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1.  Are outcomes after total knee arthroplasty worsening over time? A time-trends study of activity limitation and pain outcomes 
Background
To examine whether function and pain outcomes of patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are changing over time.
Methods
The Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry provided data for time-trends in preoperative and 2-year post-operative activity limitation and pain in primary TKA patients from 1993-2005. We used chi-square test and analysis for variance, as appropriate. Multivariable-adjusted analyses were done using logistic regression.
Results
In a cohort of 7,229 patients who underwent primary TKA during 1993-2005, mean age was 68.4 years (standard deviation (SD), 9.8), mean BMI was 31.1 (SD, 6.0) and 55% were women. Crude estimates showed that preoperative moderate-severe overall limitation were seen in 7.3% fewer patients and preoperative moderate-severe pain in 2.7% more patients in 2002-05, compared to 1992-95 (p < 0.001 for both). At 2-years, crude estimates indicated that compared to 1992-95, moderate-severe post-TKA overall limitation was seen in 4.7% more patients and moderate-severe post-TKA pain in 3.6% more patients in 2002-05, both statistically significant (p ≤ 0.018) and clinically meaningful. In multivariable-adjusted analyses that adjusted for age, sex, anxiety, depression, Deyo-Charlson index, body mass index and preoperative pain/limitation, patients had worse outcomes 2-year post-TKA in 2002-2005 compared to 1993-95 with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI); p-value) of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.76, p = 0.037) for moderate-severe activity limitation and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.75, p = 0.007) for moderate-severe pain.
Conclusion
Patient-reported function and pain outcomes after primary TKA have worsened over the study period 1993-95 to 2002-05. This time-trend is independent of changes in preoperative pain/limitation and certain patient characteristics.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-440) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-440
PMCID: PMC4301928  PMID: 25519240
Total knee replacement; Time trends; Arthroplasty; Joint replacement; Pain; Function
2.  Increasing obesity and comorbidity in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty in the U.S.: A 13-year study of time trends 
Background
Few, if any data are available are available regarding the time-trends in characteristics of patients who have undergone primary THA. Our objective was to examine the time-trends in key demographic and clinical characteristics of patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).
Methods
We used the data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry from 1993–2005 to examine the time-trends in demographics (age, body mass index (BMI)), medical (Deyo-Charlson index) and psychological comorbidity (anxiety, depression) and underlying diagnosis of patients undergoing primary THA. Chi-square test and analysis for variance were used. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression (age, sex, comorbidity-adjusted) compared 1993–95 to other study periods. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) are presented.
Results
The primary THA cohort consisted of 6,168 patients with 52% women. In unadjusted analyses, compared to 1993–95, significantly more patients (by >2-times for most) in 2002–05 had: BMI ≥ 40, 2.3% vs. 6.3%; depression, 4.1% vs. 9.8%; and anxiety, 3.4% vs. 5.7%; and significantly fewer had an underlying diagnosis of rheumatoid/inflammatory arthritis, 3.7% vs. 1.5% (p ≤ 0.01 for all). In multivariable-adjusted models, compared to 1993–95, significantly more patients in 2003–05 had (all p-values ≤ 0.01): BMI ≥ 40, OR, 2.79 (95% CI: 1.85, 4.22); Deyo-Charlson Index ≥ 3, 1.32 (1.07, 1.63); depression, 2.25 (1.66, 3.05); and anxiety, 1.71 (1.19, 2.15). Respectively, fewer patients had a diagnosis of RA/inflammatory arthritis: 0.28 (0.17, 0.46; p < 0.01). Over the 13-year study period, Deyo-Charlson index increased by 22% (0.9 to 1.1) and the mean age decreased by 0.7 years (65.0 to 64.3) (p < 0.01 for both).
Conclusions
Obesity, medical and psychological comorbidity increased and the underlying diagnosis of RA/inflammatory arthritis decreased rapidly in primary THA patients over 13-years. Our cohort characteristics are similar to previously described characteristics of national U.S. cohort, suggesting that these trends may be national rather than local trends. This is important information for policy makers to take into account for resource allocation. Studies of THA outcomes and utilization should take these rapidly changing patient characteristics into account.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-441
PMCID: PMC4302153  PMID: 25519434
Total hip replacement; Time trends; Arthroplasty; Joint replacement; Diagnosis; Obesity; Comorbidity; Osteoarthritis
3.  Clinically important body weight gain following knee arthroplasty: A five-year comparative cohort study 
Arthritis care & research  2013;65(5):669-677.
Objective
The impact of knee arthroplasty on subsequent body weight gain has not been fully explored. Clinically important weight gain following knee arthroplasty would pose potentially important health risks.
Methods
We used one of the largest US-based knee arthroplasty registries and a population- based control sample from the same geographic region to determine whether knee arthroplasty increases risk of clinically important weight gain of 5% or more of baseline body weight over a 5-year postoperative period.
Results
Of the persons in the knee arthroplasty sample, 30.0% gained 5% or more of baseline body weight five years following surgery as compared to 19.7% of the control sample. The multivariable adjusted (age, sex, BMI, education, comorbidity and pre-surgical weight change) odds ratio was 1.6 (95% CI, 1.2, 2.2) in persons with knee arthroplasty as compared to the control sample. Additional arthroplasty procedures during the 5-year follow-up further increased risk for weight gain (OR=2.1, 95% CI, 1.4, 3.1) relative to the control sample. Specifically among patients with knee arthroplasty, younger patients and those who lost greater amounts of weight in the 5-year pre-operative period were at greater risk for clinically important weight gain.
Conclusions
Patients who undergo knee arthroplasty are at increased risk of clinically important weight gain following surgery. Future research should develop weight loss/maintenance interventions particularly for younger patients who have lost a substantial amount of weight prior to surgery as they are most at risk for substantial postsurgical weight gain.
doi:10.1002/acr.21880
PMCID: PMC4169302  PMID: 23203539
4.  Clinically important body weight gain following total hip arthroplasty: A cohort study with five-year follow-up 
Objective
Literature examining the effects of total hip arthroplasty (THA) on subsequent body weight gain is inconclusive. Determining the extent to which clinically relevant weight gain occurs following THA has important public health implications.
Design
We used multivariable logistic regression to compare data from one of the largest US-based THA registries to a population-based control sample from the same geographic region. We also identified factors that increased risk of clinically important weight gain specifically among persons undergoing THA. The outcome measure of interest was weight gain of ≥ 5% of body weight up to 5 years following surgery.
Results
The multivariable adjusted (age, sex, BMI, education, comorbidity and pre-surgical weight change) odds ratio for important weight gain was 1.7 (95% CI, 1.06, 2.6) for a person with THA as compared the control sample. Additional arthroplasty procedures during the 5-year follow-up further increased odds for important weight gain (OR=2.0, 95% CI, 1.4, 2.7) relative to the control sample. A patient with THA had increased risk of important post-surgical weight gain of 12% (OR=1.12; 95%CI,1.08, 1.16) for every kilogram of pre-operative weight loss.
Conclusions
While findings should be interpreted with caution because of missing follow-up weight data, patients with THA appear to be at increased risk of clinically important weight gain following surgery as compared to peers. Patients less than 60 years and who have lost a substantial amount of weight prior to surgery appear to be at particularly high risk of important postsurgical weight gain.
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2012.09.010
PMCID: PMC4169300  PMID: 23047011
knee; hip; arthroplasty; obesity
5.  Depression in primary TKA and higher medical comorbidities in revision TKA are associated with suboptimal subjective improvement in knee function 
Background
To characterize whether medical comorbidities, depression and anxiety predict patient-reported functional improvement after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Methods
We analyzed the prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry for patients who underwent primary or revision TKA between 1993–2005. Using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, we examined whether medical comorbidities, depression and anxiety were associated with patient-reported subjective improvement in knee function 2- or 5-years after primary or revision TKA. Odds ratios (OR), along with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-value are presented.
Results
We studied 7,139 primary TKAs at 2- and 4,234 at 5-years; and, 1,533 revision TKAs at 2-years and 881 at 5-years. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, we found that depression was associated with significantly lower odds of 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3 to 0.9; p = 0.02) of ‘much better’ knee functional status (relative to same or worse status) 2 years after primary TKA. Higher Deyo-Charlson index was significantly associated with lower odds of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2 to 1.0; p = 0.05) of ‘much better’ knee functional status after revision TKA for every 5-point increase in score.
Conclusions
Depression in primary TKA and higher medical comorbidity in revision TKA cohorts were associated with suboptimal improvement in index knee function. It remains to be seen whether strategies focused at optimization of medical comorbidities and depression pre- and peri-operatively may help to improve TKA outcomes. Study limitations include non-response bias and the use of diagnostic codes, which may be associated with under-diagnosis of conditions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-127
PMCID: PMC3990241  PMID: 24725511
Total knee arthroplasty; Knee function; Functional limitation; Primary; Arthroplasty; Joint replacement; Outcomes; Patient-reported outcomes
6.  Patients with osteoarthritis and avascular necrosis have better functional outcomes and those with avascular necrosis worse pain outcomes compared to rheumatoid arthritis after primary hip arthroplasty: a cohort study 
BMC Medicine  2013;11:210.
Background
This study was conducted to assess whether patient-reported outcomes (PROs) differ by the underlying diagnosis (rheumatoid arthritis (RA)/inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA), avascular necrosis of bone (AVN), other) in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).
Methods
We used prospectively collected data to assess the association of diagnosis with index hip function and pain. Moderate-severe activity limitation and moderate-severe pain were assessed at two- and five-year follow-up after primary THA using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
Results
There were 5,707 primary THAs at two-years and 3,289 at five-years, 51% were women and the mean age was 65 years. The underlying diagnosis was RA in 3%, OA in 87%, AVN in 7% and other in 3%. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, compared to RA, diagnoses of OA and AVN were significantly associated with lower odds of moderate-severe activities of daily living limitations with an OR (95% CI) of 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8) (P = 0.01) and 0.4 (0.2 to 0.8) (P = 0.01), respectively, at two-years, but not at five-years, 0.7 (0.4 to 1.4) (P = 0.36) and 0.9 (0.4 to 1.8) (P = 0.78), respectively. At two-years, neither OA nor AVN were significantly associated with higher odds of moderate-severe pain (1.6 (0.6 to 4.5) (P = 0.40) and 2.8 (0.9 to 8.5) (P =0 0.06)), respectively. At five-years, AVN was associated with higher odds of moderate-severe pain with OR 4.1 (1.2 to 14.1) (P = 0.02), but not OA, 2.1 (0.7 to 6.5) (P = 0.22).
Conclusions
We found that patients with OA and AVN had better functional outcomes and those with AVN worse pain outcomes after primary THA, compared to patients with RA/inflammatory arthritis. Insights into mediators of these relationships are needed to better understand these associations.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-210
PMCID: PMC3850929  PMID: 24063410
Total hip replacement; Diagnosis; Osteoarthritis; Rheumatoid arthritis; Avascular necrosis; Pain; Function; Arthroplasty; Joint replacement; Patient-reported outcomes; Risk factors
7.  Operative diagnosis for revision total hip arthroplasty is associated with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) 
Background
Little is known about the impact of the reason for revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) on the outcomes following revision THA. In this study, our objective was to assess the association of operative diagnosis with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after revision THA.
Methods
We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry that collects pre- and post-operative pain and function outcomes using a validated Hip questionnaire, on all revision THAs from 1993–2005. We used logistic regression to assess the odds of moderate-severe index hip pain and moderate-severe limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs) 2- and 5-years after revision THA. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results
For the 2- and 5-year cohorts, the operative diagnosis was loosening/wear/osteolysis in 73% and 75%; dislocation/bone or prosthesis fracture/instability or non-union in 17% and 15%; and failed prior arthroplasty with components removed/infection in 11% and 11%, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses that included preoperative ADL limitations, compared to patients with loosening/wear/osteolysis, patients with dislocation/fracture/instability/non-union had OR of 2.2 (95% CI, 1.3-3.5; p = 0.002) for overall moderate-severe ADL limitation and those with failed prior arthroplasty/infection had OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.0-2.8; p = 0.06). At 5-years, ORs were lower and differences were no longer significant. Moderate-severe pain did not differ significantly by diagnosis, at 2- or 5-years in multivariable adjusted analyses, with one exception, i.e. failed prior arthroplasty/infection had a trend towards significance with odds ratio of 1.9 (95% CI, 0.9-3.8; p = 0.07).
Conclusions
Operative diagnosis is independently associated with ADL limitations, but not pain, at 2-years after revision THA. Patients should be informed of the risk of poorer short-term outcomes based on their diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-210
PMCID: PMC3722075  PMID: 23866848
Total hip replacement; Arthroplasty; Joint replacement; Patient-reported outcomes; Diagnosis
8.  Ipsilateral lower extremity joint involvement increases the risk of poor pain and function outcomes after hip or knee arthroplasty 
BMC Medicine  2013;11:144.
Background
Poor pain and function outcomes are undesirable after an elective surgery such as total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Recent studies have indicated that the presence of contralateral joint influences outcomes of THA/TKA, however the impact of ipsilateral knee/hip involvement on THA/TKA outcomes has not been explored. The objective of this study was to assess the association of ipsilateral knee/hip joint involvement on short-term and medium-term pain and function outcomes after THA/TKA.
Methods
In this retrospective study of prospectively collected data, we used the data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to assess the association of ipsilateral knee or hip joint involvement with moderate to severe pain and moderate to severe activity limitation at 2-year and 5-year follow-up after primary and revision THA and TKA using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses.
Results
At 2 years, 3,823 primary THA, 4,701 primary TKA, 1,218 revision THA and 725 revision TKA procedures were studied. After adjusting for multiple covariates, ipsilateral knee pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary THA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, odds ratio (OR), 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 3.6); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.1 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.3); at 5 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.0). Ipsilateral hip pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary TKA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, OR 3.3 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.7); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.9); at 5 years, OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Similar associations were noted for revision THA and TKA patients.
Conclusions
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the presence of ipsilateral joint involvement after THA or TKA is strongly associated with poor pain and function outcomes. A potential way to improve outcomes is to address ipsilateral lower extremity joint involvement.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-144
PMCID: PMC3681648  PMID: 23738845
Arthroplasty; Ipsilateral; Joint replacement; Outcomes; Risk factors; Total hip replacement; Total knee replacement
9.  Income and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after primary total knee arthroplasty 
BMC Medicine  2013;11:62.
Background
To assess whether income is associated with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Methods
We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to assess the association of income with index knee functional improvement, moderate to severe pain and moderate to severe activity limitation at 2-year and 5-year follow-up after primary TKA using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses.
Results
There were 7, 139 primary TKAs at 2 years and 4, 234 at 5 years. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, at 2-year follow-up, compared to income > US$45, 000, lower incomes of ≤ US$35, 000 and > US$35, 000 to 45, 000 were associated (1) significantly with moderate to severe pain with an odds ratio (OR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.94) (P = 0.02) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.94) (P = 0.02); and (2) trended towards significance for moderate to severe activity limitation with OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.02) (P = 0.07) and no significant association with OR 0.96 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.20) (P = 0.75), respectively. At 5 years, odds were not statistically significantly different by income, although numerically they favored lower income. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, overall improvement in knee function was rated as 'better' slightly more often at 2 years by patients with income in the ≤ US$35, 000 range compared to patients with income > US$45, 000, with an OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.6) (P = 0.06).
Conclusions
We found that patients with lower income had better pain outcomes compared to patients with higher income. There was more improvement in knee function, and a trend towards less overall activity limitation after primary TKA in lower income patients compared to those with higher incomes. Insights into mediators of these relationships need to be investigated to understand how income influences outcomes after TKA.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-62
PMCID: PMC3641978  PMID: 23497272
arthroplasty; income; joint replacement; patient-reported outcomes; risk factor; total knee replacement
10.  Predictors of use of pain medications for persistent knee pain after primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: a cohort study using an institutional joint registry 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(6):R248.
Introduction
To study the use of pain medications for persistent index knee pain and their predictors after primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA).
Methods
The Mayo Total Joint Registry collects patient-reported data including pain medication use on all patients who undergo TKA. We used data from patients who underwent primary TKA from 1993-2005. We examined whether gender, age (reference, ≤60 yrs), body mass index (BMI; reference, <25 kg/m2), comorbidities measured by Deyo-Charlson index (5-point increase), anxiety and depression predicted use of pain medications (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids) 2- and 5-years after primary TKA. Multivariable logistic regression additionally adjusted for operative diagnosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, implant fixation and distance from the medical center.
Results
7,139 of the 10,957 eligible (65%) at 2-years and 4,234 of 7,404 eligible (57%) completed questionnaires. Significant predictors of NSAIDs use were (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)): male gender at 2- and 5-years, 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) and 0.6 (0.5, 0.8); age >70-80 years, 0.7 (0.5, 0.9), 0.6 (0.4, 0.8); and depression, 1.4 (1.0, 1.8) and 1.7 (1.1, 2.5). BMI ≥40 was associated with NSAIDs use only at 2-years, 1.6 (1.1, 2.5). Significant predictors of opioid pain medication use at 2- and 5-years were: male gender, 0.5 (0.3, 0.9) and 0.4 (0.2, 0.8); age >70-80 years, 0.3 (0.1, 0.6), 0.3 (0.1, 0.8); and anxiety, 3.0 (1.6, 5.7) and 4.0 (1.7, 9.4).
Conclusions
Female gender and younger age were associated with higher risk of use of NSAIDs and opioids after primary TKA. Depression was associated with higher NSAID use and anxiety with higher opioid pain medication use after primary TKA.
doi:10.1186/ar4091
PMCID: PMC3674590  PMID: 23157942
11.  Peptic ulcer disease and heart disease are associated with periprosthetic fractures after total hip replacement 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(4):353-359.
Background and purpose
There have been no published studies assessing the possible association of medical comorbidities with periprosthetic fracture risk. We therefore assessed whether medical comorbidity is associated with risk of periprosthetic fractures after total hip replacement (THR).
Material and methods
We used prospectively collected data from 1989–2008 in the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry for 2 cohorts: primary THR and revision THR. The main variables of interest were Deyo-Charlson comorbidities at the time of surgery. Outcome of interest was p ostoperative periprosthetic fracture at postoperative day 1 onwards. Multivariable
Cox regression models were additionally adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, and operative diagnosis.
Results
We identified 14,065 primary THRs and 6,281 revision THRs with mean follow-up times of 6.3 and 5.6 years, respectively. There were 305 postoperative periprosthetic fractures in the primary THR cohort and 330 in the revision THR cohort. In patients who underwent primary THR, 2 comorbidities were associated with higher risk of periprosthetic fracture: peptic ulcer disease with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) and heart disease with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.7 (CI: 1.2–2.4). In patients with revision THR, peptic ulcer disease was associated with a higher adjusted risk of periprosthetic fracture, 1.6 (CI: 1.1–2.3).
Interpretation
Peptic ulcer disease and heart disease in primary THR patients and peptic ulcer disease in revision THR patients were associated with higher postoperative periprosthetic fracture risk. Further studies are needed to understand whether disease severity or specific medications used for treatment, or both, are responsible for this association. This may allow identification of modifiable factors.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.717844
PMCID: PMC3427625  PMID: 22900908

Results 1-11 (11)