We report that multiple symbionts coexist in Dermacentor silvarum. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, we prove that Coxiella-like and Arsenophonus-like symbionts, with 95.6% and 96.7% sequence similarity to symbionts in the closest taxon, respectively, are novel. Moreover, we also provide evidence that the Coxiella-like symbiont appears to be the primary symbiont.
Martelella sp. strain AD-3, enriched from a petroleum-contaminated site with high salinity, can efficiently degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report the 4.75-Mb genome sequence of strain AD-3 with its genetic feature of helping to remediate environmental organic pollutants.
We characterized 7 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in China during 2009–2012 and found that they belong to clade 2.3.4 but do not fit within the 3 defined subclades. Antigenic drift in subtype H5N1 variants may reduce the efficacy of vaccines designed to control these viruses in poultry.
influenza; avian influenza virus; clade 2.3.4; China; clade; influenza virus; flu; H5; H5N1; highly pathogenic; viruses; avian; AIV; phylogeny; chickens; birds; HPAI
In this study, the complete genomic sequence of a novel reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) from domestic ducks in eastern China was reported. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven of the eight genes were all highly homologous to the chicken-origin H9N2 viruses, whereas the PB2 gene was homologous to the human-origin H1N1 virus, which suggested that domestic ducks might play a key role in the genetic reassortment and evolution of H9N2 AIVs in eastern China.
An H10N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) strain, A/Chicken/Jiangsu/RD5/2013, was isolated in China. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes in this strain originated from H10N1 and H7N9 AIVs, respectively, and the other genes derived from H7N3 AIVs. Sequence analysis implies that the H10N9 AIV may be an NA gene donor for the human H7N9 influenza viruses.
The H3 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can provide genes for human influenza virus through gene reassortment, which raises great concerns in terms of its potential threat to human health. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a novel H3N2 AIV isolated from domestic ducks in the Jiangsu province of eastern China in 2004, which is a natural recombinant virus whose genes are derived from H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H11N2, H4N6, and H1N1 AIVs. This genome will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of H3N2 influenza virus in eastern China.
To determine risk for avian influenza virus infection, we conducted serologic surveillance for H5 and H9 subtypes among poultry workers in Beijing, China, 2009–2010, and assessed workers’ understanding of avian influenza. We found that poultry workers had considerable risk for infection with H9 subtypes. Increasing their knowledge could prevent future infections.
Avian influenza; influenza; viruses; poultry workers; serologic survey; knowledge; attitudes; practices
To investigate the imaging manifestations of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP) in AIDS patients, and the correlation between imaging features, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load.
Materials and methods
A total of consecutive 50 AIDS patients with PCP were reviewed retrospectively. Chest CT manifestations, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load were analyzed to investigate their correlation.
PCP chest CT manifestations included ground-glass opacities dominated in 28 cases (28/50, 56%), lung cysts dominated in 10 cases (10/50, 20%), consolidation dominated in 6 cases (6/50, 12%), interstitial lesion dominated in 3 cases (3/50, 6%), and mixed lesions in 3 cases (3/50, 6%). In these 50 patients, CD4+ lymphocyte count ranged from 2 to 373 cells/µL. Plasma HIV viral load ranged from 500 to 5.28×107 copies/mL. CD4+ lymphocyte count in ground-glass opacities dominated patients was higher than that of lung cyst dominated patients (P<0.05). Plasma virus load of lung cysts dominated PCP patients was higher than that of consolidation dominated patients (P<0.05).
The typical chest imaging features of PCP in AIDS patients included lung ground-glass opacities and lung cysts. The chest imaging features were correlated with CD4+ T lymphocyte count and plasma HIV viral load.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS); Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis; Tomography; X-ray computed; CD4+ lymphocyte counts; Virus load
Serratia marcescens has been detected in space habitats. To explore the influence of the space flight environment on this bacterium, we investigated the genome sequence of LCT-SM166, which was isolated after space flight and has a specific carbon source utilization pattern.
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate use of PCR assays for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.92) and 0.91 (CI, 0.81 to 0.96), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that use of tissue samples may improve sensitivity, and quantitative PCR and sonication of prostheses fluid may improve specificity. The results showed that PCR is reliable and accurate for detection of PJI.
The multiresistance gene cfr was identified for the first time in streptococci, namely, in porcine Streptococcus suis isolate S10. The cfr gene was detected on the ∼100-kb plasmid pStrcfr, where it was bracketed by two copies of the novel insertion sequence ISEnfa5, located in the same orientation. The detection of a cfr- and ISEnfa5-containing amplicon by inverse PCR suggests that ISEnfa5 may play a role in the dissemination of cfr.
The chimeric blaCTX-M-123 gene was identified in two ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from animals in different Chinese provinces. Like other CTX-M-1/9 group hybrids (CTX-M-64 and CTX-M-132), the ends (amino acids 1 to 135 and 234 to 291) of CTX-M-123 match CTX-M-15 while the central part (122 to 241) matches CTX-M-14. blaCTX-M-123 is carried on related, but not identical, ∼90-kb IncI1 plasmids in the two isolates, and one isolate simultaneously carries the group 1 blaCTX-M-55 gene on an additional IncI2 plasmid.
We report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-14515. The genome is 5.44 Mb in length. It covers 5,263 genes with an average length of 791 bp, has a G+C value of 37.06%, and contains 67 tRNAs, 31 small RNAs, and 5 rRNA loci.
In order to explore the effect of space environments on Bacillus cereus, we determined the draft genome sequence of a B. cereus strain, LCT-BC235, which was isolated after space flight.
The Klebsiella pneumoniae strain LCT-KP182 acquired hemolytic properties after space flight. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain.
To explore the effects of space flight on microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was sent into orbit for 398 h on the spacecraft ShenZhou VIII. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the P. aeruginosa strain LCT-PA41, determined after space flight.
Bacillus cereus strain LCT-BC25, which was carried by the Shenzhou VIII spacecraft, traveled in space for about 398 h. To investigate the response of B. cereus to space environments, we determined the genome sequence of B. cereus strain LCT-BC25, which was isolated after space flight.
Pseudomonas strain P818 was isolated from glyphosate-polluted soil in China. This bacterium presents a capacity for high glyphosate tolerance. We present the draft genome sequence of the strain Pseudomonas P818. The genes involved in the glyphosate tolerance were identified. This genomic information will facilitate the study of glyphosate tolerance mechanisms.
Shewanella decolorationis is a valuable microorganism for degrading diverse synthetic textile dyes. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of S. decolorationis S12, which contains 4,219 protein-coding genes and 86 structural RNAs. This information regarding the genetic basis of this bacterium can greatly advance our understanding of the physiology of this species.
Lactobacillus shenzhenensis strain LY-73T is a novel species which was first isolated from fermented goods. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus shenzhenensis LY-73T.
Inflammation; Mammalian target of rapamycin; LDL receptor pathway; Atherosclerosis
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CMCC P0001, a standard probiotic strain in China, has been widely used in clinical medicine for more than 20 years. Here we report the genome features of B. longum strain CMCC P0001.
HbzF from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIMB 9867 was purified to homogeneity as a His-tagged protein and likely a dimer by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. This protein was demonstrated to be a novel maleylpyruvate hydrolase, catalyzing direct hydrolysis of maleylpyruvate to maleate and pyruvate, and belongs to the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase superfamily. This study reveals the genetic determinate for the direct maleylpyruvate hydrolysis in the gentisate pathway, complementary to the well-studied maleylpyruvate isomerization route.
“Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” was detected by PCR in 4.0% (34/841) of the rodents tested in this study. The 34 rodents represented nine species from seven regions of China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial groEL and nearly entire 16S rRNA gene sequences of the agent revealed genetic diversity, which was correlated with its geographic origins.
Plant innate immunity relies on successful detection of trespassing pathogens through recognizing their microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the cell surface. We recently reported two rice lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins, OsLYP4 and OsLYP6, as dual functional PRRs sensing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and fungal chitin. Here we further demonstrated the important roles of OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 in rice defense signaling, as silencing of either LYP impaired the defense marker gene activation induced by either bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaecola or fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Moreover, we found that OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 could form homo- and hetero-dimers, and could interact with CEBiP, suggesting an unexpected complexity of chitin perception in rice.
lysin motif-containing proteins; rice; innate immunity; defense-related gene; pattern recognition receptors