identified in this study.
This transcriptome represents a new functional genomics resource and a foundation for further studies on the metabolic engineering of yellow horn to increase oil content and modify oil composition. The potential molecular markers identified in this study provide a basis for polymorphism analysis of Xanthoceras, and even Sapindaceae; they will also accelerate the process of breeding new varieties with better agronomic characteristics.
Although DNA vaccine holds a great potential for cancer immunotherapy, effective long-lasting antitumoral immunity sufficient to induce durable responses in cancer patients remains to be achieved. Considering the pivotal role of dendritic cells (DC) in the antigen processing and presentation, we prepared DC-targeting DNA vaccines by fusing tumor-associated antigen HER2/neu ectodomain to single chain antibody fragment (scFv) from NLDC-145 antibody specific for DC-restricted surface molecule DEC-205 (scFvNLDC-145), and explored its antitumoral efficacy and underlying mechanisms in mouse breast cancer models.
In vivo targeting assay demonstrated that scFvNLDC-145 specifically delivered DNA vaccine-encoded antigen to DC. Compared with untargeted HER2/neu DNA vaccines, vaccination with scFvNLDC-145-HER2/neu markedly promoted the HER2/neu-specific cellular and humoral immune responses with long-lasting immune memory, resulting in effective protection against challenge of HER2/neu-positive D2F2/E2 breast tumor while ineffective in parental HER2/neu-negative D2F2 breast tumor. More importantly, in combination with temporary depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg) by low-dose cyclophosphamide, vaccination with scFvNLDC-145-HER2/neu induced the regression of established D2F2/E2 breast tumor and significantly retarded the development of spontaneous mammary carcinomas in transgenic BALB-neuT mice.
Our findings demonstrate that DC-targeted DNA vaccines for in vivo direct delivery of tumor antigens to DC could induce potent antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses and, if additional combination with systemic Treg depletion, was able to elicit an impressively therapeutic antitumoral activity, providing a rationale for further development of this approach for cancer treatment.
DNA vaccine; DC-targeted; HER2/neu; Breast cancer; Cyclophosphamide