We report that multiple symbionts coexist in Dermacentor silvarum. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, we prove that Coxiella-like and Arsenophonus-like symbionts, with 95.6% and 96.7% sequence similarity to symbionts in the closest taxon, respectively, are novel. Moreover, we also provide evidence that the Coxiella-like symbiont appears to be the primary symbiont.
In this study, the complete genomic sequence of a novel reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) from domestic ducks in eastern China was reported. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven of the eight genes were all highly homologous to the chicken-origin H9N2 viruses, whereas the PB2 gene was homologous to the human-origin H1N1 virus, which suggested that domestic ducks might play a key role in the genetic reassortment and evolution of H9N2 AIVs in eastern China.
An H10N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) strain, A/Chicken/Jiangsu/RD5/2013, was isolated in China. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes in this strain originated from H10N1 and H7N9 AIVs, respectively, and the other genes derived from H7N3 AIVs. Sequence analysis implies that the H10N9 AIV may be an NA gene donor for the human H7N9 influenza viruses.
The H3 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can provide genes for human influenza virus through gene reassortment, which raises great concerns in terms of its potential threat to human health. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a novel H3N2 AIV isolated from domestic ducks in the Jiangsu province of eastern China in 2004, which is a natural recombinant virus whose genes are derived from H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H11N2, H4N6, and H1N1 AIVs. This genome will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of H3N2 influenza virus in eastern China.
To determine risk for avian influenza virus infection, we conducted serologic surveillance for H5 and H9 subtypes among poultry workers in Beijing, China, 2009–2010, and assessed workers’ understanding of avian influenza. We found that poultry workers had considerable risk for infection with H9 subtypes. Increasing their knowledge could prevent future infections.
Avian influenza; influenza; viruses; poultry workers; serologic survey; knowledge; attitudes; practices
To investigate the imaging manifestations of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP) in AIDS patients, and the correlation between imaging features, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load.
Materials and methods
A total of consecutive 50 AIDS patients with PCP were reviewed retrospectively. Chest CT manifestations, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load were analyzed to investigate their correlation.
PCP chest CT manifestations included ground-glass opacities dominated in 28 cases (28/50, 56%), lung cysts dominated in 10 cases (10/50, 20%), consolidation dominated in 6 cases (6/50, 12%), interstitial lesion dominated in 3 cases (3/50, 6%), and mixed lesions in 3 cases (3/50, 6%). In these 50 patients, CD4+ lymphocyte count ranged from 2 to 373 cells/µL. Plasma HIV viral load ranged from 500 to 5.28×107 copies/mL. CD4+ lymphocyte count in ground-glass opacities dominated patients was higher than that of lung cyst dominated patients (P<0.05). Plasma virus load of lung cysts dominated PCP patients was higher than that of consolidation dominated patients (P<0.05).
The typical chest imaging features of PCP in AIDS patients included lung ground-glass opacities and lung cysts. The chest imaging features were correlated with CD4+ T lymphocyte count and plasma HIV viral load.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS); Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis; Tomography; X-ray computed; CD4+ lymphocyte counts; Virus load
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CMCC P0001, a standard probiotic strain in China, has been widely used in clinical medicine for more than 20 years. Here we report the genome features of B. longum strain CMCC P0001.
HbzF from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIMB 9867 was purified to homogeneity as a His-tagged protein and likely a dimer by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. This protein was demonstrated to be a novel maleylpyruvate hydrolase, catalyzing direct hydrolysis of maleylpyruvate to maleate and pyruvate, and belongs to the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase superfamily. This study reveals the genetic determinate for the direct maleylpyruvate hydrolysis in the gentisate pathway, complementary to the well-studied maleylpyruvate isomerization route.
“Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” was detected by PCR in 4.0% (34/841) of the rodents tested in this study. The 34 rodents represented nine species from seven regions of China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial groEL and nearly entire 16S rRNA gene sequences of the agent revealed genetic diversity, which was correlated with its geographic origins.
Plant innate immunity relies on successful detection of trespassing pathogens through recognizing their microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the cell surface. We recently reported two rice lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins, OsLYP4 and OsLYP6, as dual functional PRRs sensing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and fungal chitin. Here we further demonstrated the important roles of OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 in rice defense signaling, as silencing of either LYP impaired the defense marker gene activation induced by either bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaecola or fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Moreover, we found that OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 could form homo- and hetero-dimers, and could interact with CEBiP, suggesting an unexpected complexity of chitin perception in rice.
lysin motif-containing proteins; rice; innate immunity; defense-related gene; pattern recognition receptors
Aspergillus biofilms were prepared from 22 strains of Aspergillus spp. via a 96-well plate-based method. Using a broth microdilution checkerboard technique with the XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] colorimetric assay, we demonstrated a synergistic antifungal activity against 18 of 22 Aspergillus biofilm strains with a combination of caspofungin and amphotericin B and against 13 of 22 strains with a combination of caspofungin and voriconazole. We did not observe antagonism.
Epigenetic regulation participates broadly in many fundamentally cellular and physiological processes. In this study, we found that DDB1, a protein originally identified as a factor involved in DNA repairing, plays important roles in regulating organ size, growth habit and photosynthesis in tomato via an epigenetic manner. We generated transgenic tomato plants overexpressing an alternatively spliced DDB1 transcript (DDB1F, prevalently present in tomato tissues) and found the primary transformants displayed small-fruited “cherry tomato” in companion with strikingly enhanced shoot branching and biomass, dark-green leaves with elevated chlorophyll accumulation, and increased soluble solids in fruits. Significantly, these phenotypic alterations did not segregate with the DDB1F transgene in subsequent generations, suggesting that the effect of DDB1F on multiple agronomic traits is implemented via an epigenetic manner and is inheritable over generations. We speculate that DDB1, as a core subunit in the recently identified CUL4-based E3 ligase complex, mediates the 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of a large number of proteins, some of which might be required for perpetuating epigenetic marks on chromatins.
DDB1; epigenetics; organogenesis; fruit size; growth habit; soluble solids; tomato
To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.
HPV; men; China; viruses; genital infection; human papillomavirus
The complete genomic sequence of a new H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV), isolated in northwestern China, was determined. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of eight genomic segments revealed that the isolate is phylogenetically related to the Y280-like sublineage.
In 2010, the first complete genome sequence of a dengue virus serotype 4 genotype II strain was reported in Guangzhou, China. Here, we report another isolated strain belonging to the genotype II. Our results will offer help to dengue virus control and precautions.
The first world-known and largest outbreak of 36 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by a preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection was reported previously in China. During the outbreak, Campylobacter jejuni strain ICDCCJ07002 was isolated from a patient with persistent diarrhea for 21 days, and C. jejuni strain ICDCCJ07004 was from a healthy carrier without any clinical symptoms at the same time. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain ICDCCJ07002 (1,698,407 bp, with a G+C content of 30.45%) and the genome resequencing result of strain ICDCCJ07004 (1,701,584 bp, with a G+C content of 30.51%), and we compared these with the completed genome of C. jejuni strain ICDCCJ07001.
The complete genome sequence of a newly emerging Newcastle disease virus, isolated in China, was determined. A phylogenetic analysis based on the F gene revealed that the isolate is phylogenetically related to Newcastle disease virus genotype VIId. Sequence analysis indicated that amino acid residue substitutions occur at neutralizing epitopes on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
Perturbation of hydroxyl radical accumulation by subinhibitory concentrations of 2,2′-bipyridyl plus thiourea protects Escherichia coli from being killed by 3 lethal antimicrobial classes. Here, we show that 2,2′-bipyridyl plus thiourea delays and/or reduces antimicrobial killing of Staphylococcus aureus by daptomycin, moxifloxacin, and oxacillin. While the protective effect of 2,2′-bipyridyl plus thiourea varied among strains and compounds, the data support the hypothesis that hydroxyl radical enhances antimicrobial lethality.
The NDM-1 gene is a significant public health concern. Acinetobacter is one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens causing recent nosocomial infections with NDM-1, and drug-resistant strains pose serious threats to public health worldwide. Herein, we present the genomic sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus XM1570, a multidrug-resistant isolate that carries the blaNDM-1 gene.
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an H3N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from domestic ducks in Jiangsu province of eastern China in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H3N6 virus is a natural recombinant virus whose genes were derived from H3N8, H4N6, H6N6, H7N7, and H11N2 AIVs. This analysis will help to understand the molecular characteristics and evolution of the H3N6 influenza virus in eastern China.
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is characterized by permanent growth arrest and the acquisition of a secretory, pro-inflammatory state. Increasingly, OIS is viewed as an important barrier to tumorgenesis. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes that accompany and therefore may contribute to OIS. Here, we have performed a metabolomic and bioenergetic analysis of Ras-induced senescence. Profiling approximately 300 different intracellular metabolites reveals that cells that have undergone OIS develop a unique metabolic signature that differs markedly from cells undergoing replicative senescence. A number of lipid metabolites appear uniquely increased in OIS cells, including a marked increase in the level of certain intracellular long chain fatty acids. Functional studies reveal that this alteration in the metabolome reflects substantial changes in overall lipid metabolism. In particular, Ras-induced senescent cells manifest a decline in lipid synthesis and a significant increase in fatty acid oxidation. Increased fatty acid oxidation results in an unexpectedly high rate of basal oxygen consumption in cells that have undergone OIS. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, the rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, restores a presenescent metabolic rate and, surprisingly, selectively inhibits the secretory, pro-inflammatory state that accompanies OIS. Thus, Ras-induced senescent cells demonstrate profound alterations in their metabolic and bioenergetic profiles, particularly with regards to the levels, synthesis and oxidation of free fatty acids. Furthermore, the inflammatory phenotype that accompanies OIS appears to be related to these underlying changes in cellular metabolism.
oncogene-induced senescence; metabolomics; Ras; fatty acid oxidation
Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of a novel reassortant H4N2 influenza virus isolated from domestic ducks in the Jiangsu province of China in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the viral genes except for hemagglutinin (HA) were highly homologous to the clade 2.3.4 H5N2 viruses. The data suggest that genetic reassortment occurred between H4 and H5N2 avian influenza viruses, which highlights the role of domestic poultry as a reassortment vessel in China.
In 2009, dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) was first detected in Guangzhou, China. In this study, we identified another isolated strain belonging to genotype II. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the GZ/10476/2012 strain has a close relationship with the DENV-3 genotype II from Southeast Asian strains.
In silico screening of metazoan genome data identified multiple endogenous hepadnaviral elements in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) genome, most notably two elements comprising about 1.3× and 1.0× the full-length genome. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses show that endogenous budgerigar hepatitis B viruses (eBHBV) share an ancestor with extant avihepadnaviruses and infiltrated the budgerigar genome millions of years ago. Identification of full-length genomes with preserved key features like ε signals could enable resurrection of ancient BHBV.
The space environment has been shown to affect microbes by altering various features, including morphology, growth rate, metabolism, virulence, drug resistance, and gene expression and mutation. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Enterococcus faecium strain LCT-EF258, derived from the E. faecium strain CGMCC 1.1736, which was exposed to 17-day space flight.