The molecular bases of adaptation and pathogenicity of H9N2 influenza virus in mammals are largely unknown. Here, we show that a mouse-adapted PB2 gene with a phenylalanine-to-leucine mutation (F404L) mainly contributes to enhanced polymerase activity, replication, and pathogenicity of H9N2 in mice and also increases the virulence of the H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. Therefore, we defined a novel pathogenic determinant, providing further insights into the pathogenesis of influenza viruses in mammals.
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strain HRB-CS1, isolated from a dead domestic cat showing enteric symptoms in China in 2014. The genome of HRB-CS1 was sequenced and analyzed, which will help to understand the genetic characteristics and evolution of FPLV in China.
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of feline calicivirus (FCV) strain HRB-SS isolated in 2014 from a cat in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China. The virus genome is 7,705 bases, excluding the poly(A) tail. This analysis will help to understand the genetic characteristics and evolution of FCV in China.
We report that multiple symbionts coexist in Dermacentor silvarum. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, we prove that Coxiella-like and Arsenophonus-like symbionts, with 95.6% and 96.7% sequence similarity to symbionts in the closest taxon, respectively, are novel. Moreover, we also provide evidence that the Coxiella-like symbiont appears to be the primary symbiont.
The previously silent GII.17 norovirus was found to be the predominant genotype causing major epidemics in China in the 2014–2015 winter epidemic season. We report here the complete genomic sequence of a GII.17 norovirus (mky/GII.17/KM1509/CHN/2015) that infected rhesus monkeys at a monkey farm in southwestern China.
For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV.
The neuraminidase stalk of the newly emerged H7N9 influenza virus possesses a 5-amino-acid deletion. This study focuses on characterizing the biological functions of H7N9 with varied neuraminidase stalk lengths. Results indicate that the 5-amino-acid deletion had no impact on virus infectivity or replication in vitro or in vivo compared to that of a virus with a full-length stalk, but enhanced virulence in mice was observed for H7N9 encoding a 19- to 20-amino-acid deletion, suggesting that N9 stalk length impacts virulence in mammals, as N1 stalk length does.
General anesthesia is adopted through double-lumen endotracheal intubation, one-lung ventilation on the contralateral, and intravenous injection. The patient took a 90 degree decubitus on his contralateral side. The operative incisions: the observation port was made in the mid-axillary line of the 7th intercostal section, a second horizontal incision of 4 cm as the main operation port at the 4th intercostal space between the anterior axillary line and the midclavicular line, and a 3rd incision of 1.5 cm as the secondary operation hole at the 9th intercostal space between the axillary line and the bottom scapular line. The surgeons were on the ventral side of the patient, and operated with endoscope apparatus in front of the monitor screen.
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS); lung adenocarcinoma; lower left lobe lobectomy
Microtubule-binding proteins (MBPs) are structurally and functionally diverse regulators of microtubule-mediated cellular processes. Alteration of MBPs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases, including cancer. MBPs can stabilize or destabilize microtubules or move along microtubules to transport various cargoes. In addition, MBPs can control microtubule dynamics through direct interaction with microtubules or coordination with other proteins. To better understand microtubule structure and function, it is necessary to identify additional MBPs. In this study, we isolated microtubules and MBPs from mammalian cells by a taxol-based method and then profiled a panel of MBPs by mass spectrometry. We discovered a number of previously uncharacterized MBPs, including several membrane-associated proteins and proteins involved in post-translational modifications, in addition to several structural components. These results support the notion that microtubules have a wide range of functions and may undergo more exquisite regulation than previously recognized.
Mass spectrometry; microtubule; microtubule-binding protein; taxol; tubulin
Periprosthetic infection remains a challenging clinical complication. We investigated the antibacterial properties of pure (99.9%) magnesium (Mg) in vitro and in an in vivo rat model of implant-related infection. Mg was highly effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis and improved new peri-implant bone formation. Bacterial icaA and agr RNAIII transcription levels were also assessed to characterize the mechanism underlying the antibacterial properties of the Mg implant.
The resistance of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolates to most traditional antibiotics results in huge challenges for infection therapy. We investigated the in vitro activities of both l- and d-lycosin-I against MDRAB. These two compounds displayed high antibacterial activities and rapid bactericidal effects against MDRAB. Moreover, the compounds retained their activity even at high salt (Mg2+ or Ca2+) concentrations. These results demonstrate the potential of lycosin-I to be developed as a new antibiotic.
BTK is a member of the TEC family
of non-receptor tyrosine kinases
whose deregulation has been implicated in a variety of B-cell-related
diseases. We have used structure-based drug design in conjunction
with kinome profiling and cellular assays to develop a potent, selective,
and irreversible BTK kinase inhibitor, QL47, which covalently modifies
Cys481. QL47 inhibits BTK kinase activity with an IC50 of
7 nM, inhibits autophosphorylation of BTK on Tyr223 in cells with
an EC50 of 475 nM, and inhibits phosphorylation of a downstream
effector PLCγ2 (Tyr759) with an EC50 of 318 nM. In
Ramos cells QL47 induces a G1 cell cycle arrest that is associated
with pronounced degradation of BTK protein. QL47 inhibits the proliferation
of B-cell lymphoma cancer cell lines at submicromolar concentrations.
A major challenge of resistive switching memory (resistive random access memory (RRAM)) for future application is how to reduce the fluctuation of the resistive switching parameters. In this letter, with a statistical methodology, we have systematically analyzed the reset statistics of the conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) with a Cu/HfO2/Pt structure which displays bipolar switching property. The experimental observations show that the distributions of the reset voltage (Vreset) and reset current (Ireset) are greatly influenced by the initial on-state resistance (Ron) which is closely related to the size of the conductive filament (CF) before the reset process. The reset voltage increases and the current decreases with the on-state resistance, respectively, according to the scatter plots of the experimental data. Using resistance screening method, the statistical data of the reset voltage and current are decomposed into several ranges and the distributions of them in each range are analyzed by the Weibull model. Both the Weibull slopes of the reset voltage and current are demonstrated to be independent of the on-state resistance which indicates that no CF dissolution occurs before the reset point. The scale factor of the reset voltage increases with on-state resistance while that of the reset current decreases with it. These behaviors are fully in consistency with the thermal dissolution model, which gives an insight on the physical mechanism of the reset switching. Our work has provided an inspiration on effectively reducing the variation of the switching parameters of RRAM devices.
RRAM; Statistics; Conductive filament; Weibull model; Thermal dissolution
The objective of the study was to study the protective effect of Silybum marianum extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into five groups; namely Silybum marianum extract high-, medium-, and low-dose protection groups, model group and control group. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model was prepared. Serum or plasma AST, ALT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels were measured. The results revealed that after liver injury, AST, ALT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels significantly increased in succession, showing significant differences. We concluded that inflammatory cytokines participate in liver injury and that Silybum marianum extract can reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines, and thus can have a protective effect on hepatic ischemia and reperfusion.
Silybum marianum; hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury; protective effect
Martelella sp. strain AD-3, enriched from a petroleum-contaminated site with high salinity, can efficiently degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report the 4.75-Mb genome sequence of strain AD-3 with its genetic feature of helping to remediate environmental organic pollutants.
We characterized 7 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in China during 2009–2012 and found that they belong to clade 2.3.4 but do not fit within the 3 defined subclades. Antigenic drift in subtype H5N1 variants may reduce the efficacy of vaccines designed to control these viruses in poultry.
influenza; avian influenza virus; clade 2.3.4; China; clade; influenza virus; flu; H5; H5N1; highly pathogenic; viruses; avian; AIV; phylogeny; chickens; birds; HPAI
There is currently great interest in the use of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapy for multiple sclerosis with potential to both ameliorate inflammatory processes as well as improve regeneration and repair. Although most clinical studies have used autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, other sources such as allogeneic umbilical cord-derived cells may provide a more accessible and practical supply of cells for transplantation. In this case report we present the treatment of aggressive multiple sclerosis with multiple allogenic human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell and autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells over a 4 y period. The treatments were tolerated well with no significant adverse events. Clinical and radiological disease appeared to be suppressed following the treatments and support the expansion of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into clinical trials as a potential novel therapy for patients with aggressive multiple sclerosis.
mesenchymal stem cell; multiple sclerosis; stem cells; MS; axon; myelination; regeneration; transplantation
In this study, the complete genomic sequence of a novel reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) from domestic ducks in eastern China was reported. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven of the eight genes were all highly homologous to the chicken-origin H9N2 viruses, whereas the PB2 gene was homologous to the human-origin H1N1 virus, which suggested that domestic ducks might play a key role in the genetic reassortment and evolution of H9N2 AIVs in eastern China.
An H10N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) strain, A/Chicken/Jiangsu/RD5/2013, was isolated in China. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes in this strain originated from H10N1 and H7N9 AIVs, respectively, and the other genes derived from H7N3 AIVs. Sequence analysis implies that the H10N9 AIV may be an NA gene donor for the human H7N9 influenza viruses.
The H3 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can provide genes for human influenza virus through gene reassortment, which raises great concerns in terms of its potential threat to human health. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a novel H3N2 AIV isolated from domestic ducks in the Jiangsu province of eastern China in 2004, which is a natural recombinant virus whose genes are derived from H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H11N2, H4N6, and H1N1 AIVs. This genome will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of H3N2 influenza virus in eastern China.
To determine risk for avian influenza virus infection, we conducted serologic surveillance for H5 and H9 subtypes among poultry workers in Beijing, China, 2009–2010, and assessed workers’ understanding of avian influenza. We found that poultry workers had considerable risk for infection with H9 subtypes. Increasing their knowledge could prevent future infections.
Avian influenza; influenza; viruses; poultry workers; serologic survey; knowledge; attitudes; practices
To investigate the imaging manifestations of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP) in AIDS patients, and the correlation between imaging features, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load.
Materials and methods
A total of consecutive 50 AIDS patients with PCP were reviewed retrospectively. Chest CT manifestations, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load were analyzed to investigate their correlation.
PCP chest CT manifestations included ground-glass opacities dominated in 28 cases (28/50, 56%), lung cysts dominated in 10 cases (10/50, 20%), consolidation dominated in 6 cases (6/50, 12%), interstitial lesion dominated in 3 cases (3/50, 6%), and mixed lesions in 3 cases (3/50, 6%). In these 50 patients, CD4+ lymphocyte count ranged from 2 to 373 cells/µL. Plasma HIV viral load ranged from 500 to 5.28×107 copies/mL. CD4+ lymphocyte count in ground-glass opacities dominated patients was higher than that of lung cyst dominated patients (P<0.05). Plasma virus load of lung cysts dominated PCP patients was higher than that of consolidation dominated patients (P<0.05).
The typical chest imaging features of PCP in AIDS patients included lung ground-glass opacities and lung cysts. The chest imaging features were correlated with CD4+ T lymphocyte count and plasma HIV viral load.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS); Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis; Tomography; X-ray computed; CD4+ lymphocyte counts; Virus load
Salvianolic acid A; hepatocyte; carbon tetrachloride; liver injury; lipid peroxidation; water soluble vitamin E; ALT; AST; superoxide dismutase; malondiadehyde; catalase; lactase dehydrogenase; glutathione peroxidase; glutathione
stomach neoplasms/patholo-gy; Fas antigen; lymphatic metastasis; prognosis; immunohistochemistry
We sequenced a novel conjugative multidrug resistance IncF plasmid, p42-2, isolated from Escherichia coli strain 42-2, previously identified in China. p42-2 is 106,886 bp long, composed of a typical IncFII-type backbone (∼54 kb) and one distinct acquired DNA region spanning ∼53 kb, harboring 12 antibiotic resistance genes [blaCTX-M-55, oqxA, oqxB, fosA3, floR, tetA(A), tetA(R), strA, strB, sul2, aph(3′)-II, and ΔblaTEM-1]. The spread of these multidrug resistance determinants on the same plasmid is of great concern and, because of coresistance to antibiotics from different classes, is therapeutically challenging.