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1.  Chitotriosidase in the Pathogenesis of Inflammation, Interstitial Lung Diseases and COPD 
As a member of 18 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family, chitotriosidase (Chitinase 1, CHIT1) is a true chitinase mainly expressed in the differentiated and polarized macrophages. CHIT1 is an innate immune mediator that digests the cell walls of chitin-containing eukaryotic pathogens, such as fungi. However, CHIT1 is dysregulated in granulomatous and fibrotic interstitial lung diseases characterized by inflammation and tissue remodeling. These include tuberclosis, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma-associated interstitial lung diseases (SSc-ILD), and chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD). CHIT1 serum concentration correlates with the progression or the severity of these diseases, suggesting a potential use of CHIT1 as a biomarker or a therapeutic target. Recent studies with genetically modified mice demonstrate that CHIT1 enhances TGF-β1 receptor expression and signaling, suggesting a role in initiating or amplifying the response to organ injury and repair. This additional CHIT1 activity is independent of its enzymatic activity. These studies suggest that CHIT1 serves a bridging function; it is both an innate immune mediator and a regulator of tissue remodeling. This review will focus on recent data linking CHIT1 to the pathogenesis of inflammation, interstitial lung disease, and COPD.
doi:10.4168/aair.2015.7.1.14
PMCID: PMC4274464  PMID: 25553258
Chitotriosidase; sarcoidosis; scleroderma; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; inflammation; TGF-beta
2.  Modifiers of TGF-β1 effector function as novel therapeutic targets of pulmonary fibrosis 
Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal progressive disease with no effective therapy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has long been regarded as a central mediator of tissue fibrosis that involves multiple organs including skin, liver, kidney, and lung. Thus, TGF-β1 and its signaling pathways have been attractive therapeutic targets for the development of antifibrotic drugs. However, the essential biological functions of TGF-β1 in maintaining normal immune and cellular homeostasis significantly limit the effectiveness of TGF-β1-directed therapeutic approaches. Thus, targeting downstream mediators or signaling molecules of TGF-β1 could be an alternative approach that selectively inhibits TGF-β1-stimulated fibrotic tissue response while preserving major physiological function of TGF-β1. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that TGF-β1 crosstalk with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by induction of amphiregulin, a ligand of EGFR, plays a critical role in the development or progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, chitotriosidase, a true chitinase in humans, has been identified to have modulating capacity of TGF-β1 signaling as a new biomarker and therapeutic target of scleroderma-associated pulmonary fibrosis. These newly identified modifiers of TGF-β1 effector function significantly enhance the effectiveness and flexibility in targeting pulmonary fibrosis in which TGF-β1 plays a significant role.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2014.29.3.281
PMCID: PMC4028515  PMID: 24851060
Transforming growth factor beta1; Pulmonary fibrosis; Response modifiers; Amphiregulin; Chitotriosidase
3.  Role of breast regression protein-39/YKL-40 in asthma and allergic responses 
BRP-39 and its human homolog YKL-40 have been regarded as a prototype of chitinase-like proteins (CLP) in mammals. Exaggerated levels of YKL-40 protein and/or mRNA have been noted in a number of diseases characterized by inflammation, tissue remodeling, and aberrant cell growth. Asthma is an inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. Recently, the novel regulatory role of BRP-39/YKL-40 in the pathogenesis of asthma has been demonstrated both in human studies and allergic animal models. The levels of YKL-40 are increased in the circulation and lungs from asthmatics where they correlate with disease severity, and CHI3L1 polymorphisms correlate with serum YKL-40 levels, asthma and abnormal lung function. Animal studies using BRP-39 null mutant mice demonstrated that BRP-39 was required for optimal allergen sensitization and Th2 inflammation. These studies suggest the potential use of BRP-39 as a biomarker as well as a therapeutic target for asthma and other allergic diseases. Here, we present an overview of chitin/chitinase biology and summarize recent findings on the role of BRP-39 in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic responses.
doi:10.4168/aair.2010.2.1.20
PMCID: PMC2831605  PMID: 20224674
BRP-39; human CHI3L1 protein; asthma; hypersensitivity
4.  Chitin, Chitinases and Chitinase-like Proteins in Allergic Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;50(1):22-30.
Chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose, consist exoskeleton of lower organisms such as fungi, crustaceans and insects except mammals. Recently, several studies evaluated immunologic effects of chitin in vivo and in vitro and revealed new aspects of chitin regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. It has been shown that exogenous chitin activates macrophages and other innate immune cells and also modulates adaptive type 2 allergic inflammation. These studies further demonstrate that chitin stimulate macrophages by interacting with different cell surface receptors such as macrophage mannose receptor, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1, and leukotriene B4 recepptor (BLT1). On the other hand, a number of chitinase or chitinase-like proteins (C/CLP) are ubiquitously expressed in the airways and intestinal tracts from insects to mammals. In general, these chitinase family proteins confer protective functions to the host against exogenous chitin-containing pathogens. However, substantial body of recent studies also set light on new roles of C/CLP in the development and progression of allergic inflammation and tissue remodeling. In this review, recent findings on the role of chitin and C/CLP in allergic inflammation and tissue remodeling will be highlighted and controversial and unsolved issues in this field of studies will be discussed.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2009.50.1.22
PMCID: PMC2649864  PMID: 19259344
Chitin; chitinases; chitinase-like proteins; immunity; remodeling

Results 1-4 (4)