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1.  Interocular Shift of Visual Attention Enhances Stereopsis and Visual Acuities of Anisometropic Amblyopes beyond the Critical Period of Visual Development: A Novel Approach 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:615213.
Aims. Increasing evidence shows that imbalanced suppressive drive prior to binocular combination may be the key factor in amblyopia. We described a novel binocular approach, interocular shift of visual attention (ISVA), for treatment of amblyopia in adult patients. Methods. Visual stimuli were presented anaglyphically on a computer screen. A square target resembling Landolt C had 2 openings, one in red and one in cyan color. Through blue-red goggles, each eye could only see one of the two openings. The patient was required to report the location of the opening presented to the amblyopic eye. It started at an opening size of 800 sec of arc, went up and down in 160 sec of arc step, and stopped when reaching the 5th reversals. Ten patients with anisometropic amblyopia older than age 14 (average age: 26.7) were recruited and received ISVA treatment for 6 weeks, with 2 training sessions per day. Results. Both Titmus stereopsis (z = −2.809, P = 0.005) and Random-dot stereopsis (z = −2.317, P = 0.018) were significantly improved. Average improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.74 line (t = 5.842, P < 0.001). Conclusions. The ISVA treatment may be effective in treating amblyopia and restoring stereoscopic function.
doi:10.1155/2014/615213
PMCID: PMC4279785  PMID: 25580280
2.  The Diagnostic Value of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma by Using Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography Perfusion 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:260859.
Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) with computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for preoperative detection of metastases to lymph nodes (LNs) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods. Between May 2010 and April 2012, 30 patients with head and neck SCC underwent preoperative DWI and CTP. Two radiologists measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and CTP parameters independently. Surgery and histopathologic examinations were performed on all patients. Results. On DWI, 65 LNs were detected in 30 patients. The mean ADC value of metastatic nodes was lower than benign nodes and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). On CTP images, the mean value in metastatic nodes of blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) was higher than that in benign nodes, and mean transit time (MTT) in metastatic nodes was lower than that in benign nodes. There were significant differences in BF and MTT values between metastatic and benign LNs (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the AUCs of DWI and CTP (Z=4.612, P < 0.001). Conclusion. DWI with ADC value measurements may be more accurate than CTP for the preoperative diagnosis of cervical LN metastases.
doi:10.1155/2014/260859
PMCID: PMC4094719  PMID: 25050333
3.  Rather than Rs1800796 Polymorphism, Expression of Interleukin-6 is Associated with Disease Progression of Chronic HBV Infection in a Chinese Han Population 
Disease Markers  2013;35(6):799-805.
Interleukin-6 plays an important role in chronic inflammation as well as tumor growth and progression. Here, a case-control study was undertaken to investigate the association of rs1800796 polymorphism of IL-6 gene and serum levels with disease progression of chronic HBV infection. Rs1800796 polymorphism was genotyped in 641 Chinese Han patients with chronic HBV infection, including 23 IT, 25 IC, 292 CHB, 153 LC, and 148 HCC patients and 265 healthy controls. Serum IL-6 levels were measured in 23 IT, 25 IC, 47 CHB, 41 LC, and 49 HCC patients and 45 healthy controls, and the classifications of HCC were accorded to BCLC staging system. We found no significant association between rs1800796 polymorphism and disease progression of chronic HBV infection; however, serum IL-6 levels showed significant statistical differences between patients with CHB, LC, and HCC. Moreover, statistical differences can be observed in patients with terminal stage HCC compared with those of early to intermediate or advanced stage HCC. Our findings suggest that rs1800796 polymorphism unlikely contribute significantly to affect the progression of chronic HBV infection, and serum IL-6 levels can act as a useful indicator for disease progression and severity of chronic HBV infection.
doi:10.1155/2013/508023
PMCID: PMC3858883  PMID: 24371367
4.  Suprachoroidal injection of ketorolac tromethamine does not cause retinal damage☆ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(35):2770-2777.
Rabbit right eyes were injected with 3 or 6 mg ketorolac tromethamine into the suprachoroidal space. Electroretinography results demonstrated no abnormal changes in rod cell response, maximum rod cell or cone cell mixing reaction, oscillation potential, cone cell response, waveform, amplitude, and potential of 30 Hz scintillation response in right eyes before injection, and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after injection. There was no difference between left (control) and right eyes. Under light microscopy, the histomorphology of cells in each retinal layer was normal at 4 weeks following 6 mg ketorolac tromethamine administration. These results indicate that a single suprachoroidal injection of 3 or 6 mg ketorolac tromethamine into rabbits was safe. Suprachoroidal space injection appears to be safe.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.35.004
PMCID: PMC4190858  PMID: 25317126
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; ketorolac tromethamine; segment disease; retina; suprachoroidal space; retinal toxicity; electroretinography; pharmacology; regeneration; neural regeneration
5.  Genetic Polymorphisms of Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Lung Cancer Susceptibility in a Population of Central South China 
Disease Markers  2006;22(3):141-152.
A case-control study was conducted for analyzing the genetic polymorphisms of phase II metabolic enzymes in 97 patients with lung cancer and 197 healthy subjects from Han ethnic group of Hunan Province located in Central South China. The results showed that the frequencies of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1-null (GSTM1-) or GSTT1-null (GSTT1-) genotype alone, or combined form of both in lung cancer patients were significantly higher than those of the controls. Genotypes of combining GSTP1 mutant/GSTM1(-) or GSTP1 mutant/GSTT1(-) led to high risk of lung cancer. Individuals carrying any two or all three of GSTM1(-), GSTT1(-) and GSTP1 mutant genotypes have a distinctly increased risk of lung cancer when compared to those with GSTM1 present (GSTM1+: GSTM1+/+ or GSTM1+/−), GSTT1 present (GSTT1+: GSTT1+/+ or GSTT1+/−) and GSTP1 wild genotypes. Furthermore, individuals possessing combined genotypes of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) rapid acetylator, GSTP1 mutant and both GSTT1(-) and GSTM1(-) have a remarkably higher lung cancer risk than those carrying combined NAT2 slow acetylator genotype, GSTP1 wild genotype and both GSTT1(+) and GSTM1(+) genotypes. All these findings suggest that the genetic polymorphisms of phase II metabolic enzymes affect the susceptibility of lung cancer in the Han ethnic group of Central South China.
doi:10.1155/2006/436497
PMCID: PMC3851385  PMID: 16788248
Genetic polymorphism; GST; NAT2; lung cancer; susceptibility
6.  Inhibition of Sirtuin 2 exerts neuroprotection in aging rats with increased neonatal iron intake 
Neural Regeneration Research  2014;9(21):1917-1922.
Impaired iron homeostasis may cause damage to dopaminergic neurons and is critically involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. At present, very little is understood about the effect of neonatal iron intake on behavior in aging animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased neonatal iron intake would result in significant behavior abnormalities and striatal dopamine depletion during aging, and Sirtuin 2 contributes to the age-related neurotoxicity. In the present study, we observed that neonatal iron intake (120 μg/g per day) during postnatal days 10–17 resulted in significant behavior abnormalities and striatal dopamine depletion in aging rats. Furthermore, after AK-7 (a selective Sirtuin 2 inhibitor) was injected into the substantia nigra at postnatal 540 days and 570 days (5 μg/side per day), striatal dopamine depletion was significantly diminished and behavior abnormality was improved in aging rats with neonatal iron intake. Experimental findings suggest that increased neonatal iron intake may result in Parkinson's disease-like neurochemical and behavioral deficits with aging, and inhibition of Sirtuin 2 expression may be a neuroprotective measure in Parkinson's disease.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.145361
PMCID: PMC4281432  PMID: 25558243
nerve regeneration; Parkinson's disease; iron homeostasis disruption; aging; dopamine; corpus striatum; neurotoxicity; Sirtuin; AK-7; NSFC grants; neural regeneration
7.  Hierarchical Porous Li2Mg(NH)2@C Nanowires with Long Cycle Life Towards Stable Hydrogen Storage 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6599.
The hierarchical porous Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires full of micropores, mesopores, and macropores are successfully fabricated via a single-nozzle electrospinning technique combined with in-situ reaction between the precursors, i.e., MgCl2 and LiN3, under physical restriction upon thermal annealing. The explosive decomposition of LiN3 well dispersed in the electrospun nanowires during carbothermal treatment induces a highly porous structure, which provides a favourable way for H2 delivering in and out of Li2Mg(NH)2 nanoparticles simultaneously realized by the space-confinement of the porous carbon coating. As a result, the thus-fabricated Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires present significantly enhanced thermodynamics and kinetics towards hydrogen storage performance, e.g., a complete cycle of H2 uptake and release with a capacity close to the theoretical value at a temperature as low as 105°C. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest cycling temperature reported to date. More interestingly, induced by the nanosize effects and space-confinement function of porous carbon coating, a excellently stable regeneration without apparent degradation after 20 de-/re-hydrogenation cycles at a temperature as low as 130°C was achieved for the as-prepared Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires.
doi:10.1038/srep06599
PMCID: PMC4194431  PMID: 25307874
8.  Dosimetric Coverage of the External Anal Sphincter by 3-Dimensional Conformal Fields in Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Implications for the Concept of Sphincter-Preserving Radiation Therapy 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:578243.
Background. We evaluated the anatomic location of the external anal sphincter (EAS) to pelvic bony landmarks related to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DRT) and studied the dosimetric coverage of the EAS in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Methods. Sixty-four consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation were included. All patients were treated in a prone position on a bellyboard by 3DRT. The inferior border of the RT fields was at least 3–5 cm inferior to the gross tumorous volume (GTV) or at the inferior border of the obturator foramen (IBOF), whichever was more inferior. The EAS was contoured and dose distributions were determined using dose-volume histograms. Results. In 53 out of 64 cases (82.8%), the EAS was completely inferior to the IBOF. In the remaining 11 cases, the EAS was either overlapping the IBOF (10 cases; 15.6%) or completely superior to the IBOF (1 case; 1.7%). The average mean dose delivered to the EAS was 2795 cGy. Lower mean doses were delivered to the EAS when the center of the EAS was located more distant from the GTV. Conclusions. Meticulous planning to define the inferior border of the RT field is recommended to avoid irradiating the EAS.
doi:10.1155/2014/578243
PMCID: PMC4095991  PMID: 25089274
9.  Using Surgical Microscope for Sclera Buckling and Transscleral Cryopexy: An Alternative Procedure of Treatment for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:364961.
Purpose. To observe the long-term effectiveness of scleral buckling and transscleral cryopexy conducted under a surgical microscope in the treatment of uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods. This was a retrospective analysis in a total of 227 consecutive patients (244 eyes) with uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (proliferative vitreoretinopathy ≤ C2). All patients underwent scleral buckling and transscleral cryopexy under a surgical microscope without using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope or a contact lens. Results. After initial surgery, complete retinal reattachment was achieved in 226 eyes (92.6%), and retinal redetachment developed in 18 eyes (7.4%). The causes of retinal redetachment included presence of new breaks in eight eyes (44%), failure to completely seal the breaks in five eyes (28%), missed retinal breaks in four eyes (22%), and iatrogenic retinal breaks in one eye (6%). Scleral buckling surgery was performed again in 12 eyes (66%). Four eyes (22%) developed proliferative vitreoretinopathy and then were treated by vitrectomy. The sealing of retinal breaks and complete retinal reattachment were achieved in 241 eyes (98.8%). Conclusion. Probably because of clear visualization of retinal breaks and being controllable under a surgical microscope, the microsurgery of scleral buckling and transscleral cryopexy for uncomplicated retinal detachment exhibits advisable effectiveness.
doi:10.1155/2014/364961
PMCID: PMC3984779  PMID: 24790997
10.  Association between Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Inflammatory Markers among US Adults 
Mediators of Inflammation  2014;2014:709024.
Background and Aims. High levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) appear to be associated with an increased mortality. Previous studies concerning the relationship of inflammatory markers with hyperparathyroidism have yielded inconsistent results. This study investigated whether serum PTH concentrations were independently associated with several inflammatory markers among the US adults. Materials and Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relation between serum PTH and C-reactive protein (CRP), red cell distribution width (RDW), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) levels with weighted linear regression. Additionally, we examined the relation with increased modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) by using weighted logistic regression. Results. CRP, RDW, and PLR values increased with increasing serum PTH concentration. After extensively adjusting for covariates, CRP and RDW increased linearly and across PTH categories (all P < 0.001), while PLR marginally increased (P = 0.190 and P = 0.095 using PTH as a categorical and continuous variable, resp.). The odds ratio of increased mGPS was 1.11 and 1.31 across PTH categories and with increasing PTH levels continuously. Conclusion. These nationally representative data indicate that serum PTH levels are independently associated with several inflammatory markers in the US population. The casual relationship between PTH levels and inflammation remains to be elucidated.
doi:10.1155/2014/709024
PMCID: PMC3980926  PMID: 24782595
11.  Comparison of Metformin and Repaglinide Monotherapy in the Treatment of New Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2014;2014:294017.
Objective. This study was designed to compare the effects of metformin and repaglinide on the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in China. Methods. A total of 107 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (46 women and 61 men) participated in the study. All patients received 3-month treatment of metformin or repaglinide. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were determined at baseline and at the end of the 3-month of treatment. Results. FPG and HbA1c decreased in both metformin and repaglinide groups after 3 months treatment (P < 0.01). The reduction of HbA1c was significantly greater in the repaglinide group (P < 0.01). Metformin decreases fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01), and repaglinide improves HOMA-β  (P < 0.01). Triglycerides (TG) were reduced in both groups (P < 0.01 in metformin group; P < 0.05 in repaglinide group), but total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased only after metformin treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Both repaglinide and metformin were effective in glycaemic control in new onset patients with type 2 diabetes in China. Repaglinide had no effect on insulin sensitivity, but it improved β-cell function.
doi:10.1155/2014/294017
PMCID: PMC3960773  PMID: 24772445
12.  One-Stage Posterior Debridement and Transpedicular Screw Fixation for Treating Monosegmental Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Tuberculosis in Adults 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:137106.
Spinal tuberculosis is still prevalent in some developing countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of one-stage posterior debridement, autogenous bone grafting, and transpedicular screw fixation in treating monosegmental thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis in adults. 37 patients were retrospectively reviewed in this study. The data of images, operative time and blood loss volume, perioperative complications, time to achieve bony fusion, VAS score, and neurologic function preoperatively and postoperatively were collected. The mean follow-up period was 21.5 ± 3.5 months. The tuberculosis was cured after surgery in all patients, and no recurrence was observed. Bony fusion was achieved in all patients with a mean time of 5.6 ± 2.5 months. Neurological outcome did not change in one case with grade A, and increased by 1–3 grades in the other patients with nerve deficit. The average preoperative and postoperative VAS scores were 5.5 ± 2.23 and 1.5 ± 1.22, respectively; the difference was significant (P < 0.05). There were three perioperative complications (8.1%, 3/37) observed in this study. In conclusion, the procedure of one-stage posterior debridement, interbody fusion with autogenous bone grafting, and posterior fixation with pedicle screw is effective and safe for treating monosegmental thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis in adults.
doi:10.1155/2014/137106
PMCID: PMC3950547  PMID: 24701134
13.  Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin 
Neural Regeneration Research  2014;9(2):205-212.
Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medicine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang's pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang was administered using oral gavage during model establishment. Wen Dan Tang significantly reduced insomnia-related anxiety and prevented Ghrelin level decreases following sleep deprivation, especially in the hypothalamus. Increased expression of Ghrelin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus was also observed, suggesting that reduced anxiety may be a result of Wen Dan Tang's regulation of Ghrelin-Ghrelin receptors.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.125351
PMCID: PMC4146165  PMID: 25206802
nerve regeneration; Chinese Medicine; Wen Dan Tang; sleep deprivation; anxiety; Ghrel in; Ghrelin receptor; the National Natural Science Youth Foundation in China; neural regeneration
14.  Ipsilateral and Contralateral Auditory Brainstem Response Reorganization in Hemispherectomized Patients 
Neural Plasticity  2013;2013:832473.
Background. Cortical hemispherectomy leads to degeneration of ipsilateral subcortical structures, which can be observed long term after the operation. Therefore, reorganization of the brainstem auditory pathway might occur. The aim of this study was to assess reorganization of brainstem auditory pathways by measuring the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in long-term hemispherectomized patients. Methods. We performed bilateral monaural stimulation and measured bilateral ABR in 8 patients ~20 years after hemispherectomy and 10 control subjects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in patients to assess structural degeneration. Results. All patients showed degenerated ipsilateral brainstem structures by MRI but no significant differences in bilateral recording ABR wave latencies. However, nonsurgical-side stimulation elicited significantly longer wave V latencies compared to surgical-side stimulation. Differences in bilateral ABR were observed between hemispherectomized patients and control subjects. Waves III and V latencies elicited by nonsurgical-side stimulation were significantly longer than those in control subjects; surgical-side stimulation showed no significant differences. Conclusions. (1) Differences in ABR latency elicited by unilateral stimulation are predominantly due to bilateral brainstem auditory pathway activity rather than to changes in brainstem volume; (2) ABR Waves III and V originate predominantly in the contralateral brainstem; and (3) subcortical auditory pathways appear to reorganize after long term hemispherectomy.
doi:10.1155/2013/832473
PMCID: PMC3884784  PMID: 24455311
15.  A modified bicanalicular intubation procedure to repair canalicular lacerations using silicone tubes 
Liang, X | Lin, Y | Wang, Z | Lin, L | Zeng, S | Liu, Z | Li, N | Wang, Z | Liu, Y
Eye  2012;26(12):1542-1547.
Purpose
To explore a modified technique for silicone intubation for the repair of canalicular lacerations.
Methods
The surgery was performed on 35 eyes in 35 adult patients from October 2007 to September 2009. Using a modified soft probe, silicone tubes were inserted through the lacrimal punctum and left in the bicanaliculi for 3–10 months.
Results
The surgery was performed successfully in all cases. The tubes were removed after 3–10 months (mean 5.3±1.8 months). The mean follow-up time after tube removal was 13.8 months (range, 6–22 months). Lower punctum splitting occurred in one case (2.86%) after the surgery. No other complications associated with the silicone tubes occurred. All the tubes were removed successfully without any difficulty. No iatrogenic injuries occurred during tube removal.
Conclusions
The modified bicanalicular intubation procedure described here is an effective and atraumatic procedure for the management of canalicular lacerations in adults, and it is associated with fewer complications than the traditional sutures of canalicular lacerations.
doi:10.1038/eye.2012.212
PMCID: PMC3522846  PMID: 23060024
modified; canalicular laceration; tube intubation
16.  Laryngeal Mask Airway Does Not Reduce Postoperative Nasal Bleeding Outside the Operation Room after Intranasal Surgery 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:461023.
Background. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) versus the endotracheal tube (ETT) on postoperative nasal bleedings in and outside the operation room (OR) after intranasal surgery. Methods. 134 patients undergoing elective intranasal surgeries were randomly allocated to receive LMA or ETT during general anesthesia. The incidence, episodes, and severity of nasal bleeding were evaluated in the OR and within the postoperative 24 hours in the ward. Furthermore, medical assistance and severe complications were assessed. Results. The overall incidence of postoperative nasal bleeding throughout the observation period was similar between the two groups. The LMA reduced nasal bleeding in the OR. However, outside the OR, the incidence of the first episode of postoperative nasal bleeding in the LMA group was higher than that in the ETT group (difference: −26.5%; 95% CI: −42.2% to −10.7%; P < 0.001). In the LMA group, more patients needed medical assistance (P = 0.029), and the number of assistance was also higher (P = 0.027) in the ward. No severe complications occurred during the observation period. Conclusion. The LMA does not alleviate nasal bleeding conditions and even increases the demands of medical service outside the OR after intranasal surgery, although it reduces epistaxis during extubation.
doi:10.1155/2013/461023
PMCID: PMC3864139  PMID: 24363619
17.  Efficacy and Safety of Docetaxel Plus Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine in the First Line Treatment of Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:971096.
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus oxaliplatin and capecitabine (DOX) in the first line treatment of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods. A total of 37 patients were enrolled into this study, and they received DOX regimen (docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 intravenous infusion on day 1, and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 orally twice daily on d1–14); treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. Results. All 37 patients were assessable for evaluation. The numbers of patients with complete response (CR), partial responses (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) were 1, 10, 23, and 3, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) was 29.7%, with the disease control rate (DCR) of 91.9%. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) and overall survival (mOS) were 197 days and 364 days, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were hematological toxicities. The most common grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicities were fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, and hand-foot syndrome. Conclusion. The DOX regimen demonstrated a promising efficacy as the first line regimen in treating advanced gastric cancer patients with good performance status, the toxicities were tolerated and controllable. Large-scale clinical observation is necessary to get further evidence.
doi:10.1155/2013/971096
PMCID: PMC3787590  PMID: 24151630
18.  Increased Production of Interleukin-4, Interleukin-10, and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor by Type 2 Diabetes' Mononuclear Cells Infected with Dengue Virus, but Not Increased Intracellular Viral Multiplication 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:965853.
It has been reported that diabetes mellitus (DM) was an epidemiologically identified risk factor for development of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/severe dengue in dengue virus (DENV) affected patients, and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 each plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of DHF in studies involving general population. To better understand the relationship between these epidemiological and immunological findings, we performed an in vitro study evaluating the sequential immunological reactions and viral load in the DENV infected mononuclear cells of adults with type 2 DM (T2DM group, n = 33) and normal adults (control group, n = 29). We found in the T2DM group significantly higher IL-4 level on the first (P = 0.049) and the third (P = 0.022) postinfection days, while higher IL-10 (P = 0.042) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (P = 0.009) were detected on the third postinfection day. No significant difference in DENV viral load between the cultured mononuclear cells from both groups was found on the first and third post-infection days. These data immunologically suggest that patients with T2DM are at higher risk for development of DHF/severe dengue and strengthen the previously epidemiologically identified role of DM being a predictive risk factor for progressing into DHF/severe dengue in DENV-affected patients.
doi:10.1155/2013/965853
PMCID: PMC3773921  PMID: 24078930
19.  Correlation between virus persistent infection and cardic function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy*  
In our study, 50 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were selected to investigate the correlation between virus persistent infection and cardic function. We found that 44% of patients with DCM were coxsackie virus B-RNA (CVB-RNA) positive, significantly different from that (20%) of the normal control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) in patients with DCM were significantly higher than those in the normal control group (P<0.01). In CVB-RNA-positive patients, expression levels of CAR were significantly higher than those in CVB-RNA-negative patients (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between CAR expression and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in patients with DCM, but no significant correlations between the CAR expression level and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDd). These results showed that expression levels of CAR on the surface of white cells can be used as an indicator for detecting persistent virus infection. We found that expression levels of CAR and heart function in patients with DCM were highly correlated.
doi:10.1631/jzus.BQICC708
PMCID: PMC3735976  PMID: 23897795
20.  Electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang (BL35) for post-stroke detrusor overactivity★ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2013;8(18):1663-1672.
Acupuncture is used extensively in China for the treatment of stroke and other neurological disorders. The National Institutes of Health recommends acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy for stroke recovery. This study included patients with post-stroke detrusor overactivity who were treated in the Department of Neurology, Fourth Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China. Subjects received either electroacupuncture or sham electroacupuncture at points Baliao [including bilateral Shangliao (BL31), bilateral Ciliao (BL32), bilateral Zhongliao (BL33), and bilateral Xialiao (BL34)] and Huiyang (BL35). Our results showed that electroacupuncture significantly improved cystometric capacity and bladder compliance, decreased detrusor leak point pressure, ameliorated lower urinary tract symptoms, and decreased the risk of upper urinary tract damage. These findings indicate that electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang is an effective treatment for post-stroke detrusor overactivity.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.18.004
PMCID: PMC4145909  PMID: 25206463
neural regeneration; acupuncture and moxibustion; stroke; urodynamics; detrusor overactivity; rehabilitation; grants-supported paper; neuroregeneration
21.  Association of CFH and CFB Gene Polymorphisms with Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:748435.
Objectives. The complement system is a key component of innate immunity and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). This study aimed at investigating whether polymorphisms of two genes in the complement pathway, complement factor H (CFH) and complement factor B (CFB), are associated with DR. Methods. 552 well-defined subjects with type 2 diabetes, consisting of 277 DR patients and 275 diabetic controls, were recruited. Four Tag-SNPs rs1048709, rs537160, rs4151657, and rs2072633 in CFB and rs800292 (I62V) in CFH were examined using TaqMan Genotyping Assays. Results. There were significant increases in the frequencies of A allele and AA genotype for rs1048709 in DR patients compared with diabetic controls (Pcorr = 0.035, OR = 1.42; Pcorr = 0.02, OR = 2.27, resp.): meanwhile, significant decreases in the frequencies of A allele and AA genotype for rs800292 were observed in DR patients compared with diabetic controls (Pcorr = 0.04, OR = 0.72; Pcorr = 0.015, OR = 0.51, resp.). Joint effect of these two loci was also identified. Moreover, rs800292/AA genotype was found to be related with delayed progression to DR. Conclusions. CFH-rs800292 and CFB-rs1048709 are associated with the presence of DR, which strengthens the concept that complement system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DR.
doi:10.1155/2013/748435
PMCID: PMC3707223  PMID: 23864767
22.  Comparison of 99mTc-N-DBODC5 and 99mTc-MIBI of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging for Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:145427.
Despite recent advances in therapeutic and diagnostic approaches, coronary artery disease (CAD) and its related cardiac disorders represent the most common cause of death in the United States. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) technologies play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment design for CAD. Recently, in order to develop improved MPI agents for diagnosis of CAD, 99mTc-[bis(dimethoxypropylphosphinoethyl)-ethoxyethyl-amine(PNP5)]-[bis(N-ethoxyethyl)dithiocarbamato(DBODC)]nitride(N-DBODC5)(99mTc-N-DBODC5) with a faster liver clearance than conventional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging agents (technetium 99m sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) or technetium 99m tetrofosmin) has been introduced. In preclinical and phase I studies, 99mTc-N-DBODC5 has shown characteristics of an essentially ideal MPI tracer. Importantly, however, there is no data to support the use of 99mTc-N-DBODC5 to evaluate myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected CAD. The present study was designed to assess the clinical value of this agent; the findings of stress and rest MPI after the administration of this agent were compared to those of stress and rest 99mTc-MIBI, as well as those of coronary angiography, with respect to the detection of CAD. Our findings indicated the usefulness of 99mTc-N-DBODC5 as a promising MPI agent.
doi:10.1155/2013/145427
PMCID: PMC3693116  PMID: 23841052
23.  Novel nanometer scaffolds regulate the biological behaviors of neural stem cells☆ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2013;8(16):1455-1464.
Ideal tissue-engineered scaffold materials regulate proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of cells seeded on them by regulating gene expression. In this study, aligned and randomly oriented collagen nanofiber scaffolds were prepared using electronic spinning technology. Their diameters and appearance reached the standards of tissue-engineered nanometer scaffolds. The nanofiber scaffolds were characterized by a high swelling ratio, high porosity and good mechanical properties. The proliferation of spinal cord-derived neural stem cells on novel nanofiber scaffolds was obviously enhanced. The proportions of cells in the S and G2/M phases noticeably increased. Moreover, the proliferation rate of neural stem cells on the aligned collagen nanofiber scaffolds was high. The expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were increased. Bcl-2 expression was significantly increased, but Bax and caspase-3 gene expressions were obviously decreased. There was no significant difference in the differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons on aligned and randomly oriented collagen nanofiber scaffolds. These results indicate that novel nanofiber scaffolds could promote the proliferation of spinal cord-derived neural stem cells and inhibit apoptosis without inducing differentiation. Nanofiber scaffolds regulate apoptosis and proliferation in neural stem cells by altering gene expression.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.16.002
PMCID: PMC4107811  PMID: 25206441
neural regeneration; stem cells; tissue engineering; spinal cord-derived neural stem cells; nanofiber scaffolds; proliferation; apoptosis; differentiation; neuroregeneration
24.  The top cited articles on glioma stem cells in Web of Science☆ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2013;8(15):1431-1438.
Background:
Glioma is the most common intracranial tumor and has a poor patient prognosis. The presence of brain tumor stem cells was gradually being understood and recognized, which might be beneficial for the treatment of glioma.
Objective:
To use bibliometric indexes to track study focuses on glioma stem cell, and to investigate the relationships among geographic origin, impact factors, and highly cited articles indexed in Web of Science.
Methods:
A list of citation classics for glioma stem cells was generated by searching the database of Web of Science-Expanded using the terms “glioma stem cell” or “glioma, stem cell” or “brain tumor stem cell”. The top 63 cited research articles which were cited more than 100 times were retrieved by reading the abstract or full text if needed. Each eligible article was reviewed for basic information on subject categories, country of origin, journals, authors, and source of journals. Inclusive criteria: (1) articles in the field of glioma stem cells which was cited more than 100 times; (2) fundamental research on humans or animals, clinical trials and case reports; (3) research article; (4) year of publication: 1899–2012; and (5) citation database: Science Citation Index-Expanded. Exclusive criteria: (1) articles needing to be manually searched or accessed only by telephone; (2) unpublished articles; and (3) reviews, conference proceedings, as well as corrected papers.
Results:
Of 2 040 articles published, the 63 top-cited articles were published between 1992 and 2010. The number of citations ranged from 100 to 1 754, with a mean of 280 citations per article. These citation classics came from nineteen countries, of which 46 articles came from the United States. Duke University and University of California, San Francisco led the list of classics with seven papers each. The 63 top-cited articles were published in 28 journals, predominantly Cancer Research and Cancer Cell, followed by Cell Stem Cell and Nature.
Conclusion:
Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress of glioma stem cell research. Articles originating from outstanding institutions of the United States and published in high-impact journals are most likely to be cited.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.15.011
PMCID: PMC4107765  PMID: 25206439
Neural regeneration; reviews; brain glioma; stem cells; glioma stem cells; cancer stem cells; literature analysis; Web of Science; bibliometrics; citation; neuroregeneration
25.  Expression of miRNAs in Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas Is Associated with BRAF Mutation and Clinicopathological Features in Chinese Patients 
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation has been shown to play a critical regulatory role in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). BRAF mutation is associated with poor clinicopathological outcomes in PTC. In order to identify a possible association between dysregulated miRNA expression and BRAF mutation as well as clinicopathological features in Chinese patients with PTC, we examined the expression levels of five reported dysregulated miRNAs (miRNA-221, miRNA-222, miRNA-146b, miRNA-181, and miRNA-21) and determined BRAF mutation status in 52 patients with PTC and 52 patients with benign thyroid nodules (BTNs). The expression levels of all five miRNAs were significantly increased in PTC when compared to BTN. The BRAF mutation occurred more frequently in PTC cases with advanced TNM stage. Importantly, miRNA-221, miRNA-222, miRNA-146b, and miRNA-181 expression levels were significantly higher in PTC patients with BRAF mutation. In addition, enhanced expression of miRNA-221 and miRNA-222 was found in patients with cervical lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage. Increased expression of miRNA-221 and miR-181 was evidenced in patients with larger tumors. These findings showed a potential role of this distinct profile of miRNAs in differentiating PTC from BTN. BRAF mutation might regulate or interact with miRNA in the pathogenesis and progression of PTC.
doi:10.1155/2013/128735
PMCID: PMC3639632  PMID: 23690767

Results 1-25 (399)