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1.  Epithelial Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction and PINK1 Are Induced by Transforming Growth Factor- Beta1 in Pulmonary Fibrosis 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0121246.
Background
Epithelial cell death is a major contributor to fibrogenesis in the lung. In this study, we sought to determine the function of mitochondria and their clearance (mitophagy) in alveolar epithelial cell death and fibrosis.
Methods
We studied markers of mitochondrial injury and the mitophagy marker, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), in IPF lung tissues by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunofluorescence. In vitro experiments were carried out in lung epithelial cells stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Changes in cell function were measured by Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In vivo experiments were performed using the murine bleomycin model of lung fibrosis.
Results
Evaluation of IPF lung tissue demonstrated increased PINK1 expression by Western blotting and immunofluorescence and increased numbers of damaged mitochondria by TEM. In lung epithelial cells, TGF-β1 induced mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial ROS, and PINK1 expression; all were abrogated by mitochondrial ROS scavenging. Finally, Pink1-/- mice were more susceptible than control mice to bleomycin induced lung fibrosis.
Conclusion
TGF-β1 induces lung epithelial cell mitochondrial ROS and depolarization and stabilizes the key mitophagy initiating protein, PINK1. PINK1 ameliorates epithelial cell death and may be necessary to limit fibrogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121246
PMCID: PMC4364993  PMID: 25785991
2.  An Essential Regulatory Role of Downstream of Kinase-1 in the Ovalbumin-Induced Murine Model of Asthma 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34554.
The downstream of kinase (DOK)-1 is involved in the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) pathway in mast cells, but the role of DOK-1 in the pathogenesis of asthma has not been defined. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel regulatory role of DOK-1 in airway inflammation and physiologic responses in a murine model of asthma using lentiviral vector containing DOK-1 cDNA or DOK-1-specific ShRNA. The OVA-induced inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 cytokine expression, and mucus response were significantly reduced in DOK-1 overexpressing mice compared to OVA-challenged control mice. The transgenic introduction of DOK-1 significantly stimulated the activation and expression of STAT-4 and T-bet, while impressively inhibiting the activation and expression of STAT-6 and GATA-3 in airway epithelial cells. On the other hand, DOK-1 knockdown mice enhanced STAT-6 expression and its nuclear translocation compared to OVA-challenged control mice. When viewed in combination, our studies demonstrate DOK-1 regulates allergen-induced Th2 immune responses by selective stimulation and inhibition of STAT-4 and STAT-6 signaling pathways, respectively. These studies provide a novel insight on the regulatory role of DOK-1 in allergen-induced Th2 inflammation and airway responses, which has therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034554
PMCID: PMC3326039  PMID: 22514638

Results 1-2 (2)