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1.  Specific Migratory Dendritic Cells Rapidly Transport Antigen from the Airways to the Thoracic Lymph Nodes 
Antigen transport from the airway mucosa to the thoracic lymph nodes (TLNs) was studied in vivo by intratracheal instillation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated macromolecules. After instillation, FITC+ cells with stellate morphology were found deep in the TLN T cell area. Using flow cytometry, an FITC signal was exclusively detected in CD11cmed-hi/major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII)hi cells, representing migratory airway-derived lymph node dendritic cells (AW-LNDCs). No FITC signal accumulated in lymphocytes and in a CD11chiMHCIImed DC group containing a CD8αhi subset (non–airway-derived [NAW]-LNDCs). Sorted AW-LNDCs showed long MHCIIbright cytoplasmic processes and intracytoplasmatic FITC+ granules. The fraction of FITC+ AW-LNDCs peaked after 24 h and had reached baseline by day 7. AW-LNDCs were depleted by 7 d of ganciclovir treatment in thymidine kinase transgenic mice, resulting in a strong reduction of FITC-macromolecule transport into the TLNs. Compared with intrapulmonary DCs, AW-LNDCs had a mature phenotype and upregulated levels of MHCII, B7-2, CD40, and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. In addition, sorted AW-LNDCs from FITC-ovalbumin (OVA)–instilled animals strongly presented OVA to OVA-TCR transgenic T cells. These results validate the unique sentinel role of airway DCs, picking up antigen in the airways and delivering it in an immunogenic form to the T cells in the TLNs.
PMCID: PMC2195883  PMID: 11136820
antigen-presenting cells; endocytosis; fluorescein isothiocyanate; respiratory mucosa; lymph nodes
2.  Immunologists getting nervous: neuropeptides, dendritic cells and T cell activation 
Respiratory Research  2001;2(3):133-138.
It is increasingly recognised that the immune and nervous systems are closely integrated to optimise defence systems within the lung. In this commentary, the contribution of various neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and somatostatin to the regulation of T cell activation is discussed. These neuropeptides are released not only from nerve endings but also from inflammatory immune cells such as monocytes, dendritic cells, eosinophils and mast cells. On release they can exert both direct stimulatory and inhibitory effects on T cell activation and also indirect effects through their influence on the recruitment and activation of professional antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Neuropeptides should therefore be included in the conceptual framework of the immune regulation of T cell function by dendritic cells.
doi:10.1186/rr49
PMCID: PMC2002076  PMID: 11686876
calcitonin gene-related peptide; dendritic cells; substance P; T cells; vasoactive intestinal peptide

Results 1-2 (2)