Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-13 (13)

Clipboard (0)
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2014;211(6):1019-1025.
Immune responses can be predicted by the chemical properties of systematically variable inorganic crystalline materials.
There is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their physicochemical properties in a highly predictable manner. We show that structurally and chemically homogeneous layered double hydroxides (LDHs) can elicit diverse human dendritic cell responses in vitro. Using a systems vaccinology approach, we find that every measured response can be modeled using a subset of just three physical and chemical properties for all compounds tested. This correlation can be reduced to a simple linear equation that enables the immunological responses stimulated by newly synthesized LDHs to be predicted in advance from these three parameters alone. We also show that mouse antigen–specific antibody responses in vivo and human macrophage responses in vitro are controlled by the same properties, suggesting they may control diverse responses at both individual component and global levels of immunity. This study demonstrates that immunity can be determined purely by chemistry and opens the possibility of rational manipulation of immunity for therapeutic purposes.
PMCID: PMC4042647  PMID: 24799501
2.  Inflammatory dendritic cells—not basophils—are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2010;207(10):2097-2111.
It is unclear how Th2 immunity is induced in response to allergens like house dust mite (HDM). Here, we show that HDM inhalation leads to the TLR4/MyD88-dependent recruitment of IL-4 competent basophils and eosinophils, and of inflammatory DCs to the draining mediastinal nodes. Depletion of basophils only partially reduced Th2 immunity, and depletion of eosinophils had no effect on the Th2 response. Basophils did not take up inhaled antigen, present it to T cells, or express antigen presentation machinery, whereas a population of FceRI+ DCs readily did. Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen.
PMCID: PMC2947072  PMID: 20819925
3.  The lung vascular filter as a site of immune induction for T cell responses to large embolic antigen 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2009;206(12):2823-2835.
The bloodstream is an important route of dissemination of invading pathogens. Most of the small bloodborne pathogens, like bacteria or viruses, are filtered by the spleen or liver sinusoids and presented to the immune system by dendritic cells (DCs) that probe these filters for the presence of foreign antigen (Ag). However, larger pathogens, like helminths or infectious emboli, that exceed 20 µm are mostly trapped in the vasculature of the lung. To determine if Ag trapped here can be presented to cells of the immune system, we used a model of venous embolism of large particulate Ag (in the form of ovalbumin [OVA]-coated Sepharose beads) in the lung vascular bed. We found that large Ags were presented and cross-presented to CD4 and CD8 T cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes (LNs) but not in the spleen or liver-draining LNs. Dividing T cells returned to the lungs, and a short-lived infiltrate consisting of T cells and DCs formed around trapped Ag. This infiltrate was increased when the Toll-like receptor 4 was stimulated and full DC maturation was induced by CD40 triggering. Under these conditions, OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, as well as humoral immunity, were induced. The T cell response to embolic Ag was severely reduced in mice depleted of CD11chi cells or Ly6C/G+ cells but restored upon adoptive transfer of Ly6Chi monocytes. We conclude that the lung vascular filter represents a largely unexplored site of immune induction that traps large bloodborne Ags for presentation by monocyte-derived DCs.
PMCID: PMC2806611  PMID: 19858325
4.  Dendritic cells are crucial for maintenance of tertiary lymphoid structures in the lung of influenza virus–infected mice 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2009;206(11):2339-2349.
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are organized aggregates of B and T cells formed in postembryonic life in response to chronic immune responses to infectious agents or self-antigens. Although CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) are consistently found in regions of TLO, their contribution to TLO organization has not been studied in detail. We found that CD11chi DCs are essential for the maintenance of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT), a form of TLO induced in the lungs after influenza virus infection. Elimination of DCs after the virus had been cleared from the lung resulted in iBALT disintegration and reduction in germinal center (GC) reactions, which led to significantly reduced numbers of class-switched plasma cells in the lung and bone marrow and reduction in protective antiviral serum immunoglobulins. Mechanistically, DCs isolated from the lungs of mice with iBALT no longer presented viral antigens to T cells but were a source of lymphotoxin (LT) β and homeostatic chemokines (CXCL-12 and -13 and CCL-19 and -21) known to contribute to TLO organization. Like depletion of DCs, blockade of LTβ receptor signaling after virus clearance led to disintegration of iBALT and GC reactions. Together, our data reveal a previously unappreciated function of lung DCs in iBALT homeostasis and humoral immunity to influenza virus.
PMCID: PMC2768850  PMID: 19808255
5.  Clearance of influenza virus from the lung depends on migratory langerin+CD11b− but not plasmacytoid dendritic cells 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2008;205(7):1621-1634.
Although dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in mediating protection against influenza virus, the precise role of lung DC subsets, such as CD11b− and CD11b+ conventional DCs or plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), in different lung compartments is currently unknown. Early after intranasal infection, tracheal CD11b−CD11chi DCs migrated to the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs), acquiring co-stimulatory molecules in the process. This emigration from the lung was followed by an accumulation of CD11b+CD11chi DCs in the trachea and lung interstitium. In the MLNs, the CD11b+ DCs contained abundant viral nucleoprotein (NP), but these cells failed to present antigen to CD4 or CD8 T cells, whereas resident CD11b−CD8α+ DCs presented to CD8 cells, and migratory CD11b−CD8α− DCs presented to CD4 and CD8 T cells. When lung CD11chi DCs and macrophages or langerin+CD11b−CD11chi DCs were depleted using either CD11c–diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) or langerin-DTR mice, the development of virus-specific CD8+ T cells was severely delayed, which correlated with increased clinical severity and a delayed viral clearance. 120G8+ CD11cint pDCs also accumulated in the lung and LNs carrying viral NP, but in their absence, there was no effect on viral clearance or clinical severity. Rather, in pDC-depleted mice, there was a reduction in antiviral antibody production after lung clearance of the virus. This suggests that multiple DCs are endowed with different tasks in mediating protection against influenza virus.
PMCID: PMC2442640  PMID: 18591406
6.  Alum adjuvant boosts adaptive immunity by inducing uric acid and activating inflammatory dendritic cells 
Alum (aluminum hydroxide) is the most widely used adjuvant in human vaccines, but the mechanism of its adjuvanticity remains unknown. In vitro studies showed no stimulatory effects on dendritic cells (DCs). In the absence of adjuvant, Ag was taken up by lymph node (LN)–resident DCs that acquired soluble Ag via afferent lymphatics, whereas after injection of alum, Ag was taken up, processed, and presented by inflammatory monocytes that migrated from the peritoneum, thus becoming inflammatory DCs that induced a persistent Th2 response. The enhancing effects of alum on both cellular and humoral immunity were completely abolished when CD11c+ monocytes and DCs were conditionally depleted during immunization. Mechanistically, DC-driven responses were abolished in MyD88-deficient mice and after uricase treatment, implying the induction of uric acid. These findings suggest that alum adjuvant is immunogenic by exploiting “nature's adjuvant,” the inflammatory DC through induction of the endogenous danger signal uric acid.
PMCID: PMC2292225  PMID: 18362170
7.  Activation of the D prostanoid 1 receptor suppresses asthma by modulation of lung dendritic cell function and induction of regulatory T cells 
Prostaglandins (PGs) can enhance or suppress inflammation by acting on different receptors expressed by hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Prostaglandin D2 binds to the D prostanoid (DP)1 and DP2 receptor and is seen as a critical mediator of asthma causing vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, and inflammatory cell influx. Here we show that inhalation of a selective DP1 agonist suppresses the cardinal features of asthma by targeting the function of lung dendritic cells (DCs). In mice treated with DP1 agonist or receiving DP1 agonist-treated DCs, there was an increase in Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells that suppressed inflammation in an interleukin 10–dependent way. These effects of DP1 agonist on DCs were mediated by cyclic AMP–dependent protein kinase A. We furthermore show that activation of DP1 by an endogenous ligand inhibits airway inflammation as chimeric mice with selective hematopoietic loss of DP1 had strongly enhanced airway inflammation and antigen-pulsed DCs lacking DP1 were better at inducing airway T helper 2 responses in the lung. Triggering DP1 on DCs is an important mechanism to induce regulatory T cells and to control the extent of airway inflammation. This pathway could be exploited to design novel treatments for asthma.
PMCID: PMC2118726  PMID: 17283205
8.  In vivo depletion of lung CD11c+ dendritic cells during allergen challenge abrogates the characteristic features of asthma 
Although dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in sensitization to inhaled allergens, their function in ongoing T helper (Th)2 cell–mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation underlying bronchial asthma is currently unknown. Here, we show in an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven murine asthma model that airway DCs acquire a mature phenotype and interact with CD4+ T cells within sites of peribronchial and perivascular inflammation. To study whether DCs contributed to inflammation, we depleted DCs from the airways of CD11c-diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor transgenic mice during the OVA aerosol challenge. Airway administration of DT depleted CD11c+ DCs and alveolar macrophages and abolished the characteristic features of asthma, including eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and bronchial hyperreactivity. In the absence of CD11c+ cells, endogenous or adoptively transferred CD4+ Th2 cells did not produce interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in response to OVA aerosol. In CD11c-depleted mice, eosinophilic inflammation and Th2 cytokine secretion were restored by adoptive transfer of CD11c+ DCs, but not alveolar macrophages. These findings identify lung DCs as key proinflammatory cells that are necessary and sufficient for Th2 cell stimulation during ongoing airway inflammation.
PMCID: PMC2213109  PMID: 15781587
9.  Essential Role of Lung Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Preventing Asthmatic Reactions to Harmless Inhaled Antigen 
Tolerance is the usual outcome of inhalation of harmless antigen, yet T helper (Th) type 2 cell sensitization to inhaled allergens induced by dendritic cells (DCs) is common in atopic asthma. Here, we show that both myeloid (m) and plasmacytoid (p) DCs take up inhaled antigen in the lung and present it in an immunogenic or tolerogenic form to draining node T cells. Strikingly, depletion of pDCs during inhalation of normally inert antigen led to immunoglobulin E sensitization, airway eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2 cell cytokine production, cardinal features of asthma. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of pDCs before sensitization prevented disease in a mouse asthma model. On a functional level, pDCs did not induce T cell division but suppressed the generation of effector T cells induced by mDCs. These studies show that pDCs provide intrinsic protection against inflammatory responses to harmless antigen. Therapies exploiting pDC function might be clinically effective in preventing the development of asthma.
PMCID: PMC2213319  PMID: 15238608
asthma; plasmacytoid dendritic cells; tolerance; mucosal immunity; regulatory T cell
10.  Alveolar macrophages develop from fetal monocytes that differentiate into long-lived cells in the first week of life via GM-CSF 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2013;210(10):1977-1992.
Alveolar macrophages differentiate from fetal monocytes in a GM-CSF–dependent fashion and colonize the alveolar space within a few days after birth.
Tissue-resident macrophages can develop from circulating adult monocytes or from primitive yolk sac–derived macrophages. The precise ontogeny of alveolar macrophages (AMFs) is unknown. By performing BrdU labeling and parabiosis experiments in adult mice, we found that circulating monocytes contributed minimally to the steady-state AMF pool. Mature AMFs were undetectable before birth and only fully colonized the alveolar space by 3 d after birth. Before birth, F4/80hiCD11blo primitive macrophages and Ly6ChiCD11bhi fetal monocytes sequentially colonized the developing lung around E12.5 and E16.5, respectively. The first signs of AMF differentiation appeared around the saccular stage of lung development (E18.5). Adoptive transfer identified fetal monocytes, and not primitive macrophages, as the main precursors of AMFs. Fetal monocytes transferred to the lung of neonatal mice acquired an AMF phenotype via defined developmental stages over the course of one week, and persisted for at least three months. Early AMF commitment from fetal monocytes was absent in GM-CSF–deficient mice, whereas short-term perinatal intrapulmonary GM-CSF therapy rescued AMF development for weeks, although the resulting AMFs displayed an immature phenotype. This demonstrates that tissue-resident macrophages can also develop from fetal monocytes that adopt a stable phenotype shortly after birth in response to instructive cytokines, and then self-maintain throughout life.
PMCID: PMC3782041  PMID: 24043763
11.  Interleukin-1α controls allergic sensitization to inhaled house dust mite via the epithelial release of GM-CSF and IL-33 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2012;209(8):1505-1517.
IL-1α promotes a cascade of cytokine production from epithelial cells culminating in Th2 immunity to house dust mite allergens.
House dust mite (HDM) is one of the most common allergens worldwide. In this study, we have addressed the involvement of IL-1 in the interaction between HDM and the innate immune response driven by lung epithelial cells (ECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) that leads to asthma. Mice lacking IL-1R on radioresistant cells, but not hematopoietic cells, failed to mount a Th2 immune response and did not develop asthma to HDM. Experiments performed in vivo and in isolated air–liquid interface cultures of bronchial ECs showed that TLR4 signals induced the release of IL-1α, which then acted in an autocrine manner to trigger the release of DC-attracting chemokines, GM-CSF, and IL-33. Consequently, allergic sensitization to HDM was abolished in vivo when IL-1α, GM-CSF, or IL-33 was neutralized. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) became important only when high doses of allergen were administered. These findings put IL-1α upstream in the cytokine cascade leading to epithelial and DC activation in response to inhaled HDM allergen.
PMCID: PMC3409497  PMID: 22802353
12.  Sustained desensitization to bacterial Toll-like receptor ligands after resolutionof respiratory influenza infection 
The World Health Organization estimates that lower respiratory tract infections (excluding tuberculosis) account for ∼35% of all deaths caused by infectious diseases. In many cases, the cause of death may be caused by multiple pathogens, e.g., the life-threatening bacterial pneumonia observed in patients infected with influenza virus. The ability to evolve more efficient immunity on each successive encounter with antigen is the hallmark of the adaptive immune response. However, in the absence of cross-reactive T and B cell epitopes, one lung infection can modify immunity and pathology to the next for extended periods of time. We now report for the first time that this phenomenon is mediated by a sustained desensitization of lung sentinel cells to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands; this is an effect that lasts for several months after resolution of influenza or respiratory syncytial virus infection and is associated with reduced chemokine production and NF-κB activation in alveolar macrophages. Although such desensitization may be beneficial in alleviating overall immunopathology, the reduced neutrophil recruitment correlates with heightened bacterial load during secondary respiratory infection. Our data therefore suggests that post-viral desensitization to TLR signals may be one possible contributor to the common secondary bacterial pneumonia associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza infection.
PMCID: PMC2271005  PMID: 18227219
13.  Specific Migratory Dendritic Cells Rapidly Transport Antigen from the Airways to the Thoracic Lymph Nodes 
Antigen transport from the airway mucosa to the thoracic lymph nodes (TLNs) was studied in vivo by intratracheal instillation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated macromolecules. After instillation, FITC+ cells with stellate morphology were found deep in the TLN T cell area. Using flow cytometry, an FITC signal was exclusively detected in CD11cmed-hi/major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII)hi cells, representing migratory airway-derived lymph node dendritic cells (AW-LNDCs). No FITC signal accumulated in lymphocytes and in a CD11chiMHCIImed DC group containing a CD8αhi subset (non–airway-derived [NAW]-LNDCs). Sorted AW-LNDCs showed long MHCIIbright cytoplasmic processes and intracytoplasmatic FITC+ granules. The fraction of FITC+ AW-LNDCs peaked after 24 h and had reached baseline by day 7. AW-LNDCs were depleted by 7 d of ganciclovir treatment in thymidine kinase transgenic mice, resulting in a strong reduction of FITC-macromolecule transport into the TLNs. Compared with intrapulmonary DCs, AW-LNDCs had a mature phenotype and upregulated levels of MHCII, B7-2, CD40, and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. In addition, sorted AW-LNDCs from FITC-ovalbumin (OVA)–instilled animals strongly presented OVA to OVA-TCR transgenic T cells. These results validate the unique sentinel role of airway DCs, picking up antigen in the airways and delivering it in an immunogenic form to the T cells in the TLNs.
PMCID: PMC2195883  PMID: 11136820
antigen-presenting cells; endocytosis; fluorescein isothiocyanate; respiratory mucosa; lymph nodes

Results 1-13 (13)