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author:("Liu, changing")
1.  Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain LCT-PA220, Which Was Selected after Space Flight by Using Biolog’s Powerful Carbon Source Utilization Technology 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(2):e00169-14.
To explore the changes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in space flight, we present the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa strain LCT-PA220, which originated from a P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC 27853, that traveled on the Shenzhou-VIII spacecraft.
PMCID: PMC3953191  PMID: 24625870
2.  Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain LCT-EC52, Which Acquired Changes in Antibiotic Resistance Properties after the Shenzhou-VIII Mission 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(2):e00081-14.
Escherichia coli is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the lower intestines of humans and causes several diseases, such as septicemia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of E. coli strain LCT-EC52, which originated from E. coli strain CGMCC 1.2385 and acquired changes in antibiotic resistance following travel on the Shenzhou-VIII spacecraft.
PMCID: PMC3945497  PMID: 24604641
3.  Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF301, Which Shows Changes in Biochemical Metabolism following Space Flight 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(2):e00103-14.
An Enterococcus faecium strain was sent into space on the Shenzhou-VIII mission. After the space flight, the strain E. faecium LCT-EF301 was isolated and sequenced based on the changes to its metabolic properties.
PMCID: PMC3945498  PMID: 24604642
4.  Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain LCT-SA67, a Space Flight Strain with Altered Carbon Source Utilization Properties 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e00095-14.
An increasing number of studies have confirmed that space flight environments can have a significant effect on a variety of microbial properties. To explore the effect of these environments on Staphylococcus aureus, we present the draft genome sequence of an S. aureus strain, named LCT-SA67, which was isolated after space flight.
PMCID: PMC3931362  PMID: 24558241
5.  Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF297, Which Has Specific Biochemical Features 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e00102-14.
An Enterococcus faecium strain was sent into space on the Shenzhou-VIII craft. After space flight, the strain E. faecium LCT-EF297 was selected based on its metabolic properties.
PMCID: PMC3931365  PMID: 24558244
6.  Draft Genome Sequence of Serratia marcescens Strain LCT-SM166, a Space Flight Strain with a Specific Carbon Source Utilization Pattern 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e00069-14.
Serratia marcescens has been detected in space habitats. To explore the influence of the space flight environment on this bacterium, we investigated the genome sequence of LCT-SM166, which was isolated after space flight and has a specific carbon source utilization pattern.
PMCID: PMC3924376  PMID: 24526644
7.  Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Strain LCT-BC235, Carried by the Shenzhou VIII Spacecraft 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e00665-13.
In order to explore the effect of space environments on Bacillus cereus, we determined the draft genome sequence of a B. cereus strain, LCT-BC235, which was isolated after space flight.
PMCID: PMC3886938  PMID: 24407625
8.  Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain LCT-KP182, Which Acquired Hemolytic Properties after Space Flight 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e01088-13.
The Klebsiella pneumoniae strain LCT-KP182 acquired hemolytic properties after space flight. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain.
PMCID: PMC3886944  PMID: 24407631
9.  Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain LCT-PA41, with Changed Metabolism after Space Flight 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e01124-13.
To explore the effects of space flight on microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was sent into orbit for 398 h on the spacecraft ShenZhou VIII. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the P. aeruginosa strain LCT-PA41, determined after space flight.
PMCID: PMC3886951  PMID: 24407638
10.  Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus LCT-BC25, Isolated from Space Flight 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e00667-13.
Bacillus cereus strain LCT-BC25, which was carried by the Shenzhou VIII spacecraft, traveled in space for about 398 h. To investigate the response of B. cereus to space environments, we determined the genome sequence of B. cereus strain LCT-BC25, which was isolated after space flight.
PMCID: PMC3879601  PMID: 24385570
11.  A multi-omic analysis of an Enterococcus faecium mutant reveals specific genetic mutations and dramatic changes in mRNA and protein expression 
BMC Microbiology  2013;13:304.
For a long time, Enterococcus faecium was considered a harmless commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract and was used as a probiotic in fermented foods. In recent decades, E. faecium has been recognised as an opportunistic pathogen that causes diseases such as neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis and diverticulitis. E. faecium could be taken into space with astronauts and exposed to the space environment. Thus, it is necessary to observe the phenotypic and molecular changes of E. faecium after spaceflight.
An E. faecium mutant with biochemical features that are different from those of the wild-type strain was obtained from subculture after flight on the SHENZHOU-8 spacecraft. To understand the underlying mechanism causing these changes, the whole genomes of both the mutant and the WT strains were sequenced using Illumina technology. The genomic comparison revealed that dprA, a recombination-mediator gene, and arpU, a gene associated with cell wall growth, were mutated. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses showed that differentially expressed genes or proteins were involved with replication, recombination, repair, cell wall biogenesis, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, predicted general function and energy production/conversion.
This study analysed the comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes of an E. faecium mutant from subcultures that were loaded on the SHENZHOU-8 spacecraft. The implications of these gene mutations and expression changes and their underlying mechanisms should be investigated in the future. We hope that the current exploration of multiple “-omics” analyses of this E. faecium mutant will provide clues for future studies on this opportunistic pathogen.
PMCID: PMC3879163  PMID: 24373636
E. faecium; Genome; Transcriptome; Proteome; Multi-omics
12.  Assessment of the green florescence protein labeling method for tracking implanted mesenchymal stem cells 
Cytotechnology  2012;64(4):391-401.
Although green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling is widely accepted as a tracking method, much remains uncertain regarding the retention of injected GFP-labeled cells implanted in ischemic organs. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of GFP for identifying and tracking implanted bone marrow- mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and the effect of GFP on the paracrine actions of these cells. MSCs isolated from rat femur marrow were transduced with a recombinant adenovirus carrying GFP. After transplantation of the GFP-labeled BM-MSCs into the infarct zone of rat hearts, the survival, distribution, and migration of the labeled cells were analyzed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. To evaluate the effect of GFP on the paracrine actions of BM-MSCs, Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), b fibroblast growth factor (b FGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). GFP was successfully expressed by BM-MSCs in vitro. At 14 days after cell transplantation the GFP-positive cells could not be detected via confocal microscopy. By using a GFP antibody, distinct GFP-positive cells could be seen and quantitative analysis showed that the expression volume of GFP was 6.42 ± 0.92 mm3 after 3 days, 1.24 ± 0.76 mm3 after 7 days, 0.33 ± 0.03 mm3 after 14 days, and 0.09 ± 0.05 mm3 after 28 days. GFP labeling did not adversely affect the paracrine actions of BM-MSCs. GFP labeling could be used to track MSC distribution and their fate for at least 28 days after delivery to rat hearts with myocardial infarction, and this stem cell tracking strategy did not adversely affect the paracrine actions of BM-MSCs.
PMCID: PMC3397108  PMID: 22373822
Cell tracking; Green fluorescent protein; Mesenchymal stem cells; paracrine; Myocardial infarction
13.  Diagnostic Value of Dynamics Serum sCD163, sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP in Differentiating Sepsis, Severity Assessment, and Prognostic Prediction 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:969875.
Objective. To describe the dynamics changes of sCD163, soluble serum triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) during the course of sepsis, as well as their outcome prediction. Patients and Methods. An SIRS group (30 cases) and a sepsis group (100 cases) were involved in this study. Based on a 28-day survival, the sepsis was further divided into the survivors' and nonsurvivors' groups. Serum sTREM-1, sCD163, PCT, CRP, and WBC counts were tested on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Results. On the ICU admission, the sepsis group displayed higher levels of sTREM-1, sCD163, PCT, and CRP than the SIRS group (P < 0.05). Although PCT and sTREM-1 are good markers to identify severity, sTREM-1 is more reliable, which proved to be a risk factor related to sepsis. During a 14-day observation, sCD163, sTREM-1, PCT, and SOFA scores continued to climb among nonsurvivors, while their WBC and CRP went down. Both sCD163 and SOFA scores are risk factors impacting the survival time. Conclusion. With regard to sepsis diagnosis and severity, sTREM-1 is more ideal and constitutes a risk factor. sCD163 is of a positive value in dynamic prognostic assessment and may be taken as a survival-impacting risk factor.
PMCID: PMC3713373  PMID: 23935252
14.  Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Clinical Isolate LCT-EF128 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(17):4765.
Enterococcus faecium, an opportunistic human pathogen that inhabits the gastrointestinal tracts of most mammals, has emerged as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen and is a prominent cause of multiresistant nosocomial infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain LCT-EF128, isolated from clinical specimens.
PMCID: PMC3415489  PMID: 22887667
15.  Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain LCT-EC59 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(1):e00242-12.
The space environment is a very special condition under which many organisms change many features. Escherichia coli is employed widely as a prokaryotic model organism in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of E. coli strain LCT-EC59 exposed to space conditions.
PMCID: PMC3587949  PMID: 23469355
16.  Draft Genome Sequences of the Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF258 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(1):e00147-12.
The space environment has been shown to affect microbes by altering various features, including morphology, growth rate, metabolism, virulence, drug resistance, and gene expression and mutation. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Enterococcus faecium strain LCT-EF258, derived from the E. faecium strain CGMCC 1.1736, which was exposed to 17-day space flight.
PMCID: PMC3569272  PMID: 23409254
17.  Draft Genome Sequence of Serratia marcescens Strain LCT-SM213 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(16):4477-4478.
Serratia marcescens is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae. S. marcescens can cause nosocomial infections, particularly catheter-associated bacteremia, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Serratia marcescens strain LCT-SM213, which was isolated from CGMCC 1.1857.
PMCID: PMC3416218  PMID: 22843602
18.  Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli LCT-EC106 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(16):4443-4444.
Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli LCT-EC106, which was isolated from CGMCC 1.2385.
PMCID: PMC3416261  PMID: 22843582
19.  Whole-Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain LCT-SA112 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(15):4124.
Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacterium. S. aureus is the most common species of Staphylococcus to cause staphylococcal infections, which are very common in clinical medicine. Here we report the genome sequence of S. aureus strain LCT-SA112, which was isolated from S. aureus subsp. aureus CGMCC 1.230.
PMCID: PMC3416511  PMID: 22815443
20.  Draft Genome Sequences and Annotation of Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF20 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(1):e00083-12.
The space environment is reported to cause biological alterations in microorganisms, such as growth, drug resistance, and virulence. Here, we present the model of Enterococcus faecium to investigate the effects of space conditions on the microbe and on the whole-genome sequences of the strain LCT-EF20 after being exposed to space flight.
PMCID: PMC3569280  PMID: 23405294
21.  Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain ATCC 27853 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(14):3755.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterium that can cause disease. The versatility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa enables the organism to infect damaged tissues or those with reduced immunity which cause inflammation and sepsis. Here we report the genome sequence of the strain ATCC 27853.
PMCID: PMC3393497  PMID: 22740676
22.  Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Strain LCT-BC244 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(13):3549.
Bacillus cereus is a prevalent, soil-dwelling, Gram-positive bacterium. Some strains are harmful to humans and cause food-borne illness, while other strains can be beneficial as probiotics for animals. To gain insight into the bacterial genetic determinants, we report the genome sequence of a strain, LCT-BC244, which was isolated from CGMCC 1.230.
PMCID: PMC3434717  PMID: 22689237
23.  Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF90 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(13):3556-3557.
Enterococcus faecium is an opportunistic human pathogen, found widely in the human gastrointestinal tract, and can also be isolated from a variety of plants, animals, insects, and other environmental sources. Here, we present the fine draft genome sequence of E. faecium LCT-EF90.
PMCID: PMC3434750  PMID: 22689242
24.  Whole-Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumonia Strain LCT-KP214 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(12):3281.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines. Here we present the fine-draft genome sequence of K. pneumoniae strain LCT-KP214, which originated from K. pneumoniae strain CGMCC 1.1736.
PMCID: PMC3370881  PMID: 22628509
25.  Diagnostic value of urine sCD163 levels for sepsis and relevant acute kidney injury: a prospective study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:123.
Sepsis is a common syndrome in critically ill patients and easily leads to the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI), with high mortality rates. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of urine soluble CD163 (sCD163) for identification of sepsis, severity of sepsis, and for secondary AKI, and to assess the patients’ prognosis.
We enrolled 20 cases with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), 40 cases with sepsis (further divided into 17 sepsis cases and 23 severe sepsis cases) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 20 control cases. Results for urine sCD163 were recorded on the day of admission to the ICU, and AKI occurrence was noted.
On the day of ICU admission, the sepsis group exhibited higher levels of urine sCD163 (74.8 ng/ml; range: 47.9-148.3 ng/ml) compared with those in the SIRS group (31.9 ng/ml; 16.8-48.0, P < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72-0.94, P < 0.001) the sensitivity was 0.83, and the specificity was 0.75 (based on a cut-off point of 43.0 ng/ml). Moreover, the severe sepsis group appeared to have a higher level of sCD163 compared with that in the sepsis group (76.2; 47.2-167.5 ng/ml vs. 74.2; 46.2-131.6 ng/ml), but this was not significant. For 15 patients with AKI, urine sCD163 levels at AKI diagnosis were significantly higher than those of the remaining 35 sepsis patients upon ICU admission (121.0; 74.6-299.1 ng/ml vs. 61.8; 42.8-128.3 ng/ml, P = 0.049). The AUC for urine sCD163 was 0.688 (95% CI: 0.51-0.87, P = 0.049). Sepsis patients with a poor prognosis showed a higher urine sCD163 level at ICU admission (98.6; 50.3-275.6 ng/ml vs. 68.0; 44.8-114.5 ng/ml), but this was not significant. Patients with AKI with a poor prognosis had higher sCD163 levels than those in patients with a better prognosis (205.9; 38.6-766.0 ng/ml vs. 80.9; 74.9-141.0 ng/ml), but this was not significant.
This study shows, for the first time, the potential value of urine sCD163 levels for identifying sepsis and diagnosing AKI, as well as for assessment of patients’ prognosis.
Trial Registration
PMCID: PMC3506529  PMID: 23013330
Urine; Soluble CD163 (sCD163); Sepsis; Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS); Prognosis; Acute kidney injury (AKI)

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