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1.  Identification of the HDL-ApoCIII to VLDL-ApoCIII ratio as a predictor of coronary artery disease in the general population: The Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) study in Taiwan 
Background
Apolipoprotein (Apo) levels are considered more reliable than plasma lipoprotein levels for predicting coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a unanimous Apo marker for CAD has not been identified. In the Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC), we sought to identify a common Apo marker for predicting CAD in the general population.
Methods
We examined the cross-sectional association between Apo markers and CAD in the CCCC from 1990 to 2001. Among 3,602 subjects, 90 had angiographically proven CAD (>50% stenosis in ≥1 vessel), and 200 did not have CAD. These subjects were divided into the following 4 groups for analysis: normolipidemic (total cholesterol [TC] <200 mg/dL, triglyceride [TG] <150 mg/dL), hypertriglyceridemic (TC <200 mg/dL, TG ≥150 mg/dL), hypercholesterolemic (TC ≥200 mg/dL, TG <150 mg/dL), and hyperlipidemic (TC ≥200 mg/dL, TG ≥150 mg/dL).
Results
Compatible with findings in other populations, our results showed that CAD patients in the CCCC had higher ApoB and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ApoAI concentrations than non-CAD subjects, but the differences were not significant in all groups. Plasma concentrations of ApoE and lipoprotein (a) were not consistently correlated with CAD. In contrast, the ratio of HDL-ApoCIII to very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-ApoCIII was the only universal determinant for CAD in the normolipidemic group (P=0.0018), the hypertriglyceridemic group (P=0.0001), the hypercholesterolemic group (P=0.0001), and the hyperlipidemic group (P=0.0001). Overall, a high HDL-ApoCIII/VLDL-ApoCIII ratio was observed in all CAD patients, including those with a normal lipid profile. In multivariate analyses, the HDL-ApoCIII/VLDL-ApoCIII ratio was the strongest predictor for CAD among all lipid factors investigated (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–2.84; P<0.0001).
Conclusions
A high HDL-ApoCIII to VLDL-ApoCIII ratio is a better marker for predicting CAD than are the conventional lipid markers or ApoAI and ApoB. High HDL-ApoCIII and low VLDL-ApoCIII values in CAD, irrespective of lipid variations, suggest that ApoCIII is markedly transported from VLDL to HDL in this disease. Measurement of plasma ApoCIII may improve CAD prediction in the general population.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-162
PMCID: PMC3543287  PMID: 23173569
Apolipoproteins; Coronary artery disease; Lipoproteins; Cardiovascular risk factors; Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) Study; High-density lipoprotein (HDL); Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL); Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII)
2.  Differential effects of the changes of LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure on the risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis 
Background
The effects of baseline and changes in blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol on the carotid intima media thickness (IMT) have not been well documented.
Methods
A total of 2572 adults (mean age 53.8 years, 54.6% women) in a Taiwanese community undertook three blood pressure and LDL cholesterol examinations over 6 years. Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate the effects of baseline and change in blood pressure and LDL cholesterol on IMT.
Results
Greater baseline LDL and blood pressure were associated with an increase in IMT (0.005 ± 0.002 mm per 1 mg/dL [p = 0.006] and 0.041 ± 0.004 mm mmHg [p <0.0001], respectively. Change in blood pressure was associated with a significant increase in IMT (0.047±0.016, P = 0.004), whilst the association between change in LDL and change in IMT was not statistically significant (0.008±0.006, P = 0.20).
Conclusions
Carotid IMT was associated with baseline blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, yet only changes of blood pressure, not LDL cholesterol, were related to carotid IMT during the 6-year observation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-66
PMCID: PMC3445849  PMID: 22900906
Latent growth curve modeling; Carotid intima media thickness; Blood pressure; LDL cholesterol
3.  Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaque and Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Chinese 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(10):e3435.
Background
Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) as well as carotid plaque and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in Chinese, among whom data are limited.
Methods and Findings
We conducted a community-based cohort study composed of 2190 participants free of cardiovascular disease at baseline in one community. During a median 10.5-year follow up, we documented 68 new cases of coronary heart disease and 94 cases of stroke. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) associated with a change of 1 standard deviation of maximal common carotid IMT were 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.70) for CHD and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.28–1.69) for stroke. The corresponding RRs with internal carotid IMT were 1.47 (95% CI, 1.21–1.79) for CHD and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.31–1.76) for stroke. Carotid plaque measured by the degree of diameter stenosis was also significantly associated with increased risk of CHD (p for trend<0.0001) and stroke (p for trend<0.0001). However, these associations were largely attenuated when adjusting for IMT measurements.
Conclusions
This prospective study indicates a significant association between carotid IMT and incidence of CHD and stroke in Chinese adults. These measurements may be useful for cardiovascular risk assessment and stratification in Chinese.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003435
PMCID: PMC2562458  PMID: 18927612
4.  Heritability and major gene effects on left ventricular mass in the Chinese population: a family study 
Background
Genetic components controlling for echocardiographically determined left ventricular (LV) mass are still unclear in the Chinese population.
Methods
We conducted a family study from the Chin-San community, Taiwan, and a total of 368 families, 1145 subjects, were recruited to undergo echocardiography to measure LV mass. Commingling analysis, familial correlation, and complex segregation analysis were applied to detect component distributions and the mode of inheritance.
Results
The two-component distribution model was the best-fitting model to describe the distribution of LV mass. The highest familial correlation coefficients were mother-son (0.379, P < .0001) and father-son (0.356, P < .0001). Genetic heritability (h2) of LV mass was estimated as 0.268 ± 0.061 (P < .0001); it decreased to 0.153 ± 0.052 (P = .0009) after systolic blood pressure adjustment. Major gene effects with polygenic components were the best-fitting model to explain the inheritance mode of LV mass. The estimated allele frequency of the gene was 0.089.
Conclusion
There were significant familial correlations, heritability and a major gene effect on LV mass in the population-based families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-6-37
PMCID: PMC1579230  PMID: 16945138
5.  Interaction of obesity, metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk on steatohepatitis among healthy Taiwanese: population-based nested case-control study 
Background
There have been scant reports on the cumulative effects of atherosclerotic risk factors on steatohepatitis.
Methods
We defined cases of steatohepatitis (n = 124) from one health examination center at National Taiwan University Hospital from January to December 2002. We selected controls, matched by age, gender and drinking status. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the modified ATP-III guidelines. High-dimensional interactions of risk factors for steatohepatitis were evaluated.
Results
Steatohepatitis cases had the highest C-reactive protein, lymphocytes, Framingham scores and predicted coronary risks. The odds ratio (OR) of metabolic syndrome for steatohepatitis was the highest (OR = 9.9), followed by high glucose status (OR = 4.5) and obesity (OR = 3.6). The highest area under the ROC curve was metabolic syndrome (area = 0.80), followed by obesity (0.75) and high glucose level (0.73). Metabolic syndrome was the highest population-attributable risk factor (0.59). Significant interaction was found with a three-factor model, including obesity, metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk status, with lesser average prediction error (22.6%), higher average cross-validation consistency (6.3) and lower average prediction error (24.3%). Compared with persons with no risk factors, OR increased as the number of risk factors increased (OR = 3.0 with one risk factor, 17.5 with two risk factors, 10.8 with three risk factors, respectively).
Conclusion
Metabolic syndrome, inflammation markers and atherosclerotic risk scores are significantly related to steatohepatitis status among the healthy examinee population in Taiwan.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-5-12
PMCID: PMC1481540  PMID: 16707022
6.  Segregation analysis of apolipoprotein A1 levels in families of adolescents: A community-based study in Taiwan 
BMC Genetics  2006;7:4.
Background
Apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 is a protective factor for cardiovascular events. This study aimed to perform complex segregation analyses of Apo A1 levels in families of adolescents systematically ascertained from the junior high school students in a rural community. Both siblings and parents of the adolescent probands were recruited for the study. Apo A1 concentrations were measured by turbidimetric immunoassay methods. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, smoking and drinking status, residual values of Apo A1 were subjected to subsequent analyses.
Results
Significant mother-father and parent-offspring correlations were found. Commingling analyses indicated that a four-component distribution model was needed to account for the Apo A1 variation. Segregation analysis using regressive models revealed that the best-fit model of Apo A1 was a model of environmental effect plus familial correlation (heritability = 23.9%), in which a significant mother-father correlation existed. Models containing major gene effect could be rejected.
Conclusion
These results suggest that variations of Apo A1 levels in the normal range, especially during adolescence, are likely to be influenced by multiple factors without significant contribution from major genes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-4
PMCID: PMC1360683  PMID: 16423305
7.  Consistency of genetic inheritance mode and heritability patterns of triglyceride vs. high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in two Taiwanese family samples 
BMC Genetics  2003;4:7.
Background
Triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) is considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Genetic components were important in controlling the variation in western countries. But the mode of inheritance and family aggregation patterns were still unknown among Asian-Pacific countries. This study, based on families recruited from community and hospital, is aimed to investigate the mode of inheritance, heritability and shared environmental factors in controlling TG/HDL-C.
Results
Two populations, one from community-based families (n = 988, 894 parent-offspring and 453 sibling pairs) and the other from hospital-based families (n = 1313, 76 parent-offspring and 52 sibling pairs) were sampled. The population in hospital-based families had higher mean age values than community-based families (54.7 vs. 34.0). Logarithmic transformed TG/ HDL-C values, after adjusted by age, gender and body mass index, were for genetic analyses. Significant parent-offspring and sibling correlations were also found in both samples. The parent-offspring correlation coefficient was higher in the hospital-based families than in the community-based families. Genetic heritability was higher in community-based families (0.338 ± 0.114, p = 0.002), but the common shared environmental factor was higher in hospital-based families (0.203 ± 0.042, p < 0.001). Commingling analyses showed that more than one-component distribution models were the best-fit models to explain the variance in both populations. Complex segregation analysis by regressive models revealed that in both samples the best-fit model of TG/HDL-C was the model of environmental effects plus familial correlation, in which significant parent-offspring and sibling correlations were demonstrated. Models of major gene effects were rejected in both samples.
Conclusion
Variations of TG/HDL-C in the normal ranges were likely to be influenced by multiple factors, including environmental and genetic components. Higher genetic factors were proved in younger community-based families than in older hospital-based families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-4-7
PMCID: PMC155683  PMID: 12710891

Results 1-7 (7)